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Abel's flash-test apparatus, 157. 
Aberdeen Motor-Car and Cyale Co., 59. 
„ „ Deputation, 181. 

„ Town Council and motor-cars, 22. 
Absurd canard, An, 507. 
Accidents, Motor-car, 201, 306, 606. 
Accumulator, The Blot, 164. 
Acetylene. (See " Calcium carbide.") 
Ackermann's steering gear, 278. 
Acts of Parliament, 8, 14. 
Adam, C. Patent switch, 81. 
Agriculture and motor- vehicles, 18, 39, 58, 

107, 148, 496. 
Air as a motive power. By Rhys Jenkins, 

M.I.M.E., 213. 
Air-compressing machinery, 217-220. 
Air motor connections, 222. 
Air motors, 142, 213, 326, 335, 450, 602, 526. 
Alcolite metal, 283. 
Allen, A. J., 129, 204, 429. 
America ahead of England in road traction, 

American contests, 18, 75. 

„ Motor League, The, 200. 
„ notes, 21, 23, 40, 178, 200, 286, 
326, 363, 412, 450, 469, 473, 497, 503. 
American Patent Law, 326. 
Anglo-French Motor-Carriage Co., 121, 229, 

Answers to correspondents, 74, 108, 152, 190, 

227, 268, 316, 364, 414, 460, 504. 
Arnold's motor-vehicles (Benz system), 41, 

239, 356, 429. 
Arrangement of cams, Ac., for high-pressure 

air cylinder, 218. 
Arrol, Sir William. Oil-motor, 139. 
Artemeff oil-burner, 403. 
Aspinall, J. A.. M.I.C.E., on petroleum as 

fuel, 378. 
Atkinson and Philipson and motor-vehicles, 

Aubry, J. H., 450. 
Audouin furnace, 402. 
Austin, H. Driving gear (Patent), 207. 
Australia and motor-cars, 130. 
Australian Cycle and Motor Co. (Ld.), 232. 
Autocars (D. Farman), 11, 127. 
Automobile Club of France, The, 102, 111, 

189, 282, 320. 876, 451, 452. 
Automobile Club of Great Britain, The, 451, 

+61. 472, 514. 
Automotive vehicles, 123. 
" Automotor " as a title, 167. 
Automotor contests in 1897, 111. 
Automotor industry and how to foster It, The, 

Automotors in a.d. 2000, 503. 
Awards of merit, 107. 

Axles and axle-boxes, Hildyard (Patent), 289. 
Aydon and Selwyn oil-burner, 404. 

Baker, H. C. Driving gear (Patent), 526. 
Ball bearings, 328. 

Banki, D., and T. Csonka. Ignition apparatus 
(Patent), 476. 

Barr, Andrew W., 79. 

Barrow, H. S. Road vehicles (Patent), 206. 

Bath-chair, Electric, 151. 

Bazin roller-boat, 325, 868, 419. 

Beaumont, Worbv, M.I.C.E., Ac, on 

mechanical road carriages, 87, 196, 250. 
Bedell, F. The principles of the transformer, 

Bellemey, R. T. and C. Wheels (Patent), 

Bells and lamps, 9. 
Benkslon oil-burner, 405. 
Bennett, T. J. Gas, oil, and spirit engines 

(Patent), 384. 
Benzine, 517. 
Benzine motor-cycle, 174. 
Benz motor-carriage, 41, 312, 325, 856. 
Berseneff oil-burner, 404. 
Bersey electric carriage, 78. „ .. 
Bickford, J. S. V., on the lessons of The 
Engineer competition, 
„ „ on petroleum • burners, 

Bidle pan furnace, 401. 
Blackburn tramways, 21. 
Blackpool and Fleetwood Tramway Co., 374. 
Blackpool Motor-Car Co. (Ld.), 471. 
Blant motor-vehicles, Le, 455, 456. 
Bloomer and Korebut-Dachkeveich oil- 
burner, 403. 
Blot accumulator, 164, 470. 
Bollee motette, 356. 
Bonner, S. A. The law of motor-cars, Ac, 

Bradford Teohnical College, 151. 
Brakes (Patent), 26. 
Brambel rotary engine, The, 211. 
Brampton Brothers (Ld.), 374. 
Brandt oil-burnor, 403, 408. 
Bretts (Ld.), 281. 
Brewers' motor-vans, 11. 
Bridges, dangerous, 8. 
BrigKS, F. H. Gas and oil motors (Patent), 

Brighton Motor Exhibition, 225. 
Brighton race, 10, 66. 
Bristol engineers and motor-carriages, 49. 
Britannia electric-carriages, 56, 65. 

„ oil-motor, 77. 
British Association, 20, 25. 
British industries and foreign competition, 

British Motor-Carriage and Cycle Co., 7. 

„ motor-cars in France, 462. 
British Motor Syndicate, 100, 106, 108, 122, 

130, 153, 166, 191, 193, 202, 203, 227, 279, 

310, 317, 362, 377, 463, 472, 515. 
British Motor Syndicate v. Hon. C. S. Rolls, 

191, 202, 203. 
British Motor Syndicate v. Roots and 

Vonables, 227, 310, 317, 377. 
British Zenith Adjustable Cycle Co. (Ld.), 

Brown Brothers (Ld.), 374. 

Brown. J. Wheels (Patent), 526. 

Bruford, G. J., on automotors, 277. 

Brun, A. E. Le. Gas, Ac, motors (Patent), 

Brussels Exhibition, 202. 
Burners. See " Oil-burners." 
Bushbury electric dog-cart, 349. 
Bye-laws of counties, 9. 

Cabby's farewell to his steed, -496. 

Cabmen on motors, 517. 

Calcium carbide, 76, 269, 451. 

Calculus. for engineers, 518. 

Canal sutomobilism, 115, 139, 301, 381, 474, 

Capel and Clarkson. Self-propelled vehicles 

(Patent), 382. 
Capital of cyole companies, 59. 
Carburetter (Patent), 528. 
Cardiff and motor-cars, 229. 
Carless, Capel, and Leonard, on petroleum 
i regulations, 129. 

i Carriage building. By Robert Shinnie, 140. 
Carriages without horses shall go. By A. R. 
I Sennett, 127. 
i Carse, J. B. Motor-driven vehicles (Patent) , 

Carse, J. B. Water cooling jacket (Patent), 

Carter, J. Explosion engines (Patent), 438. 
Cattier'e Magazine, 518. 
Catalogues reviewed— Alter and Maclellan, 

472; Chas. Burrell and Co., 519; Clayton 

Air-Compressing Co., 520; Worthington 

Pump Co., 619. 
Central Engineering Works (Ld.), 416. 
Champion Weldless Tubes (Ld.), 281. 
Change and differential gear, 398. 
Charles r. Arnold. Motor-car accident, 201. 
Chasseloup-Laubat, Count de (Patent), 436. 
China, The motor-car in, 509. 
Chippournoff oil-burner, 403. 
Church's steam carriage and boiler, 254. 
Clark, E. E. Re British Motor Syndicate, 

Clements' speed indicator, 270. 
Clerk, Dugald. • The gas and oil-engine, 

Cleveland Institute of Engineers. Paper by 

W. Worby Beaumont, M.I.C.E., 250. 
Climax Weldless Tubes (Ld.), 281. 
Clubbe, E. J., and Soulhey, A. W. Patents, 

26, 285, 288, 436. 
Clyde Cycle and Motor-Car Co. (Ld.), 873. 
Coachbuilder on the future of automotors, 

Co unbuilding. By J. Philipson (Review). 

Coachmakers and motor-carriages, 148. 
Coffin, Hayden, Mr., a victim of the British 

Motor Syndicate, 279. 
Companies, 6, 59, 100, 120, 167, 198, 230, 279, 

327, 373, 424, 434, 470, 513. 
Company Registration .Syndicate (Ld.), 101. 
Coiu|>ensutioii for Injuries Act, 461. 

Digitized by 




Coin petitions (see also '"Races"), 102, 111, 

118, 128, 189, 202, 227, 262, 282, 283, 306, 

343, 360, 3^5, 371, 377, 417, 443, 452, 462, 

466, 509. 
Component pafts, 4WT. 
Compressed air as a tnotive power. By Rhys 

Jenkins, M.I.M.K., 213. 
Coinpres<edair motors, 142, 213, 326, 335, 

150, 502, 526. 
Compressing machinery, air, 217-220 
Condensation of water, 449. 
Condenser (Patent). 526. 
Connolly, J. \V. and T., and Co.'s tyre, 77. 
Continental Notes, 27, 73, 102, 126, 158, 188, 

189, 202, 224, 278, 282, 283, 321, 375, 416, 

422, 443, 451, 452, 462, 464, 466, 471, 473, 

500, 509, 520, 521, 522, 523. 
Cooling device, 476. 
Cornell's oil-carriage, 350, 429. 
Correspondence, 10, 49, 128, 167, 203, 238, 

281. 324, 377, 429, 472, 515. 
Coulthard and Co.'s motor-vehicles, 275. 
Coupe Co.'s patent wheel, 116. 
Crastin's motor-qiiadricyele, 94, 
Crewe automotor trials, 360. 
Crucible furnace for oil fuel, 410. 
Crystal Palace awards of merit, 107. 
Cup furnace, 401. 
Curve of air compression, 216. 
Cycle Componenis Manufacturing Co. (Ld.) 

r. Standard Weldless Tube Components 

(Ld.), 271. 

Dagnall oil-motor, 367. 

Daily Mail articles, 8, 76. i 

Daimler Motor Co., 101, 230, 239, 433. 4K9- i 

495, 496. 
Daimler Motors, 12, 57, 61, 05, 66, 123, 182, 

260, 308, 433, 489-495. 
Daimler Motor .Syndicate, 100. 
Dale, J. O. Explosion motors (Patent), 383. 
D'Allest oil-burner, 46Hi. 
Dunce's steam-boiler, 252. 
Dangerous bridges, 8. 
Dare, T. N. Motor-driven road vehicles 

(Patent), 241. 
Darracq electric car, 233. 
Day, J. Gas and oil-engines (Pa'ent), 525. 
Decimal system in engineering measure- 
ment, The, 474. 
Do Dietrich motor-lorry, 509. 
De Dion and G. Bouton. Explosion motors 
(Patent), 286, 329. 333. 
,, and Bouton boiler, 258. 
„ „ motor, 65, 286, 512, 522. 

„ „ steam-oir.nibus, 511. 

,, „ steam-tractor, 511. 

„ Count, 448. 
Defiance Cycle and Motor-Car Co., 122. 
Designs for motor-vehicles, 128, 219, 320, 

308, 429. 
Diamond Cycle Components arid Engineering 

Co. (Ld.), 281. 
Dieken, R. C. J. and G. Steam-engines 

(Patent), 382. 
Differential and change gear, 398. 
Doings of public companies. (See " Coin- 
Dorking Urban Council, 13. 
Dorset! and Blythe furnace, 402. 
Dowsing, H. J., 281, 286, 383, 388. 

„ ,, Driving gear for motor-car- 
riages (Patent), 280. 
Drake motor, 107. 
Driving gear, 207, 280, 329, 330, 334, 380, 

Dundee oil-burner, 407. 

Dunlop Pneumatic Tvre Co., 7, 19, 308, 371, 

Dunlop r. Maccabe, 270. 

Dunn. W. G. (Patent). 26. 

Dunsmore, M. C. Gas and oil-engines 

(Patent), 435. 
Dm-yea, J. F. Driving gear (Patent), 334. 

„ motor-carriage, 40, 126. 
Dust-collecting motor-ears, 192, 508. 
Duties payable, 8, 10, 117. 

Early motor-car, An. By J. H. Knight, 276. 

Edinburgh coach makers and motor-cars, 117. 

Efficiency of steam-engines, 308. 

Electrical Power Storage Co. (Ld.), 424. 

Electrical Sevi>w, 412, 524. 

Electric hansoms, 246. 

Electricity, Cheap, for automotors, 186. 

„ steam, and oil as motive powers, 4. 

Electric omnibuses. 12, 24, 249, 503. 

„ Motor Power Co.'s vehicles, 12, 357, 
358, 359, 360. 
motors, 274, 289, 299, 300, 383, 394, 
399, 400, 436. 
„ 'rudder motor, 274, 400. 
„ street-cleaning car, 126. 
„ traction, for canals, 301. 
„ „ French, 520. 

„ „ in Spain, 515. 

„ trailer wheel, 399. 
„ tramways communication, 180. 
,, „ on heavy gradients, 126. 

vehicles, 12, 24, 56, 65, 78, 131, 151, 
222, 228, 233, 237, 247, 249, 314, 
349, 357, 372, 396, 397, 473, 483, 
497, 498, 490,«521. 
Elieson, C. P. Driving mechanism (Patent), 

Elieson's electric motor-car, 314. 
Emancipation Day, 66. 
Engineer competition, 111, 118, 262, 307, 

343, 365, 377, 412, 429. 
Engineering and automotors, 55, 112. 
Engineers and the eight-hours' day, The, 420. 
English Serpollet Motor Syndicate, 122. 
Epstein Electric Accumulator Co. (Ld.), 513. 

„ L. (Patent), 131. 
Ernest Scott and Mountain (Ld.), 232. 
Esson Motor (Ld.), The, 280. 
Evans r. Hart, 271. 

Exhibitions, 48, 56, 59, 76, 125, 126, 158, 
160, 180, 202. 212, 221, 225, 228, 248, 280, 
284, 307, 371, 419, 430, 472, 496. 

Facile petroleum oil-engine, 156. 

Farman, D., 11, 127. 

Finance, Motor, 100. 

Firo-engines, Motor, 21, 50, 63, 235, 262, 366, 

First legal run of automotors in England, 36. 
Flash-test apparatus, Abel's, 157. 
Fletcher, Lavington E., Death of, 430. 

W., 155. 
Fleuss tubeless pneumatic tyre, 185. 
Fly wheels, 528. 
Forestier, M., 452. 

Foucher-Delachanal motor-carriage, The, 203. 
Kramcs, 162. 

French coutests, 10, 27, 35, 73, 188, 189. 
Friction clutch, 260. 

Gamage c. Marshall, 271. 

Gas and oil-engine. The (Dugald Clerk), 11. 

Gascoine, E. Water-cooling jacket (Patent), 

Gasinot'jrs, 376, 388. 
Gas traction on tramwayB, 224. 
Gautier, C, and X. Wchrlc. Wheels 

(Patent), 207. 
Gearing for motor-vehicles, 77, 477, 478. 
Geisenhof, J. Motor-van (Patent), 833. 

Glew, J. H. (Patent), 26, 266. 

Gospel motor-car, A, 185. 

Great Horseless Carriage Co., 8, 101, 203, 

204, 239. 424. 
Grover, F., A.M.T.C E., on motor-cars. 312. 
Guedon and Gautier. Manuel Pratique du 

Conducteur d'Automobiles (Review), 370. 
Gurney's steam-carriage and boiler, 252. 

Haddan, R. The Inventor's Adviser, 51. 
Hancock's steam-carriage and boiler, 251. 
Hanman's Cycle and Needle Co. (Ld.), 280. 
Hastings and St. Leonard's Engineering, 

Cycle, and Motor Car Co., 122, 280. 
Hearl and Tonks (Ld.) (1897), 280. . 
Heavy vehicle trials, French, 189, 452, 609, 

610. 512, 522, 623. 
Hele-Shaw, Prof. H. S., on pneumatic tyres, 

114, 167. 
Henderson, Alexander, 179. 
Hering, P. Carburetter (Patent), 528. 
Heys, W. G. Oil and Gas Motors (Patent), 

Hildyard, R. J. L. Axles (Patent), 289. 
Hill's steam-coach, 253. 
Holden, H. C. L. Internal combustion 

engines (Patent), 332. 
Holden's liquid-fuel burner, 379, 406. 
Holroyd-Suiith's benzoline motor-phaeton, 

Holt, H. P. Driving gear (Patent), 329 ; 

condenser, 626. 
Holt's steam -carriage, 96. 
Hooleyand Rucker, Reid v., 362. 
Hopkinaon, J. E. Tyres (Patent), 478. 

„ J., jun. The transmission of 

power, 620. 
Hornsby-Ackroyd oil-engine, 16. 
Horseless Carriages. By J. E. Tuke (Review), 

Horseless carriages. Early history, 1. 

„ „ Their past, present, and 

future. By Shrannell 
Smith, 99. 
„ road locomotion (A. R. Sennett), 
Horse, Some estimates of the, 506. 

„ Some disadvantages of the, 3(7, 372. 

„ statistics, 501. 
Hot-air tramway motor, 142. 
Dumber v. British Motor Syndicate, 106. 
Hunter, J. W. Explosion motor (Patent), 

Hydraulic tyre-setting, 314. 

Ibbett, J. Explosion motors (Patent), 478. 

I.E.8. Accumulator Co. (Ld.), 238, 420, 472. 

Igniting apparatus. D. Banki and J. Csonka 
(Patent), 476. 

Igniting arrangement. W. D. and S. Priest- 
man (Patent), 332. 

Imperial Institute. Yachting and Fisheries 
Exhibition, 419. 

Imperial Victorian Exhibition, Crystal 
Palace (1897), 284. 

Indian motor-car, An, 229. 

Indiarubber, 313, 356. 

Indicator diagram of air motor, 220. 

Inland navigation, Value and scope of, 381, 
474, 476. 

Inlet valve of low-pressure air cylinder, 218. 

Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers, 
El, 512. 

Institution of Civil Engineers — 

Decimal system in engineering measure- 
ment, 474. 
Petroleum as steam-engine fuel, 878. 
Roller bearings, 379. 

Digitized by 



Institution of Civil Engineers — 
Transmission of power, 520. 
Value and scope of inland navigation, 
381, 474, 475. 
Institution of Naval Architects — Compound 
steam turbine applied to marine propulsion 
Insurance of motor-cars, 48. 
International Motor-Car Co., 235, 325. 
Interview with A. G. New and E. Mann, 426. 
Inventions. See " Patents." 
Inventor's adviser. By R. Haddan, 51. 
Irish Motor-C»r and Cycle Co. (Ld.), The, 

235, 327, 424, 470, 506, 514, 521. 
Irish regulations, 10. 

Isle of Man and motor-cars, 148. 
Ivel ball bearings, 328. 
Ixion Tyre, 458, 470. 

James Cycle Co. (Ld.), 874. 
James's steam-carriage, 253. 
Jenkins, Khys, 127, 213. 
Johnston, J. Gas and petroleum engines 
(Patent), 884. 

Kane-Pennington oil- motor, 135. 

Karapetoff oil-burner, 403. 

Kauffmann oil-burner, 403. 

Kelham Rolling Mills Co., 376, 377. 

Kesterton, E. R. (Patent), 26. 

Knight, J. H. Notes on motor-carriages, 51, 

267, 276 ; an offer of lantern slides, 204. 
Knight, W. H. Motor mechanism (Patent), 

Koosen v. Rose, 74, 236. 
Eorting oil-burner, 403, 404, 406. 
Krieger electric road carriaje, The, 237. 

Labitte, E. Steam boiler (Patent), 388. 
Lamps and bells, 9. 

Lancashire Steam Motor Co., 361, 419. 
Lanchester and others v. Richter and Another, 

Lanchester, F. W. Gas and oil motors 

(Patent), 287 ; gearing (Patent), 478. 
Lantern slides, An offer of, 204. 
Ltsnier, M„ on French electric traction, 520. 
Law of motor-cars, hackney, and other 

carriages, 425. 
Law of Press criticism, 459. 

„ of the motor-car, and regulations of the 
Board of Trade. By Grimwood 
Mears, 127. 

„ relating to motor-cars. By Lewis and 
Porter, 323. 

„ reports, 74, 106, 201, 236, 270, 362, 458, 
Lawson, H. J. (Patents), 289, 331. 
Leather-Shod Wheel Co. (Ld.), 195, 373. 
Leeds Association of Engineers, 813. 

„ Motor and Cycle Show, 212. 
L ! Electrique (Belgium) electric-carriage, 521. 
Lent oil burner, 402, 406. 
Lepape, H. Power mechanism (Patent), 477. 
Levassor, M., Death of, 309. 
Level crossings and railway companies, 23. 
Lewis, H. L., and Porter, W. H. The law 

relating to motor-cars, 323. 
Libby, H. W. (Patent), 131. 
Lightning express, The, 325. 
Light railways, 14, 36, 42, 48, 140. 

„ v. heavy oils as explosives, 168. 
Liquid fuel. By R. Wallis, Wh. Sc., 401. 

„ Fuel Engineering Co.'s steam van, 
Lister, F. Driving gear (Patent;), 330. 
Literature on automotors, 11, 51, 127, 155, 

236, 273, 323, 370, 425. 

Liverpool ' and Manchester, Mechanical 

haulage between, 192, 323. 
Liverpool Engineering Society, 180. 

„ police and automotors, 166. 
Local Government Board powers, 10. 

„ „ „ regulations, 37. 

Locomotive carriages. E. J. Clubbe and 

A. W. Southey (Patent), 285. 
Locomotives on Highways Act (1896), 8. ' 

London County Couneil and motors, 42. . 

„ Eleotncal Cab Co., 59, 82, 101, 103, | 

232, 238, 280, 483-488, 507, 517. 
„ Electric Omnibus Co., 6, 24, 1 15, 157, , 

,. Motor-Car Works Co. (Ld.), 238, 

„ Motor Van and Wagon Co. (Ld), j 
195, 238. 
Longuemare petroleum burner, 237, 257. 
Lord Mayor's Show and motor-cars, 57. 
Lorrain, J. G., 168, 204. 

Mocdona, dimming. Correspondence, 21,49. 
Macdonald, J. M. Compressed-air engine > 

(Patent), 335. 
Maceroni and Squire's steam-coach and boiler, ' 

Magee, J. Oil-motors (Patent), 528. 

„ r. Tangyes (Ld.), 74. 
Magrath, J. R. The rule of the road, 515. I 
Manchester Association of Engineers. Pancr i 

by W. Worby Beaumont, M.T.C.E., 250! 
Manchester Steam-Users' Association, 419. 

„ The supply of petroleum to, 450. 

Mann, E., interview with, 426. 

„ J. H., on automotors, 313. 
Manuel pratique du conductcur d'auto- 

mobiles, 370. 
Maples and motors, 129. 
Marchant, T. B. Road locomotives (Patent), 

Marine motors, 305, 311, 325, 380, 419, 431, i 

459, 463. 
Marseilles to Nice race, 188. I 

Marshall, W., bankruptcy, 501. 
Marten, E. D., M.I.C.E., on inland naviga- 
tion, 475. 
Master patents, 108, 238, 802, 310, 317, 377. 
Maxim Motor Co. (Ld.), 183, 205. 
May, Phil, drawing by, 113. 

„ Gutter snipes, by, 127. 

McGarel-Hogg, Hon. A. and J. T. Murray. 

Design for electrical omnibus, 249. 
McKim, J. L., 149. 
Mears, Grimwood, 127. 
Measurement, decimal system, 474. 
Mechanical haulage betweeu Liverpool and 

Manchester, 192, 823. 
Mechanical haulage on common roads. By 

W. Worby Beaumont, M.I.C.E., &u., 196. 
Mechanical propulsion of tramway cars. By 

Prof. W. H. Watkinson, 100, 138. 
Mechanical traction of road carriages. By 

J. W. Thomson, 178. 
Mekarski reducing valve, 220. 
Merryweathcr, J. C. and Jakemun, C. J. W. 

Motor road-cars (Patent), 476. 
Midland Cvcle and Motor-Car Exhibition, 

59, 280. ' 
Modern cycles : their construction and repair. 

By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, 236. 
Moore, C. Harrington, 128, 281. 
Morgan's Chains and Pedals (Ld.), 28 1. 
Morris and Salom's electric carriuge, 197, 498, 

Mors motor-car, 272. 
Motor and Cvcle Co. of Ireland (Ld.), 235, 

327, 424, 470, 500, 514, 521 . 
Motor-car and religion, The, 185, 239. 

Motor-Car Club. 10, 22, 36, 111, 128, 239, 

284, 305. 
„ car in China, 509. 
„ ' carriages : the vehicles of the future. 

By " Vagabond," 51. 
„ cars. By F. Grover, Assoc. M.I.C.E., 

„ eirs for common roads. By WaUis- 

Tayler, C.K., 324. 
., curs o. light railways, 48. 
,, cycle ami component parts official 

intelligence, 518. 
„ cycle race (Criterium des moto-cycles), 

„ cycles, 175, 331. 
„ Development Corporation, 122. 
„ finance, 100. 
,, mills, Coventry, The, 275. 
„ run to Liverpool. 125. 
„ traffic. By Sir David Salomons, 29 1. 
„ tricycles, 180. 

vehicles. By Major Flood Page, 123. 
„ „ for roads. By W. Worby 

Bcauuio:t, M.I.C.E., 250. 
,, „ for Sevenoaks, 16S. 

„ wagon communication between Man- 
chester and Liverpool, 130, 323. 
„ wagon scientifically considered. By 

G. F. Thompson, 160. 
„ water-carts, 142. 
Munich Motor Exhibition, 221. 
Municipal trip, A, 318. 

National Cycle and Motor-Car Insurance 

Co., 4S. 
National Cyclo Show, 125. 
National Motor-Carriage Syndicate (Ld.), 

Neale car, The, 228. 
Neville's marine oil-motor, 305. 
New, A. G., and Mayne, A. J. Electrical pro- 
pulsion (Pateut), 289. 

„ „ Interview with, 426. 

New and Mavne, 8, 75, 222, 274, 289, 391- 

400, 426. 
New and Mayne's differential and chain gear, 

„ „ direct coupled engine and 

dynamo, 394, 3'.»5. 

„ „ electric char-a-banc, 390, 


„ „ electric trailer wheel, 399. 

„ „ two-cylinder vertical oil- 

engine, 392, 393. 
Now Beeston Cycle Co., 120, 204, 271. 

„ Brotherton Tube Co. (Ld.), 470. 
Newcastle motor-car, 459. 
New companies 59, 121, 167, 195, 232, 280, 
281, 827, 375, 424, 471, 518. 

„ Credenda Tube Co. (Ld.), 281. 

„ Fowler- Lancaster (Ld.), 281. 

„ General Traction Co. (Ld.), 470. 

„ inventions. Hee Patents. 

„ MacGregor Cycle and Engineering Co. 
Norris, W. Otto cycle gas-engine, 11. 
Northampton to London on a motor-car, 433. 
North-East Coast Institution of Engineers 

and Shipbuilders — Liquid Fuel. By R. 

Wallis, Wh. Sc., 401. 
Notes of the month, 19, GO, 103, 143, 183, 

•.'.33, 262, 300, 308, Ml, 40S, 503. 
Notes on motor-carriages. By J. II. Knight 

Nottingham Motor-Car Show, IS. 

Oil-burners, 237, 257. 3 10, 101- HI, 151. 
dynamo, 394, 3:15. 
fuel forsje, 410. 

Digitized by 




Oil-leakage, Prevention of, 318. 
„ motors aud vehicles, 12, 15, 41, 42, 52, 
53, 57, 64, 65, 66, 74, 77, 91, 92, 93, 
95, 117, 135, 139, 140, 156, 176, 182, 
186, 187, 103, 222, 225, 260, 272, 275, 
286, 287, 298, 305, 308, 325, 329, 332, 
.333, 336, 338, 350, 355, 356, 367, 384, 
391, 392, 393, 434, 436, 438, 476, 477, 
478, 489-495, 525, 528. 
„ steam, and electricity as motive-powers, 4. 

Olympia Motor-Car Exhibition, 180. 

Omnibuses, electric, 12, 13, 24. 

„ for Paris, 101, 454, 455, 511. 

Operative date of Act (1896), 9. 

Otto cycle gas-engine. W. Norris, 11. 

Our horse population, 107. 

Ourselves, 16, 505. 

Page, Major Flood, on motor-vehicles, 123. 
Paget, A. Ply-wheels (Patent), 528. 
Palmer's Shipbuilding Co., 13. 
Panhard and Levassor's friction clutch, 260. 

„ „ Levassor motors, 64, 260. 

Paris-Dieppe race, 443. 
„ Mantes race, 443. 
„ Marseilles race, 27. 
„ Trouville race, 473. 
Park phaeton motor, A, 320. 
Parliamentary doings, 8, 14. 
Parsons, Hon. O, on steam turbines, 380. 
Patent law, The, 303, 326. 
Patents applied for, 26, 80, 131, 171, 205, 
240, 285, 328, 381, 434, 474, 524. 
„ granted, 26, 81, 131, 206, 241, 285, 
829, 382, 434, 474, 524. 
" Peerless " metal, 282. 

„ Metal and Martino (I'd.), 373. 

Penalties, 9. 

Pennington, E. T., 275, 327. 
Penny parcel delivery by motor-vehicles, 155. 
Perfecta Seamless Tube Co. (Ld.), 378. 
Petroleum and motor-cars, 499. 
„ as fuel, 328, 378. 
„ carriage, 39. 

„ regulations, 9, 39, 129. 

„ storage, 9. 

„ use of, in prime movers, 318. 

Petter, Hill, and Boll's oil-motor carriage, 92, 

Petter, Hill, and Boll's oil-motor cylinder 

and valve, 92. 
Peugeot motor, 116, 159, 170, 267, 284, 464. 
Philipson and Towards' steam carriage, 223, 

Philipson, J. Coachbuilding (Review), 236. 
Phosphor Bronze Co. (Ld.), 468. 
Pneumatic Tube Machine Co. (Ld.) Brain- 
ard's Patent, 281. 
„ Tyre Co. o. East London Rubber 

Co., 106. 
„ „ „ Ixion Pneumatic 

Tyre Co., 458. 
„ „ „ Marwood and Cross, 

„ tyres fifty years ago, 13. 

„ „ for motor-carriages. By 

Prof. H. S. HeleShaw, 
114, 167. 
„ „ for motor-carriages. By 

Sir David Salomons, 296. 
Poems, 433, 496. 
Police and motor-cars, The, 166, 319, 363, 458, 

Pope Manufacturing Co.'s motor-vehicles, 

Tost Office and motor-cars, 472. 
„ anomalies, 465, 524. 
Power locomotion on the highway. By 
Rhys Jenkins, 127. 

Power required for self -propulsion, 162. 

Prejudices against motof-cars, 50. 

Press on motor-cars, The, 494, 507. 

Preesspahn, 422. 

Pressure in gas and oil engines, 516. 

Priestman, W. D. and S. Igniting arrange- 
ment (Patent), 332. 

Principles of the Transformer. By F. 
Bedell, 51. 

Prizes for motor-car designs, 52. 

Proceedings of societies, 378, 879, 880, 381, 
401, 474, 520. 

Proposed motor-carriage and tramway com- 
bination, 125. 

Public Companies. See " Companies." 

Quadricycle, Crastin's, 94. 

Races (see also " Competitions "), 10, 18, 27, 
35, 75, 111, 188, 283, 363, 443, 473. 

Railways, Light, 14. 

Ramsay's horse, carriage, and autocar reposi- 
tory, 59. 

Randolph's steam-carriage (Henderson), 180. 

Recent developments in mechanical rood- 
carriages, 87. 

Redmond, L. Patent tyre, 26. 

Regulations for motor-cars, 8, 14, 37, 54, 107, 

Regulations for Scotland, 107. 

Reid v. Hooley and Rucker, 362. 

Resistance of vehicles on common roads, 412. 

Reviews of books, 11, 61, 127, 155, 236, 273, 
333, 370, 425, 518. 

Rhodes, C. E. Parker, 430. 

Richardson furnace, 402. 

Rickett's steam -carriage, 255. 

Riker electric car, 363. 

Rims, tyre, 376. 

Ringelmann, M. Rotary engine (Patent), 

Road traction in populous districts, 154. 
„ vehicle (Patent), 206. 

Roller bearings. By W. B. Marshall, 
M.I.C.E., 379. 

Rolls, Hon. C. S., 171, 324, 356, 360. 

Roots and Venables' oil motor- vehicles, 41, 
91, 225, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354. 

Roots and Venables r. British Motor Syndi- 
cate, 227, 310, 317, 377. 

Roots' Oil-Motor and Motor-Car (Ld.), 434. 

Rose, G. Road vehicles, steam generator 
(Patent), 287. 

Rossel, Ed. Motor-carriage, 12. 

Rotary motors, 211, 335, 525. 

Rowbotham, W., 168, 204, 436. 

Roynl Agricultural Society's competition, 18, 
360, 371, 417, 473. 

Royal Aquarium Motor-Car Exhibition, 228, 

Royalty and automolors, 142. 

Rucker, Reid ». Hooley and, 362. 

Rudder-motor. New and Mayne's, 400. 

Rule of the road, The, 515. 

Rusden and Eele*' oil-burner, 408, 410. 

St. Helen's Tube and Metal Co. (Ld.), 281. 

Salisbury oil-burner, 406. 

Salomon's, Sir David, Bart., 17, 43, 50, 117, 

128, 295. 
Saner, J. A., M.I.C.E., 6n inland navigation. 

Sankey, H. R., M.T.C.E., on decimal system 

of measurement, 474. 
Scotch regulations, 10. 
Scotte motor-car system, 454, 522. 
Self-Propelled Traffic Association (Liverpool), 

22, 43, 55, 114, 129, 139, 160, 192, 196, 

213, 276, 322, 371, 417, 467, 522, 523. 

Self-Propelled Traffic Association (London), 

48, 79, 117, 417. 
Self-propelling vehicles. By Or. P. Thomp- 
son, 100. 
Sennett, A. R., 11, 25, 127, 167, 168. 
Serpollet motor, 65, 122, 146, 257, 523. 
Shaw and Linton furnace, 402. 
Sheffield Society of Engineers, 277. 
Shows. (See " Exhibitions.") 
Silent tyre patent, The, 202. 
Simms, F. R. Surface cooling device (Patent), 

Sitting on the fence, 505. 
Smith, E. Shrapnell, on horseless carriages, 

4c, 99, 129, 141, 276. 
Smith, M. H. (Patent), 81. 
Smoke anq vapour, 8. 
Snow on tramway lines, 101, 151. 
Soames, E. Letter, 239. 
Society of Arts' papers — 

Sir David Salomons, 294. 
Worby Beaumont, M.I.C.E., &c., 87. 
Somerville, F. H. Letter on electric motors, 

South Africa, The motor-car in, 312. 
Southampton and motor-carriage building, 

Southey, A. W., andClubbe, E.J. (Patents), 

26, 285, 288, 436. 
South Wales Motor-Car and Cycle Co., 148, 

Spakovski oil-burner, 405. 
Speed and balance goar. Clubbe and Southey, 

Speed indicator, 270. 

„ limit, 9, 278. 
Speeds, 50, 278. 
Standard weldless tube and cycle components, 

166, 373. 
Stanley Show, 125. 
Starting gear. Lawsou, 289. 
Star Tube Co. (Ld.), 281. 
Steam boilers, 251-254, 257, 258, 287, 348, 

382, 388. 
Steam locomotion on common roads. By 

W. Fletcher, 155. 
Steam-motors and motor-vehicles, 40, 50, 90, 

96, 146, 180, 211, 223, 251, 252-255, 257, 

258, 277, 297, 299, 344, 382, 385, 436, 

454-456, 459, 476, 509, 611. 
Steam, oil, and electricity as motive powers, 

Steel tramways for roads, 497. 

Steering, 163, 278, 324. 

„ inventions, 26, 163, 278, 324, 526. 

Stewart and Farmer oil-burner, 407. 

Stilwell, J. F. Motor-carriages (Patent), 525. 

Stirling oil motor-carriage, 182. 

Stopping apparatus (Patent), 528. 

Storage of petroleum and prohibition of 
traffic, 9. 

Straker's oil-motors, 187. 

Sturmey, J. J. H. Road vehicles for motor 
traffic (Patent), 206. 

Summers and Ogle's steam-boiler, 253. 

Sunderland Engineering Exhibition, 472. 

Supply of petroleum to Manchester, The, 

Sydney Engineering and Electrical Exhi- 
bition, 248. 

I Tavernier, A. E. Explosion motor (Patent), 
I 338. 

. Taxes on motor-carriages, 8, 10, 116, 422. 
I Tajler, A. J. Wallis— 

Modern cycles (Review), 236. 

Motor-cars for common roads (Review), 
i 324. 

I Text and its application, A, 11. 

Digitized by 




Thompson, G. F. On self-propelling vehicles, 

100, 160. 
Thompson's, B. W., steam -carriage, 255. 
Thompson, W. P. Rotary motor (Patent), 

Thomson, J. W., on mechanical traction of 

road carriages, 178. 
Thornycroft's hydraulic steam lifeboat, 431. 

„ steam-van, 40, 90. 

Those poor Britishers, 469. 
Toward and Co.'s steam-ran, 223, 368, 459. 
Traction, The work of, 4J1. 
Tractograph, 412. 
Tractometor, 412. 
Traffic in the City, 415. 

„ Syndicate (Ld.), 101. 
Tramway motors for light railways, 140. 

„ motors : lessons from America, 155. 

„ traction, 20, 22, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 

100, 101, 126, 127, 138, 140, 142, 

180, 184, 224, 326, 497. 

Transmission of power. By J. Hopkinson, 

Jan., M.A., Sec., 520. 
Transmitting and regulating motion (Patent), 

Travelling modes on common roads (Bennett), 

Travelling without horses in 1770, 309. 
Trench Tubeless Tyre Co. (Ld.), 281. 
Tubes (Ld.), 424. 

Tuke, J. B., on oil-motors, 140, 273, 306. 

Turbines, 380. 

Tyre Patents, 26, 202, 309, 377, 468, 470, 478, 

Tyres, 77, 151, 186, 202, 267, 281, 314, 376. 

Ulrich, W. (Patent), 26. 
Urquhart oil-burner, 406. 

" Vagabond." Motor-carriages (Review), 51. 
Value and scope of inland navigation — 
By E. D. Marten, M.I.C.E., 475. 
By J. A. Saner, M.I.C.E., 474. 
By L. B. Wells, M.I.C.E., 381. 
Valve chest for air cylinder, 218. 
Valve for regulating petroleum supply (De 

Dion and Bouton patent), 333. 
Vaporisation, 168, 204, 436. 
Variable gearing, 331. 
Vavasour, Sir W. E. J. Failure, 458. 
Vignes, G-. F. G. des, and 8. H. Terry. 

Steam generators (Patent), 382. 
Vincke, N. Steering mechanism (Patent), 


Wallis, R., Wh. Sc, on liquid fuel, 401. 
Wanted— a word", 55, 112. 
Water-cooling jacket, 330, 334. 

Watkinson, Prof. W. H., on mechanical pro- 
pulsion of tramway cars, 100. 

Watson, C. Letter, 472. 

Wedding motor-cars, 320. 

Weidknecht steam motor-car, 454. 

Weight limits, 8. 

Weldless Tubes (Ld.), 281. 

Wellington, F. F. Variable gearing (Patent), 

Wells, L. B., M.I.C.E., on inland navigation, 

Wenham, F. H. Driving gear (Patent), 329. 

Westralian Motor Carrying Co., 122. 

What will the new year teach us, 153. 

Wheels, 116, 162, *195, 204, 207, 273, 314, 
478, 501, 516, 626. 

Williams, J., 205. 

Winchelsea, Earl of, 279, 424. 

Wise, Field, and Aydon oil-burner, 404. 

Wolseley motor-carriage, 186. 

Woolidge, W. Stopping apparatus (Patent), 

Worshipful Company of Coaohmakers' prizes 
for motor-car designs, 52, 368. 

Yeovil Motor Co.'s dog-cart, 855. 
Yorkshire College Engineering Society, 312. 

Zola on automobilism, 489. 
Zuylen, Baron de, 445. 


Abel's flash test apparatus, 157. 
Accumulator, The Blot, 165. 

„ I.E.S., 421. 
Ackermann's steering gear, 278. 
Air-engine coke stove, 270. 
Air-motors and vehicles, 214-220, 222, 502. 
Andraud and Tessie du Motay's air-carriage 

(1840), 215. 
Anglo-French Motor- Carriage Co.'s vehicles, 

Arnold's motor-carriage (Benz system), 42, 

Arlemeff burner (1878), 403. 
Aubry, J. H. Portrait, 450. 
Audouin furnace (1865), 402. 
Axles, 289. 
Aydon and Selwyn burner (1868), 404. 

Ball bearings, 328. 

Banki, D. Igniting apparatus (Patent), 

Barr, Andrew W. Portrait, 79. 
Bellomey, R. T. Wheels (Patent), 478. 
Bennett, T. J. Gas, oil, and spirit engines 

(Patent), 384. 
Benkston burner, 405. 
Benzine motor-cycle, 176, 177. 
Benz motor-carriage, 42, 356. 
BersenefT burner (1891), 404. 
Bersey's electric-carriage, 78. 
Bersey, W. C. Portrait, 488. 
Bidle pan furnace (1862), 401. 
" Bin Ghora-ka-Gharry," A, 229. 

Bloomer and Eorebut-Dachkeveioh burner 

(1886), 403. 
Blot accumulator, 165. 
Bollee tricycle, 53. 
Brambel rotary engine, 214. 
Brandt burner, 403, 406. 
Briggs, F. H. Gas and oil engines (Patent), I 

336, 337. J 

Britannia electric-carriages, 56, 65, 151. 

„ oil-motor, 77, 166. 
Bushbury electric dog-cart, 849. 

Capel and Olarkson. Steam motor-vehicle I 
(Patent), 382. j 

Carse's water jacket (Patent), 334. 

Carter, J. Explosion engines (Patent), 438. 

Chasseloup Laubat. Gas and steam engiues 
(Patent), 436. 

Chippournoff burner, 408. 

Church's steam-carriage, 254. 

Clubbe and Southey's motor (Patent), 285. 
„ „ speed and balance gear 

(Patent), 288. 

Compressed-air curve, 216, 220. 

„ motors and carriages, 214- 

222, 502. 

Cornell oil motor-carriage (Benz system), 

Coulthard and Co.'s motor-vehicles, 275. 

Coupe 1 Co.'s patent wheel, 116. 

Crastin's oil uiotor-quadricycle, 94, 95. 

Crucible furnace for oil fuel, 410. 

Cup oil furnace, 401. 

Dagnall oil motor, 367. 
Daimler Co. — 

Brass-turning shop, 494. 
Carriage-erecting shop, 495. 
Erecting and testing shop, 495. 
Light machine shop, 494. 
Daimler motors and vehicles, 12, 57, 64-66, 

123, 182, 261, 308, 489-493. 
Dale, J. O. Motors (Patent), 383. 
D'AUest burner, 406. 
Damon tyre, 151. 
Dance's boiler (1831), 252. 
Day, J. Gas and oil engines (Patent), 525. 
De Dietrich motor-lorry, 509, 610. 
De Dion, Cointe. Portrait, 448. 
„ et Bouton boiler, 258. 
„ „ explosion motor (Patent), 

286, 329, 333. 
.) i, motors, 65, 511, 512. 

Differential and change gear (New and 

Mayne's), 398. 
Dorsett and Blythe (1868), 402. 
Dowsing, H. J. Patent driving gear, 286. 
Driving gear, 329, 334. 
Dunder burner, 407. 
Dunsmore, M. C. Gas and oil engines 

(Patent), 436. 
Duryea driving gear, 334. 
„ motor-vehicle, 126. 

Electric accumulator, 165. 

„ alternator and generator (London 
Electrical Cab Co.), 484. 

Digitized by 




Electric Motive Power Co.'s omnibus, 13. 
„ „ „ victoria, 357- 

„ motors and vehicles, 13, 24, 56, 65, 
78, 151, 222, 228, 24S-250, 314, 
315, 340, 357-360, 372, 304- 397, 
399. 400, 484-487, 497-499, 521. 
„ Omnibus Co., 24. 
„ omnibus. Design by Hon. A. 
McGarel-Hogg and J. T. Murray, 
249, 250. 
„ trailer wheel (New and Mayne's), 
Elioson, C. P. Driving mechanism (Patent), 

Elieson's electro-niotor-car, 314, 315. 

Flash test apparatus (Abel'.-), 157. 
Fleuss, H. A. Portrait, 185 

„ tubeless pneumatic tyre, 185. 
Forestier, M. Portrait, 452. 
Fouchcr-Dclachaual motor-carriage, 203. 
French motor-cars, 12. 

Friction clutch (Ponhard and Lcvassor's), 

Gas-engines and motors, 435, 436, 475. 
Gaseoine's cooling water jacket (Patent), 330. 
Geisenhof, J. Motor-van (Patent), 333. 
Gurney's boiler, 252. 

„ steam-carriage (1825-28), 252. 

Hancock's boiler, 251. 

„ steam-carriage (1827), 251. 

Henderson, Alex. Portrait, 179. 
Henderson's steam-carriage, 180. 
High-pressure air cylinder, 218. 
Hildyard's patent axle, 289. 
Hill's steam-coach, 253. 
Holden's internal combustion engine, 332. 

„ liquid fuel burner, 379, 406. 

Holroyd- Smith benzoline motor phaeton, 355. 
Holt, U. P. Condenser (Patent), 526. 
Holt's driving gear (Patent), 329. 

,, steam-carriage, 96, 97. 
Hunter, J. W. Internal combustion motors 

(Patent), 477. 
Hydraulic steam motors, 431, 432. 

I.E.S. accumulator, 421. 

Ignition apparatus, 332, 476. 

Inlet valve of low pressure air cylinder, 217. 

Invention diagrams. See " Patents." 

James's steam -carriage, 253. 
Johnston, J. Gas and petroleum engines, 

Kane-Pennington oil-motor, 136, 137. 
Karapetoff burner (1880), 403. 
Kauffmann burner, 403. 
Knights, J. H. Steam motor-car, 277. 
Korting's burner, '103, 405, 406. 

Labitte, E. Steam-boiler (Patent), 388. 
Lancashire (Leylancl) Steam-Motor Co.'s van, 

419, 420. 
Lanchester, F. W. Gas and oil-motor 

(Patent), 287. 
Lawson, H. J. Motor-cyclo (Patent), 331. 
„ ,, Starting arrangement 

(Patent), 288. 
jjc Blunt steam-vehicles, 455, 456. 
Le Itrun, A. E. Gas and petroleum motors 

(Patent), 470. 
L'Eleotriquc (Helgian) motor-carriage, 521. 
Lenz burner, 402, 406. 
Lepape, H. Power-transmitting mechanism j 

(Patent), 477. I 

Liquid Fuel Engineering Co.'s steam motor- 
van, 344-349. 
Lister, F. (Pntent), 330. 
London Electrical Cab Co. — 

Alternator and generator, 484. 

Charging station, 487. 

Differential gear, 486. 

The cab, 485. 
Longucmare oil-burner, 237, 257. 
Lutzmann motor-vehicles, 52. 

MacDonald, J. M. Motor-power apparatus 

(Patent), 335. 
Maceroni and Squire's boiler, 253. 
„ „ „ coach, 253. 

Mann, E. Portrait, 427. 
Mann's locomotive air-carriage (1830), 214. 
Marchant, T. B. Road locomotives (Patent), 

Marine boiler fitted with "Rusden Eeles" 

sprayer, 409. 
Marquis of Stafford's steam-carriage (1858, 

Rickett). 255. 
May, Phil, sketch by, 113. 
Mcrrywcather, J. C. and Jakeman. Motor 

road ears (Patent), 476. 
Moore's horseless carriage (1769), 309. 
Morris and Salom's electric vehicles, 248, 

Mors motor-car, 272. 
Motor-cycle, 176, 177. 

Neale's electric-carriage, 228. 
Neville's marine oil- motor, 305. 
New, A. G. Portrait, 426. 
New and Mayne — 

Differential and change gear, 398. 
Direct coupled engine aud dvnamo, 394, 

Electric char-a-banc, 222, 396, 397. 

trailer wheel, 399. 
Oil-motor dog-cart, 222. 

„ motors, 222, 392, 393. 
Patents, 289. 
Rudder-motor, 274. 400. 
Two-evlinder vertical oil engine, 392, 
" New Times " oil motor-car, 57. 
New York compressed-air locomotive, 502. 

Oil-burners, 237, 319, 379, 401-411. 
,, fuel forge, 410. 

„ motors and vehicles, 12, 41. 42, 52, 53, 
57. 64-66, 75, 77, 91-95, 117, 123, 126, 
13 ;, 137, 156, 159, 176, 177, 182, 186, 
187, 203. 222, 225, 229, 260, 267, 272, 
275, 286, 287, 305, 308, 325, 329, 330, 
332-336, 338, 350-356, 367, 384, 392, 
393, 418, 435, 138, 464, 465, 476, 477, 
489-493, 525. 

Omnibuses, Electrical, 13, 24. 

Panhard and Levassor motors, 64, 261. 
Paris-Dieppe race — 
Gradients, 446. 
The cars en route, 447, 449. 
Parisian inotor-car, 325. 
Paris- Versailles trials — 
Gradients, 457, 458. 
Vehicles, 454 -456. 
Park motor-phaetou, 320. 
Patent diagrams, 81, 206, 241, 286 -290, 329- 
3.18, 382-388, 435-438, 476-478, 525, 526. 
Petter, Hill, and Boll's oil motor-vehicles, 

92, 93. 
Peugeot carriages, 117. 159, 267, 401, 465. 

„ motor, 461, 465. 
Philipson and Toward's stoam motor-carriage, 

Pope Manufacturing Co.'s electric-phaeton, 

Priestman's ignition apparatus (Patent), 332. 

Randolph's steam-carriage, 180. 

Reducing valve for compressed-air cngino, 

Richardson's furnace, 402. 
Roger motor, 65. 
Roots and Venables' oil motor-vehicles, 41, 

91, 225, 350-354. 
Rose, G. Steam generator (Patent), 287. 
Rossel, Ed., motor-cftr, 12. 
Rotary-engine, Brambel, 212. 

„ motor, 335. 
Rowbotham, W. Vapjriscr (Patent), 436. 
Rusden and Eeles' burner, 408, 410. 

Salisbury burner, 406. 

Salomons, Sir David, Bart., 17. 

" Scotte " steam road train. 454. 

Serpollet steam-motor, 65, 146, 147, 257. 

Shaw and Linton furnace (1862), 402. 

Single acting air cylinders, 219. 

Smith, E. Slirapnell, 141. 

Spakovski burner, 40i 

Speed indicator, 270. 

Steam generator, 383, 388. 

„ motors and vehicles, 40, 65, 90, 96, 97, 
146, 147, 180, 212, 223, 251-255, 
257, 274, 277, 287, 288, 344-349, 
382, 383, 385, 419, 420, 436, 454- 
456, 459, 476, 509-512. 

Steering gear, 278. 324. 

„ „ Ackerraann's, 278. 

Stewart and Farmer's burner, 407. 

Stirling motor-carriage, 182. 

Straker's motor, 187. 

Summers and Ogle's boiler, 253. 

Tavernier, A. E. Explosion motor (Patent), 

Thompson, W. P. Rotary motor (Patent), 

Thomson's road steamer (1871), 255. 
Thornycroft's hydraulic steam lifeboat, 431, 
„ steam-van, 49, 90. 

Toward's steam-van, 459. 
Tractograph, 413. 
Tractometer, 413. 

Triple-expansion condensing engines, 217. 
Tvre rims, 377. 
Tyres, 77, 151, 185. 

Urquhart burner, 406. 

Valve chest, of high-pressure air cylinder, 218. 

Vaporiser (Patent), 436. 

Variable gearing, 331. 

Vijjnes, ties, and S. H. Terry. Steam 

generator (Patent), 383. 
Villiers, A. Portrait, 228. 

Water cooling jacket, 334. 

„ tube boilers, 348. 
Weidnecht steam-omnibus, 454. 
Wellington, F. F. Variable gearing (Patent), 

Wheel, Coupe Co.'s, 116. 
Wheels, 116, 478. 
Willson, E. Portrait, 48. 
Wise, Field, and Aydon burner (1865), 40-4. 
Wolseley motor-ear, ISO. *• 
Wright's air carriage. 215. 

Yeovil Motor Co.'s oil motor-vehicles, 355. 

Zuylen, Baron de. Portrait, 445. 

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Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Autocars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the Colonies 

and the Continent. 

Vol. I. No. 2. 

NOVEMBER 17th, 189(5, 

Price Sixpence. 




The New Motor-Car Regulations 87 

Agriculturists and the Speed of Automutors 39 

Types of Horseless Vehicles 40 

The London County Cuuncil and Motors 4*j 

Light Railway* „" 42 

The Self-Propelled Traffic Association— Formation of a Liverpool Branch ... 43 

Motor Car mgu* light Railway 4H 

Motor-Car Insurance 4B 

Bristol Engineers and Motor-Carriages "„ 49 

Correspondence 49 

Reviews of Hooka , R| 

Lutsroann Motor-Carriages A2 

Bwdnew Notes 52 

Prizes for Motor-Car Designs 52 

The Bollce Tiicycle \" m 53 

The New Regulations as to Motor-Carriages " A4 

Liverpool to the Fore ... „ 54 

Wanted — a Word ['[ 55 

" Engineering '" and Automotors *" aa 

The Britannia Company's Klectric System Afi 

The Motor-Car In the Lord Mayor's Show * 57 

l<ondon Tramways Puichaac 57 

North Country Farmers and Motor-C-rs „ 58 

Doings of Pub ic Companies 59 

Notes of the Month CO 

Emancipation Day "' "," Gfl 

French Contest* for 1897 \ m [ m 73% 

Answers to Correspondents ].] 74 

Ijtw Reports ., 74 

Messrs. New and Mayne (Limited) ,.] '", 75 

Motor-Car Com est a ir. America \ [" m 75 

Quips and Cranks 7« 

Trade Novelties ," "* ]\[ 77 

The Bersey Carriage \" m [\\ "* "" 7$ 

Mr. Andrew W. Burr \" m "" 79 

New Invention* "" ".[ '" go 


The Local Government Board have issued the following 
Regulations to the county councils and certain other local 
authorities in England and Wales with respect to the 
use of light locomotives on highways, nnd their con- 
struction, and the conditions under which they may be 
used, and have directed that the same shall have effect on 
and after November 14th : — 

Article I. 

In this Order : — 

The expression " carriage " includes a wagon, cart, 'or other 

The expression " horse " includes a mule or other beast of 
draught or burden, and the expression " cattle " includes sheep. 

The expression "light locomotive' means a vehicle propelled 
>>y mechanical power which is under three tons in weight unladen, 

and is not used for the purpose of drawing more than one vehicle 
(such vehicle with its locomotive not exceeding in weight unladen 
four tons), and is so constructed that no smoke or visible vapour 
is emitted therefrom except from any temporary or accidental 

In calculating for the purposes of this Order the weight of a 
vehicle unladen, the weight of any water, fuel, or accumulators 
used for the purpose of propulsion shall not be included. 

Article II. 

No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be 
used on any highway, or shall drive or have charge of a light 
locomotive when so used, unless the conditions hereinafter set 
forth shall be satisfied, namely : — 

(I.) The light locomotive, if it exceeds in weight unladen live 
hundredweight, shall be capable of being so worked that it may 
travel either forwards or backwards. 

(2.) The light locomotive shall not exceed six and a half 
feet in width, such width to be measured between its extreme 
projecting pointj. 

(3.) The tyre of each wheel of the light locomotive shall be 
smooth, and shall, where the same touches the ground, be nV. 
and of the width following, namely : — 

(a) If the weight of the light locomotive unladen exceeds 
fifteen hundredweight, but does not exceed one ton, not less 
than two and a half inches ; 

(6) If such weight exceeds one ton, but does not exceed two 
tons, not less than three inches ; 

(e) If such weight exceeds two tons, not less than four inches. 

Provided that where a pneumatic tyre, or other tyre of a soft 
and elastic material is used, the tyre may be round or curved, 
and there may be upon the same projections or bosses rising 
above the surface of the tyre if such projections or bosses are 
of the same material as that of the tyre itself, or of some other 
soft and elastic material. The width of the tyre shall, for the 
purpose of this proviso, mean the extreme width of the soft and 
elastic material on the rim of the wheel when not subject to 

(4.) The light locomotive shall have two independent brakes 
in good working order, and of such efficiency that the applica- 
tion of either to such locomotive shall cause two of its wheels 
on the same axle to be so held that the wheels shall be 
effectually prevented from revolving, or shall have the same 
effect in stopping the light locomotive as if such wheels were so 

Provided that in the case of a bicycle this Regulation slmll 
apply as if, instead of two wheels on the same axle, one wheel 
was therein referred to. 

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(5.) The light locomotive shall be so constructed as to admit 
of its being at all times under such control as not to cause 
undue interference with passenger or other traffic on any 

(6.) Iu the case of a light'locomotive drawing or constructed 
to draw another vehicle or constructed or used for the carriage 
of goods, the name of the owner and the place of his abode 
or business, and in every such case and in the case of every 
light locomotive weighing unladen one ton and a half or 
upwards, the weight - of the light locomotive unladen shall be 
painted in one or more straight lines upon some conspicuous 
part of the right or off side of the light locomotive in large 
legible letters in white upon black or black upon white, not 
less than one inch in height. 

(7.) The light locomotive and all the fittings thereof shall be 
in such a condition as not to cause, or to be likely to cause, 
danger to any person on the light locomotive or on any 

(8.) There shall be in charge of the light locomotive when used 
on any highway a person competent to control and direct its 
use and movement. 

(9.) The lamp to be carried attached to the light locomotive iu 
pursuance of Section 2 of the Act shall l)e so constructed and 
placed as to exhibit, during the period between one hour after 
sunset and one hour before sunrise, a white light visible within 
a reasonable distance in the direction towards which the light 
locomotive is proceeding or is intended to proceed, and to 
exhibit a red light so visible in the reverse direction. The 
lamp shall be placed on the extreme right or off side of the 
light locomotive in such a position as to be free from all 
obstruction to the light. 

Provided that this Regulation shall not extend to any bicycle, 
tricycle, or other machine to which Section 85 of the Local 
Government Act, 1888, applies. 

Article III. 

No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be used 
on any highway for the purpose of drawing any vohicle, or shall 
drive or have charge of a light locomotive when used for such 
purpose, unless the conditions hereinafter set forth shall be 
satisfied, namely : — 

(1.) Regulations (2), (3), (5), and (7), of Article II of this 
Order shall apply as if the vehicle drawn by the light loco- 
motive was therein referred to, instead of the light locomotive 
itself, and Regulation (6) of the Article shall apply as if such 
vehicle was a light locomotive constructed for the carriage of 

(2.) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive, except where 
the light locomotive travels at a rate not exceeding four miles 
.an hour, shall have a brake iu good working order of such 
efficiency that its application to the vehicle shall cause two of 
the wheels of the vehicle on the same axle to be so held that the 
wheels shall be effectually prevented from revolving, or shall 
have the same effect in stopping the vehicle as if such wheels 
.were so held. 

(3.) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive shall, when 
under the last preceding regulation a brake is required to be 
attached thereto, carry upon the vehicle a person competent to 
apply efficiently the brake : Provided that it shall not be 
necessary to comply with this Regulation if the brakes upon the 
light locomotive by which the vehicle is drawn arc so con- 
structed and arranged that neither of such brakes can be used 
without bringing into action simultaneously the brake attached 
' to the vehicle drawn, or if the brake of the vehicle drawn can 
be applied from the light locomotive independently of the 
brakes of the latter. 

Article IV. 

Every person driving or in charge of a light locomotive when 
used on any highway shall comply with the Regulations herein- 
after set forth, namely :— 

(1.) He shall not drive the light locomotive at any speed 
greater than is reasonable and proper, having regard to the 
traffic on the highway, or so as to endanger the life or limb of 
any person, or to the common danger of passengers. 

(2.) He shall not under any circumstances drive the light 
locomotive at a greater speed than 12 miles an hour. If the 
weight unladen of the hght locomotive is one ton and a half 
and does not exceed two tons, he shall not drive the same at a 
greater speed than eight miles an hour, or if such weight exceeds 
two tons, at a greater speed than five miles an hour. 

Provided that whatever may be the weight of the light 
locomotive, if it is used on any highway to draw any vehicle, he 
shall not, under any circumstances, drive it at a greater speed 
than six miles an hour. 

Provided also that this Regulation shall only have effect during 
six months from the date of this Order, and thereafter until We 
otherwise direct. 

(3.) He shall not cause the light locomotive to travel back- 
wards for a greater distance or time than may be requisite for 
purposes of safety. 

(4.) He shall not negligently or wilfully cause any hurt or 
damage to any person, carriage, horse, or cattle, or to any goods 
conveyed in any carriage on any highway, or, when on the light 
locomotive, be in such a position that he cannot have control 
over the same, or quit the light locomotive without having 
taken due precautions against its being started in his absence, 
or allow the light locomotive or a vehicle drawn thereby to 
stand on such highway so as to cause any unnecessary obstruction 

(5.) He shall when meetiug any carriage, horse, or cattle keep 
the light locomotive on the left or near side of the road, and 
when passing any carriage, horse, or cattJe proceeding in the 
same direction keep the light locomotive on the right or off side 
of the same. 

(6.) He shall not negligently or wilfully prevent, hinder, or 
interrupt the free passage of any person, carriage, horse, or 
cattle on any highway, and shall keep the light locomotive and 
any vehicle drawn thereby on the left or near side of the road 
for the purpose of allowing such passage. 

(7.) He shall, whenever necessary, by sounding the bell or 
other instrument required by Section 3 of the Act, give audible 
and sufficient warning of the approach or position of the light 

(8.) He shall on the request of any police constable, or of any 
person having charge of a restive horse, or on any such constable 
or person putting up his hand as a signal for that purpose, cause 
the light locomotive to stop and to remain stationary so long 
as may be reasonably necessary. 

Article V. 

If the light locomotive is one to which Regulation (6) of 
Article II applies, and the particulars required by that Regula- 
tion are not duly painted thereon, or if the light locomotive is 
one to which that Regulation does not apply, the person driving 
or in charge thereof shall, on the request of any constable, or ou 
the reasonable request of any other person, truly state his name 
and place of abode, and the name of the owner, and the place of 
his abode or business. 

This Order may be cited as " The Light Locomotives 
on Highways Order, 1896." 

In a letter addressed to the County Councils Sir Hugh Owen, 
the Secretary of the Local Government Board, draws attention 
to the provisions of the Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896. 
He refers to the exemption of light locomotives from certain 
enactments, and points out that the duties imposed by Section 4 
of the Customs and Inland Revenue Act, 1888, will be payable 
for light locomotives which are carriages or hackney carriages 
as denned by the Act, and that such light locomotives will pay 
on and after January 1st next an additional excise duty at the 
following rate :— £2 2s. if the weight of the locomotive exceeds 
1 ton but does not exceed 2 tons unladen, and £3 3w. if the 
weight exceeds 2 tons uuladeu. A summary of the above 
Order issued by the Local Government Board is given, and on 
the subject of "speed Sir Hugh Owen states : — '" Section 4 of 
the Act directs that no light locomotive shall travel along a 

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public highway at a greater speed than 14 miles an hour, or 
than any less speed that may be prescribed by regulations of 
the Board. There is considerable difficulty in laying down 
definite rules as to the speed of light locomotives at the present 
time, as no experience has been obtained of their use in this 
country ; but the Board have been strongly urged to make some 
general regulations on the subject, and they have dealt with it ; 
by Article IV of the Order." 

The Carriage of Petroleum. 

Sir Matthew White Ridley, the Homo Secretary, in 
issuing the regulations as to petroleum for motor-cars, 
states : — 

In promulgating the following regulations relating to the 
keeping, conveyance, and use of petroleum in connection with 
light locomotives, the Secretary or State for the Home Depart- 
ment desires to call public attention to the dangers that may 
arise from the careless use of those more volatile descriptions 
of petroleum to which these rules apply, being petroleum to 
which the Petroleum Act, 1871, applies, and commonly known 
as " mineral spirit." 

Not only is tho vapour therefrom, which is given off at 
ordinary temperature, capable of being easily ignited, but also, 
when mixed with air, of forming an explosive mixture. Hence 
the necessity for strict precautions in dealing with and handling 
the same, and for the employment of thoroughly sound and 
properly closed vessels to contain the same, the importance of 
avoiding the use of naked lights in dangerous proximity to the 
same or to any place where such petroleum may be kept, and 
generally of taking precautions to prevent contact of the highly 
inflammable vapour of this very volatile liquid with any form 
of artificial light 


1. Petroleum shall not be kept, used, or conveyed, except in 
tanks or cases of metal so made and closed that no leakage, 
whether of liquid or vapour, can take place therefrom, and so 
substantially constructed as not to be liable, except under 
circumstances of gross negligence or extraordinary accident to 
be broken or become defective or insecure in course of con- 
veyance or use ; and every air-inlet in any such tank or case 
shall be at all times, except when the valve, if any, is required 
to be removed for immediate use or repair, protected by securely 
affixed wire gauze, the openings in which shall not be less in 
number than 400 to the square inch. 

2. Exery such tank or case shall be clearly stamped or securely 
labelled with a legible metallic or enamelled label with the 
words " mineral spirit, highly inflammable, for use with light 

3. The amount of petroleum to be in any one such tank or 
case at one time shall not exceed 20 gallons. 

4. There shall not be at the same time on or in any one light 
locomotive, more than two of such tanks as aforesaid. 

5. Before repairs are done to any such tank or case, that tank 
or case shall, as far as practicable, be cleaned by the removal of 
all petroleum and of all dangerous vapours derived from the 

6. When petroleum for use in, or in connection with any light 
locomotive is not being so used, it shall be kept either in 
accordance with the provisions of the Petroleum Acts, or in 
such tanks or cases as aforesaid ; provided that the amount of 
petroleum which may be so kept in tanks or cases as aforesaid 
shall not exceed the amount of petroleum which may be kept 
on or in any one light locomotive at the same time, and that the 

. tanks or cases shall be kept in the open air, or in some suitably 
ventilated place. 

7. The filling or replenishing of a tank with petroleum shall 
not be carried on, nor shall the contents of any such tank be 
exposed by artificial light, except a light of such construction, 
position, or character as not to be liable to cause danger, and no 
artificial light shall be brought within dangerous proximity of 
the place where any tank containing petroleum is being kept. 

8. In the case of all petroleum kept or conveyed for the 
purpose of or in connection with any light locomotive (a) all due 
precautions shall be taken for the prevention of accidents by fire 
or explosion, and for the prevention of unauthorised persons 
having access to any petroleum kept or conveyed, and to the 
vessels containing or intended to contain, or having actually 
contained the same ; and (6) every person managing or 
employed on or in connection with any light locomotive shall 
abstain from every act whatever which tends to cause fire or 
explosion, and which is not reasonably necessary, and shall 
prevent any other person from committing such act. 

9. These regulations shall come into operation on the 14th 
day of November, 1896, and be in foroe until further notice. 



— — ♦- 

The monthly meeting of the Council of the Central and 
Associated Chambers of Agriculture was held at tho Society 
of Arts, Adelphi, London, on the 3i-d inst., under the presidency 
of Mr. J. Lloyd Wharton, M.P. The delegates considered, as a 
matter of urgency, the rate of speed to be permitted by the 
regulations of the Local Government Board for light locomotives 
on the roads. 

Mr. Muktz, of Warwickshire, moved : "That in the opinion 
of this Council the maximum rate of speed at which light 
locomotives should travel along public highways for 12 months 
at least should be fixed at not exceeding 10 miles per hour, 
and representations to this effect be forwarded to the Local 
Government Board." He drew attention to the fact that 
under the Act the speed was to be not exceeding 14 miles an 
hour. They thought that rate was excessive. The Act further 
asserted that the machines were to be pulled up within 50 feet. 
The stoppage within such a short distance from a high rate of 
speed would seriously damage the roads. 

Mr. H. Williams, Monmouth, seconded, and thought that 
eight miles per hour was sufficient. Agriculturists ran a great 
risk from their horses being frightened by cyclists. Of this 
class " the scorchers " were the worst. He regretted they did 
not postpone their scorching till they got to the next world. 

Mr. A. D. Wells (Berks and Oxon) opposed the resolution, 
and Mr. Corbett mentioned that in Switzerland electric cars 
ran along the roads at a speed of over 14 miles an hour without 
to any extent inconveniencing the traffic. 

Mr. Lipscomb said that in his district (the West Riding) a 
year or two since traction engines had, through using the roads 
in frosty weather, damaged them to the extent of £1,000 per 
mile. The rate of speed, he thought, should be moderated. 
They were in danger of being overridden. He dissented from 
the view taken by one of the speakers, that the proposal to 
moderate the speed of road locomotives was grandmotherly. 
Restrictions in this direction were as necessary now, in the light 
of experience, as ever they were. 

The Chairman said the minimum distance for pulling up 
light locomotives was 50 feet, and this he thought was much 
too short a distance. With heavy engines he thought this 
would result in serious injury to the roads. Fast travelling 
was all very well in the fen district, where a driver could often 
see two miles or more in front of him, but in districts where the 
roads had sharp curves and high hedges, he regarded swift 
travelling as extremely daugerous. He should like to see the 
maximum rate of speed reduced. 

The motion was adopted. 

The Indestructible Ignition Tube Syndicate, of HlOr, (Jueeii 
Victoria Street, E.C., have made arrangements for repairing 
and storing autocars in Queen Victoria Street. They have thejr 
showrooms, 1 10 feet long by 2o feet wide, fitted with machine 
tools for repair work, and dynamos for electric charging. 

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The Thornycroft Steam Motor-Carriage. 

Mk. Thorxyckoft, whose name is identified throughout 
the world with high class torpedo-boat machinery, has 
identified himself with the new self-propelled traffic, and 
designed a steam-carriage which will carry a load of 
one ton, and weiehs about 35 cwt. when in full working 
order — including the weight of the coke nsed as fuel, the 
driver, and water necessary for a run of 20 miles. 

The boiler is of the Thornycroft water-tube launch 
type with water fire-bars, steam being raised in about 
15 minutes. The engine is double compound, the cylinders 
being respectively of 2 and 4 inches diameter, with a stroko 

An American Motor-Carriage. 

From our representative in the United States we learn 
that a carriage capable of attaining a speed of from three 
to 18 miles an hour has been invented by a Springfield 
man, and an extensive factory will be erected for the 
manufacture of the vehicle. The promoter of the new 
carriage is Henry W. Clapp, and the inventor is Charles 
E. Duryea, both of Springfield, Ohio. A company is now 
being formed, and nearly one-half of the required capital 
of £60,000 has been secured. The new carriage has been 
given repeated tests, all of which have been successful. 
A trip was made to Hartford and return reoently, insido 
of three hours. In appearance the machine resembles an 
ordinary side-bar four-wheel carriage. The wheels are 
rubber-tyred and run on ball bearings. Each of the front 


IS | 

of "> inches. The engine speed is "eared in the ratio of 
to 1 to the road driving wheels. The condenser 
placed ou the roof, and is of sufficient cooling surface to 
condense all the steam at ordinary rates of working. 

The van can climb an incline of 1 in 10 when fully 
loaded. The ordinary speed of working is about six or 
seven miles per hour, but a speed of nine miles per hour 
can easily be sustained on level roads. The floor space 
available for carrying goods is about 25 square feet. 

Several trials have been made of this carriage with 
excellent results, while the name of Thornycroft is 
sufficient guarantee of the admirable quality of the 
workmanship and material which is used throughout. 
For developing this new branch of work an establishment 
has been founded under the title of tho Steam Car 
and Wagon Company, Horoefiuld, Chiswick Mall 


wheels instead of turning on a central bolt, as is the case 
with ordinary carriages, revolves on its own pivot located 
in the hub, thereby making each turn in a much smaller 
radius, and, consequently, being easier to operate in 
steering. Tho vehicle is easily manipulated by a lever 
located in front of tho driver. A lateral motion of the 
lever turns the wheel while the vertical motion controls the 
speed. One of the advantages of the carriage is that by 
pressing a button connected with a brake drum the vehicle 
can be stopped almost instantly, thus lessening the danger 
of travelling in the streets. The motor is compactly 
located under the seat, and is stated to weigh about 
one cwt. for an output of four horse-power. Near this 
is a dynamo. To start the wagon a crank is revolved 
once on the side of the wagon. This turns the motor 
which starts the dynamo, which generates the necessary 

Digitized by 




sparks to explode the oil-gas contained in the combustion 
end of the cylinder. Since the experimental machine has 
been completed it has been run over 1,000 miles, and is 
reported to have established its practicability on country 
as well as city roads. 

Roots and Venables' Three-wheeled Carriage. 

This vehicle, which we illustrate as manufactured by 
Messrs. Roots and Venables, of 100, Westminster Bridge 
Road, is built with a strong angle steel frame, carrying 
the oil motor of 2-J horse-power at the back, together with 
the exhaust box and small water-tank. The power is 
transmitted from the crank-shaft of the engine to a 
counter-shaft by means of belts working on various- 

Consequently it| is quite safe to use, and must be 
distinguished from the gasoline or benzoline used by 
most other carriages, particularly those at present running 
in France. 

The Benz Motor-Carriage. 

A Bradford correspondent writing of this vehicle— 
which is the invention of Mr. Benz, of Mannheim, and is 
being introduced into this country by the Arnold Motor-Car 
Company, of East Peckham — gives an interesting account 
of a ride which he recently enjoyed. He states that " by 
the courtesy of the local agent, Mr. James E. Take, 
Aldermanbury, he was initiated into the mysteries of the 
horseless carriage, riding with Mr. Tuke in a small car 


sized pulleys, which counter-shaft again transmits the 
power to the axle of the oarriage by a pinion and toothed 

This two-speed gear runs the carriage at ten or four 
miles an hour as desired. In the front of the carriage 
the larger water-tank is fixed out of sight beneath the 
feet of the riders. The carriage steers remarkably easy, 
and is fitted with two brakes, one on the front wheel 
and the other on a drum on the main axle. Sufficient oil 
is carried for a run of 27 miles in the tank, but more can 
be easily placed under the seat. 

The tyres are of solid indiarubber dovetailed into steel 

The oil used is common American Tea Rose or Royal 
Daylight, price tyd. per gallon. 

The specific gravity of this oil is from - 8 upwards. 

of 1^ horse-power from Otley to Bradford, the time 
occupied being an hour and twenty minutes exactly. 
The day was very unsuitable owing to the heavy condition 
of the roads, and the success of the ride under such 
adverse circumstances showed how great the scope of the 
invention must bo. At present the machine is hardly out 
of the experimental stage ; but on the flat a good speed 
was attained. One fine feature of the machine is the 
ease with which the speed is regulated, without having 
recourse to the brake. Hollings Hill can bo descended, 
either fast or slow, by simply setting the indicator, or, if 
economy be aimed at, the gearing may be shifted, and the 
wheels allowed to revolve down hill under the control of 
the brake. It appears that a car of 1£ horse-power is 
not quite equal to carrying two people up the Yorkshire 
hills in bad weather, but an addition of " £ horse-power " 

C 3 

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[NOVBMBBB, 1896. 

•would probably be ample. The little carriage now in 
Mr. Tuke's possession is one of the smallest made, and its 
value is about £130. No particular mecbanical knowledge 
is required to understand the working of the car, and 
when once charged with oil aud electricity it will run for 
150 miles. The sensation of travelling by this new and 
convenient method is precisely that of cycling, with the 
exception of the labour involved by the latter. All that 
is needed for motor-car riding is a hand for steering and 
a head to restraiu one's natural inclination for racing on 
the public road. Of the utility and general merit of the 
horseless carriage there cannot be any doubt. For doctors 
the novelty appears to offer immediate advantages, but a 
general adoption of the vehicle by tradespeople and others 
will natnrally be a work of time, and must depend upon 
the further development of the invention itself." These 
motors have found much favour in France and Germany, 
and will doubtless obtain a fair measure of success in this 


The Highways Committee of the Council presented a 
report to the Council on the 3rd inst. regarding the 
Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896, and motor-cars in 
London. The committee stated that they had considered 
a letter from the Local Government Board, forwarding a 
copy of general regulations which it is proposed to make 
under the Act. It appeared to the committee that, having 
regard to the crowded condition of many of the London 
thoroughfares, it is important that a regulation limiting 
the speed of such vehicles when travelling in London to a 
maximum of eight miles an hour instead of 14 should be 
made and issued before the Act comes into operation. 
There is little doubt, the committee stated, that if light 
locomotives were to be allowed to run at the rate of 
14 miles an hour they would seriously interfere with the 
other traffic. The Board asked that observations upon 
the proposed general regulations might be submitted not 
later than October 31st, and the committee had accordingly, 
on behalf of the Council, made a representation to the 
Board of the necessity for such a regulation. The action 
ov the committee was approved by the Council. 





Hint to Investors. — In conuectiou with the show of cycles 
which is to be held in Belgium in the new year, prizes of £40 
are l>eing offered : (1) For the best wrench which will not cut or 
disfigure the nut ; (2) for a motor for machines, weight not to 
exceed 21 lbs., capable of giving one horse-power, and inexplosive. 
Smaller prizes are offered for the following : (1) A machine for 
transmission, whereby an even amount of power is obtained on 
both .sides of the machine ; (2) the best kind of frame, in which 
solidity and weight are carefully and advantageously combined. 

A welcome reminder of the advent of Christmastide is to 
hand in the shape of a package of the marvellous cards and 
books issued by Messrs. .Raphael Tuck and Co. The firm has 
so long held and deserved the highest reputation for artistic 
design and perfect printing, that it is almost impossible to write 
anything new in their favour. For the children there are 
wondrous books of fairy lore, of kindly goblins, and nursery 
rhymes illustrated with beautiful children and dolls, while 
whimsically-designed elfins and Puck-like creatures hover about 
the pages in such alluring ways that the little ones cannot fail 
to be attracted and amused by the apt illustrations and tasteful 
dialogue. For older folk the Christmas cards are designed in 
perfect taste ; while such work as that shown in Raphael Tuck's 
series of platino panels has, perhaps, never been equalled by 
any other publisher. Perhaps next year they may give us 
[an idealised automotor carriage, with appropriate occupants 
land motor (we apologise — motto). 

The Commission appointed by the Act of Parliament 
last Session to give assistance to promoters of light 
railways throughout Great Britain has acquired temporary 
offices at 23, Great George Street, Westminster, where all 
plans of light railways must be considered before the 
end of December. Every application going before the 
Commissioners must be accompanied by a full statement 
of the proposed light railway, gauge, motive power, 
county and parish where proposed, advance of money 
requisition, and a certificate that a fee of £50 has been 
paid to the Board of Trade. The Commissioners are 
quite ready to advise applicants having the desire of 
constructing light railways in the procedure necessary. 
The Commissioners are tho Earl of Jersey, Col. G. F. O. 
Boughey, R.E., and Mr. Gerald FitzGerald. Mr. Bret 
Ince is the secretary. A full account of the provisions 
of this important measure appeared in our last issue. 

An interesting exhibition of light railway plant was 
recently shown at Newlay, near Leeds. It was all the 
more noteworthy by reason of the fact that the plant 
is intended for the first light railway which the Govern- 
ment of India has sanctioned. The Barsi light railway, 
for which the present equipment is intended, will be laid 
along the side of an ordinary country road, the gauge 
being 2 feet 6 inches. The rails weigh 30 lbs. per yard, 
and as there is no land to purchase, it is estimated that 
the cost of construction will not exceed £600 per mile 
of single track. The locomotives are of the eight-wheeled 
coupled type, capable of hauling 276 tons on a gradient 
of 1 in 100, and of 150 tons on a gradient of 1 in 57. 
Both the goods wagons and the passenger coaches are 
of the bogie type. The object of the demonstration was 
to show that heavy loads can be carried over a narrow- 
gauge line, and that the permanent way and plant in an 
average country district ace simple and inexpensive. 

_ Digitized by 






The vice-president of the Liverpool branch of the Self-Pro- 
pelled Traffic Association, Mr. Alfred L. Jones, on Monday, the 
26th ult., gave a luncheon in the Exchange Station Hotel for 
the purpose of welcoming Sir David Salomons, Bart, president 
of the Association, on the occasion of his visit to that city to 
deliver an address before the members of the newly-formed 
local branch of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association. About 
50 gentlemen assembled besides the principal guest, Sir David 

Invitations had been extended to the following : — The Earl 
of Derby, Prince Bhanuganger, of Siam ; Colonel A H. Holme, 
Sir W. B. Forwood, Captain Wilson Wilson, Professor Hele- 
Shaw, Messrs. A. Bromley Holmes, A J. Lyster, J. A Brodie, 
A. Musker, G. F. Ransome, H. H. West, J. Wilson, J. F. Wood, 
E. Shrapnell Smith (local hon. sec), G. H. Cox. M. Bannister, 
H. P. Boulnois (city engineer), C. MArthur, L. Jones, A. Sinclair, 
W. J. Davey, F. C. Danson (president), T. H. Barker (secre- 
tary Liverpool Chamber of Commerce), A. Cook, A. Elder, 
J. Dempster, Ellis Edwards, John Holt, J. Thorburn, E. Bindloss, 
W. J. Stewart, D. Jones, J. Pinnock, S. B. Cottrell, H. G. 
Clarke, &c. Public engagements prevented the Lord Mayor 
attending, and the Prince of Siam had left the city. 

After luncheon, Mr. Jones, in his introductory remarks, said 
that much of the agitation and many of the facilities offered 
in improved road locomotion were due to Sir David Salomons's 
energy, foresight, and ability, both inside the House of Commons 
and out (hear, hear). He (the speaker) had attached himself 
to the society for the sole purpose of obtaining improved means 
of getting cargo to and from Liverpool and adjacent places. 
One of the most wicked expenditures of money had been the 
making of the Manchester Canal, which would not secure the 
object the Manchester people had in view — viz., taking steam- 
ships to Manchester, because the steamship of the future would 
be altogether unable to enter the canal. 

Sir David Salomons acknowledged the cordial expressions 
of Mr. Jones concerning himself. Proceeding, he said if those 
who were going to start a system of transferring passengers or 
goods from one point to another could evade the purchase of 
land and the necessity of capital for the laying of the permanent 
way and its up-keep, they could do the work of transit very 
much cheaper than a railway company which started with those 
disadvantages at its back. Under the system he referred to 
they ' had the advantage of roads kept up and repaired by the 
ratepayers, and with it they ought to compete most favourably 
with the railways in the cost of conveying goods. A penny per 
ton per mile was an exceedingly reasonable figure to place on 
transit by road with any known form of locomotor. The 
chairman had a scheme before him of carrying goods at even 
a lower rate. The scheme was that of road trains not under 
the new Act, but under the old Act, to go at a speed not 
exceeding four miles an hour, carrying goods for less than a 
penny a mile between Liverpool and Alanchester. It appeared 
to him if that scheme were going to be such an exceedingly 
profitable one— to say nothing of what the railways might do in 
consequence— they would have road trains innumerable between 
Liverpool and Manchester, sufficient almost to make the roads 
themselves impassable in a very short time. A question which 
arose was, would the county councils or other local authorities 
keep and repair the roads under those conditions without extra 
contributions from those who used them ? It would not be fair 
to ask the authorities to do so. There was a solution, however, 
for that. Those who benefited by that form of traction should, 
under the special clause of extra wear aud tear, help the other 
unfortunate ratepayers in paying their rates (applause). 

Mr. G. F. Ransom k, a Liverpool engineer, believed the scheme 
mentioned by Mr. Jones to be thoroughly practicable. It was, 
be said, working in some parts of the country. 

Sir David Salomons proposed the health of Mr. Jones, who, 
in responding, said his great object was to make Liverpool more 
successful than she had ever been. 

The company then separated. 

Address by Sir David Salomons on the Motor- 
Carriage Industry. 

In the evening, Sir David Salomons delivered the inaugural 
address in connection with the Liverpool branch of the Self- 
Propelled Traffic Association, in the Royal Institution, Colquitt 
Street. In the unavoidable absence of the Lord Mayor, the 
president of the Liverpool centre of the Association, the chair 
was occupied by Mr. A L. Jones, who was supported by a 
number of leading engineers, members of the Liverpool 
Chamber of Commerce, and others. Jt should be mentioned 
that the local vice-presidents are Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, 
Mr. Alfred Holt, and Mr. Alfred L. Jones. The Council 
consists of Mr. Maunsell Bannister, Mr. John A. Brodie, 
Mr. E. R. Calthrop, Mr. George H. Cox, Mr. A. Bromley 
Holmes, Mr. A G. Lyster, Mr. Arthur Musker, Mr. G. F. 
Ransome, Mr, H. H. West, Mr. John Wilson, and Mr. J. T. 
Wood. Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith is the energetic honorary 
secretary of the centre. The number present exceeded 400, 
and amongst those who attended were :- -Alfred Holt, H. Percy 
Boulnois (city engineer), F. C. Danson (president Liverpool 
Chamber of Commerce), W. J. Stewart (Stipendiary Magistrate), 
Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw (University College), E. Hallon 
Cookson, C.C., W. H. Williams, C.C., Thomas Menlove, C.C., 
Charles H. Giles, C.C., Louis S. Cohen, C.G, George H. Ball, C.C., 
W. J. Carmichael (Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway), J. Shaw 
(London and North- Western Railway), John Macaulay (Mersey 
Tunnel Bailway), J. Audley F. Aspinall (chief engineer 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Horwich), M. C. Bannister, 
John A Brodie, E. R. Calthrop, Geo. H. Cox, A. Bromley 
Holmes, Arthur Musker, G. Frederick Ransome, Henry H. 
West, John Wilson, C.C., J. T. Wood, C.G, Laurence Jones 
(solicitor to the local branch), T. H. Barker (secretary Liverpool 
Chamber of Commerce), Dr. Francis Melach, Dr. Proctor, 
Dr. Percy Marsh, Colonel Gamble, C.B., Colonel A. Hill Holme, 
J. P., Eustace Carey. Alexander Wall, Dr. J. W. Hay ward, 
Dr. C. W. Hayward, A. R. Marshall, M. Zaguxy, Chas. H. 
Beloe, C.C., Major W. A. Pride, Dr. Henry O. Forbes, A. J. 
Pilkington, R. J. Glasgow, J.P., S. B. Cotterell (Liverpool 
Overhead Railway), C. H. Darbyshire, J.P., Geo. S. Hazelhurst, 
J.P., D. de Ybarrondo, Alex. Dalrymple, Percy Bateson, H. L. 
Higgins, R. E. Warren (Midland Railway), and E. Shrapnell 
Smith. Amongst the audience there were some 40 ladies. 

The Chairman, at the outset, said he did not know any town 
in the country where the use of the self-propelled vehicle was 
likely to be more beneficial than Liverpool (hear, hear). 

Sir David Salomons, who was very cordially received, after 
paying a graceful compliment to the energy and intelligence of 
the citizens of Liverpool, said : — The place I have occupied in 
regard to self-propelled traffic is so exceptional, that it is 
difficult for many to believe that I have not some ultimate 
interest in the movement. Business men cannot always 
appreciate the position of those who are devoted to the applica- 
tion of science, and whose pleasure it is to work and expend 
money in this direction, without the expectation or desire to 
receive interest in return. It is my good fortune that, by 
devotion to practical science, I can hope to influence others, for, 
with an engineer's training, and having studied the question to 
be dealt with to-night very closely for a number of years, I am 
able to speak freely, and without fear or favour. I should not 
refer to myself in such terms, but for the reason that I am 
anxious to assure my hearers that all I say is honestly what I 
believe ; and further, that it is not ray desire to give offence in 
any direction. My object is simply to put the whole case fairly 
before you, without paying compliments to anyone. 

The Doubtful Value of Patetiti. 

One opinion from which I have never swerved upon this 
question is that uo patent connected with self-propelled traffic 

c 4 

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is worth the paper it is written upon, whether the patents will 
bear the test of the Law Courts or not. All fresh capital 
required for the production of the new vehicles should be 
utilised by enlarging existing workshops, or for the erection of 
additional factories as well as for working capital. There is no 
reason for locking up large sums of money in patent rights 
except for the benefit of company promoters and their companies. 
Any industrial concern heavily loaded with unproductive capital, 
must necessarily either charge the public an undue profit on 
their goods or fail, and since there is no impediment in the way 
of producing the best possible self-propelled vehicle (the question 
of patents not arising, except in some cases to an inappreciable 
extent), it would be unjust that any attempt should be made to 
compel the English public to pay an unfair price for an article, 
only to benefit the few who are feathering their nests. It must 
not be supposed from these remarks that I grudge the inventor 
a portion of the profits which might arise from the article which 
he has devised or improved, but I object to the trading in 
patents by sale outright, which so often acts unfairly to the 
public an well as to the inventor himself. I have always con- 
tended that the equitable way of dealing with such property is 
for the patentee to accept deferred interest and, if required, a 
moderate sum paid down in money or shares according to the 
nature of the circumstances, the transaction being such that in 
the case of the manufacture (which all. patents must be) the 
patentee, should his invention prove of value, would derive the 
benefit jointly with those who hold his rights, and vice vertd. 
As a natural consequence the patentee and the manufacturer, 
in regard to the article produced, would stand or fall together. 
Self-propelled traffic, although it has in recent years been 
hampered in this country, is so old, so well known, and has been 
worked out by such able men in the past, that every form of 
engine, and every type of gearing which has a value, is public 
property. Further, every patent of any value in connection 
with gas and oil engines has expired, so that to the Englishman 
the world is now open for the production of self-propelled 
vehicles without let or hindrance, whatever may be said by 
interested parties to the contrary. 

Steam the Motive Power of ths Future. 

I have expressed myself very strongly, that steam and steam 
alone will be the future power of self-propelled traffic. You 
must not understand me to mean that there is absolutely no 
place for other forms of motors. This I fully recognise, yet I 
feel confident that within a short period, in nine out of every 
ten motor vehicles constructed, steam will assert its supremacy. 
You will see the point more forcibly when I deal with the 
subject in detail. 

The Initiation of Rerent Legislation. 

The celebrated 1881 Appeal in the Court of Queen's Bench 
decided till November 14th, 1896, the fate of motor locomotion 
on the highways, for the decision placed every vehicle self- 
propelled within the narrow limitations of the Locomotives 
Acts, which were created to deal with heavy traction. The 
definition of a locomotive in one of these Acts is such that the 
lawyer's well-known "coach and four" could not drive through 
it. Although many gentlemen, including myself, have been 
given the credit of helping forward the new Act, it is only fair 
to point out that the first credit is always due to Mr. Shaw- 
Lefevre, who introduced a Bill in the final Session of the last 
Parliament, and that he did so without public agitation is a 
proof that he is a man ready to recognise the wants of modern 
society. His Bill, however, was faulty in regard to one point. 
Had this Bill become an Act without considerable amendment, 
the question would have been left in the hands of the local 
authorities, and once more there would have been an Act, 
which would probably have been unworkable, in consequence 
of different districts adopting dissimilar regulations. The 
manufacturer might have had to consult the requirements of a 
hundred or more local authorities, whose demands might have 
been constantly varied. The user of the carriage would also 
have been hampered quite as much as the manufacturer. 

Advantages of the Neu> Laic. 

The present Act is free from this blemish, and the high roads 
of England are made continuous under one system of regulations. 
The manufacturer, by the study of two sets of rules to be issued, 
one by the Local Government Board, and the other by the Home 
Office, will be able to conform to the requirements of the State. 
These rules will be framed in the interests of public safety, and 
therefore an advantage to all concerned. 

The Paris-Marseilles Contest. 

From time to time I have published pamphlets and articles 
dealing with the subject of horseless traffic. I will, therefore, 
not weary you with a recapitulation of all that can be said on 
the matter, but leave the past and go straight to /my recent 
visit to Paris on the occasion of the Thousand Miles Race, and 
from its results draw deductions according to my own judgment. 
About 60 carriages were entered, but on the day of the start 
32 only appeared. So few, out of the total entered, arriving 
at the starting point was due to many manufacturers having 
found that their vehicles were not sufficiently perfect, or could 
not be prepared in time. The fact that steam was only repre- 
sented by two carriages, and that these failed to make any 
headway, will by many be taken as an argument against this 
agency." On one point the French differ from the English, in 
not being so practical. The Englishman would finish his 
carriage long before the day of the race, and experiment with 
it Our neighbours, however, leave matters to the last moment, 
although there are, of course, exceptions to this rule. I saw 
the two steam carriages 48 hours before the start, and at that 
time the wheels were not completed ! These carriages, so far 
as their build and system are concerned, were good, though 
heavy. The wheels, in consequence, formed an important 
element in the success of their running. My own opinion, 
from the first, was, that accidents apart, the race would lie 
between M. Levassor and M. Peugeot. The result was in 
accordance with my expectations. M. Levassor was successful 
in one class, and M. Peugeot in the other. 

The Works of MM. PanharJet Levas&or. 

The first mentioned gentleman very recently showed me over 
his works, and I cannot do better than pay him the compliment 
that his factory is organised on the best English lines, with the 
most modern machinery. The whole of the engineering portion 
of his carriage is as well and accurately made as a piece of 
watchwork. The engine employed is a modified Daimler, called 
the Pygtn6, and is a great improvement on the Daimler engin e. 
M. Levassor did not use any special carriage in the race. H e 
employed the benzine motor and gearing which he has for some 
tims past adopted, and was consequently well prepared when 
the day arrived. 

The Peugeot Motor. 

A year ago M. Peugeot purchased his engines from MM. 
Panhard and Levassor. He then decided to make one of his 
own type, and after much experimenting, only reached a 
successful result a very short time before the race. Indeed, the 
carriages sent in from his manufactory only reached Paris a 
day or two before the start, and the "bodies" were in an 
unfinished condition. It is truly remarkable how well these 
carriages have run, seeing that there was no time to make the 
necessary experiments. In the Peugeot engine there are two 
cylinders, and they are horizontal instead of vertical, as in the 
Levassor type. The time was too short to make anything 
beyond a cursory examination of the Peugeot motor, but it 
appears to remove the objectionable points existing in the 
Daimler engine. 

The Daimler Engine. 

To describe briefly the construction of the Daimler engine, 
of which so much has been heard. It consists of three parts : — 

1. A double-cylinder Otto gas-engine pure and simple, the 
patent of which has run out some years. 

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2. A cam arrangement for working the valves, which is 

similar to a method previously used in connection with 
gas and steam-engines. 

3. A governing device which is an absolute copy of the Corliss 

trip gear. 

This latter adaptation is the weak point of the engine. The 
Corliss gear is perfect for a steam-engine, but too delicate for 
these quick-running, small engines on account of the numerous 
springs necessary. Yet, although there is absolutely nothing 
novel in the Daimler engine, great credit is due to the designer 
for having made one of the first attempts to construct a very 
small, light, and quick-running oil motor suitable for a carriage 
or any other purpose. From what I observed in the Peugeot 
motor, the disadvantages of the '' Daimler " have been overcome. 
The working parts are more accessible, and the multiplicity of 
springs has disappeared. 

Sir David's Opinum o/t/te Result. 

The difference in running between the Levassor and Peugeot 
carriages in the race has been so small, that, when allowances 
are made — for in the case of M. Levassor he waj ready long 
before anyone else, and M. Peugeot was only prepared on the 
eve of the race — it is evident there is not much to choose 
between the two. Knowing M. Levassor personally, I am 
quite prepared to believe that he will still further modify the 
governor to simplify his engine. Of the other carriages which 
competed, those of M. Delabaye ran well, but there is nothing 
very novel in them beyond the general assemblage of the parts. 
Carriages of the type of the Benz were run l>y the Maison 
Parissienne, but notwithstanding the French name of the 
Company it was curious to observe that the conductors spoke 
in German. M. Bollee entered a carriage and two of his 
tandem cycles, which have been so well advertised. These 
latter I regard as dangerous from every point of view. They 
are complicated, and first engineering principles are disregarded. 
The single driving wheel at the back gives an insuificient grip 
on the road, with a tendency to throw the man out in 
consequence of the back wheel " dancing." 

The Time occupied in the Contest. 

In consequence of the great stirm which occurred the day 
after the start, and owing to various little accidents which 
happened, considerable delays were experienced, which brought 
down the average rate of running in the race. But there is one 
|Hiiut I would call your attention to. It must not be imagined 
that because the whole distance was traversed in a given time, 
at the average rate of approximately 25'5 kilometres per hour, 
that if. you purchased one of these carriages you could do 
anything approaching the same record. In the first place, 
emllea* quantities of duplicates were carried in case of need. 
Secondly, a perfect army of workmen, the best that France 
could produce in this trade, accompanied the carriages. Thirdly, 
the speed attained down the hills was tremendous, to make up 
for the slow speed uphill. It would be impossible for anyone 
to perform the distance in the race time if he complied with the 
law of France as to a maximum speed of 20 kilometres (14 miles) 
an hour, carried only a reasonable quantity of duplicate 
material, and travelled with one conductor, who would 
naturally be a mechanician, unless the owner was one himself. 
In this case the time occupied would be double or tieble that 
taken in the race. 

Increase of Power found to be Xecessan/. 

Technically, in regard to the carriages which entered, there 
was absolutely nothing new of engineering interest, beyond the 
fact that makers have learnt that more careful work is required, 
and that the horse-power found to be necessary has been raised 
from three or four to six. This power is still insufficient for a 
hilly district such as is found in parts of Kent and elsewhere. 
Anything less than 8-horse power is not of much service for an 
average speed of 12 miles an hour, if the legal maximum is not 
at any time to be exceeded. The vibration produced when the 

carriages were standing has not been remedied, nor has any 
fresh arrangement been devised for stopping and starting the 
engines in the traffic. 

The Steering of Motor-carriages. 

Much surprise was caused by the recent appearance of an 
article on the self-propelled traffi : question in one of our leading 
engineering papers, condemning both the steering properties of 
the present motor vehicles as well as the new Act. The writer 
of the article must either have been biassed or have been 
ignorant of the subject. A proposal is therein mentioned to 
attach ponies to motor-driven carriages to give the direction 
whilst employing the motor to do the work I Now, anyone 
who has the smallest experience of motor traffic knows perfectly 
well that it is far easier to guide such carriages than any horse, 
and I was able to prove this to the complete satisfaction of 
Major Tullock, C.B., who visited Paris officially at the instance 
of the Local Government Board. 

Various Types of Motors — The Oil-engine. 

I will now deal briefly with the various types of carriages, 
that you may judge of the advantages and disadvantages of 
each form. The ideal heavy oil motor for light work has not 
yet appeared on the market. To volatilize or to spray the oil, 
a special form of carburetter, or some equivalent, is necessary, 
lesi simple in form than that required with the lighter spirits 
like benzine. Besides this, the exhaust gases have a very 
disagreeable smell. Many attempts have been made to scent 
the oil, but the success met with is somewhat doubtful. That a 
suitable heavy oil motor will eventually be made, no reasonable 
man can doubt. Petroleum motors using mineral spirit such as 
benzine are the favourites at the present time. A large number 
of engines of this type are on the market. In every single 
instance they are ordinary gas-engines. The carburetters are 
very simple. Water is necessary to cool the cylinder, except in 
those cases where the power is small, and in these the heat 
is dissipated by means of metal webbs cast on the cylinder, 
or by making the cylinders exceedingly thin, so that no large 
mass of metal is required to be cooled. I do not consider that 
any engine of this type is satisfactory when the power exceeds 
i horse, unless water for cooling is used. Many engines of a 
farger size have been shown without a water jacket, but an 
expert would be very sceptical in regard to their performances 
if put to real work. Such engines may run round in a room or 
yard very well, but if placed on a hilly road on a hot day the 
chances are that they would come to grief, or give off very little 
power. Only those who have had considerable experience with 
a carriiige driven by a benziue-engiue can realise the little 
difficulties which arise. All the working parts are placed so 
closely together, that should any slight accident occur when on 
the road, and the engine pull up, it is, in most instances, 
impossible to remedy the defect, because all the working part* 
are so hot, that even with thick gloves, the hands cannot be 
inserted between the machinery. It is absolutely necessary to 
grind the valves periodically. Otherwise, in a comparatively 
short space of time the engine will give off little or no-power. 
The grinding process is by no means easy, except for a mechanic. 
The best form of benzine motors have two or more cylinders, 
and the working parts generally are fairly complicated ; 
consequently there are a large number of screws, nuts, bolts, 
stuffing boxes and connections, which the rattle of the road 
is liable to loosen. Should this occur, as it does pretty 
frequently, and tightening up is not at once resorted to, 
portions of the engine may be lost, and the occupants of the 
carriage landed high and dry miles away from home. It is 
absolutely essential that the owner, or his man, should be a 
mechanician, and anyone purchasing a carriage on an assurance 
to the contrary, will" soon discover his error, though after many 
sad experiences, the owner or his man will, by force of circum- 
stances, become a workman, unless totally devoid of mechanical 
sense. This experience will also have to be paid for, because, 
at the beginning, a practical man will have to l>e called iu from 
time to time to put matters right. In regard to benzine, the 


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f.VoVBMBEB, 1896. 

difficulty of storage enters, which will always be a source of 
trouble in large towns. To sum up the foregoing remarks, I 
would never advise a friend to purchase a benzine-driven carriage, 
unless he was made well aware of the disadvantages. 

. I drantaye* of Oil. 

The advantages may be summed up in the following manner : 
— If the vehicle is supplied with a powerful motor, is constructed 
by a good maker and the driver is a mechanician, he will be 
able to travel immense distances at a good average rate of speed 
— an advantage which is not possible with the horse. Further, 
in the winter, he need not fear slippery roads, and he could 
drive his carriage from within a glass canopy. When calling 
anywhere he would have no qualm as to keeping his horse 
standing. If he has a suitable arrangement, something like a 
condenser, for cooling the water, there is no reason why the 
carriage should not travel 24 hours and more at a stretch 
without taking in supplies of any kind. 

Benzine Troubles. 

To give an idea of one of the troubles least anticipated, which 
may arise with a benzine motor-carriage, I may mention that 
I was stopped last month on ray road to Paris, in consequence 
of a tube leading from the reservoir to the engine becoming 
blocked up with deposit from the benzine. Accidents, similar 
in character, have been reported to me by friends. The con- 
sequence is that I am now changing the pipes for others of 
larger section, and so connected that they can be cleaned from 
end to end at a moment's notice. It has been supposed that 
the deposit in the tubes is due to the use of inferipr benzine, 
but this is not the case. About 23 years ago a Company was 
formed to enrich coal gas by passing it through benzine. It 
was intended to place in every house a cistern of benzine, which 
liquid would be changed from time to time by the Company, 
an annual charge being made for this purpose. I decliued to 
place the apparatus in my house, until I was convinced that the 
pipes could not become incrust&ted, and after making some 
experiments I soon discovered that a deposit was formed in the 
shape of crystals, in appearance like cotton wool, as well as a 
condensation. From these experiments and my recent ex- 
perience, it is quite clear that all pipes employed for benzine 
should be large, and so arranged that they can be cleaned from 
time to time, quickly and with ease. 

Igniting the Explosive. 

Some makers use the well known gas-engine ignition tube, 
and others the electric spark, to ignite the gas in the cylinder. 
The lamps have the disadvantage of being troublesome in verv 
windy weather. No doubt, in time, this will be remedied, 
though it is not so easy as anyone would be led to believe, in 
consequence of the large amount of air necessary to keep them 
burning. I have myself been stopped on one or two occasions, 
owing to the lamps blowing out, and great difficulty is ex- 
perienced in re-lighting them, because the lights are geuerally i 
extinguished at an exposed place, and they must be heated first I 
before they will burn. When an electric spark is employed | 
there is the risk of the accumulator or primary battery becoming | 
exhausted when far away from any place where a fresh score 
can be taken on board. For a long journey a duplicate source I 
of electric energy should be carried, and in a strange land, 
where renewal is impossible, lamps are preferable, because 
primary batteries are always troublesome, and, as a rule, are 
not fit for use until they have stood several hours after being 

The Dwn-Bouton Tricycle. 

There is one type of benzine carriage which is worthy of 
special attention. It is the De Dion and ISouton tricycle. This 
carries a little engine of about ^ horse-power. The ignition is 
electric, and the iiedals are employed as an auxiliary force. 
Both muscular anil engine power are necessary on hills, and on 
fairly level country there is no fault to be found with these 
tricycles, but in hilly districts they are tiring. The machines 

are good and well made. I have two of them myself, and 
they answer the purposes for which they are required in au 
admirable manner. 

The Power required to Driven Motor Vehicle. 

It has often been asked, Why should the horse-power required 
to be carried by a carriage be greater than that necessary when 
the horse occupies his place in front I This is due to the 
position of the motive power. When it is placed without the 
carriage, as in the case of the horse-drawn vehicle, the wheels 
are lifted over the various impediments existing on the r<;ad. 
When the power comes from within, the tendency is to push 
the wheels into the ground when an obstruction is met with. 
This disadvantage may be partly overcome by the employment 
of very large wheels, but, no doubt, in course of time, our 
present notions of design in regard to these carriages will 
become modified. In theory, to obtain double the speed, four 
times the power is necessary, yet with the motor- propel led 
carriage, within the limits of the speed permitted on the 
highway, the increase of power for a given increase of speed 
is almost in an arithmetical instead of in a geometrical propor- 
tion. In other words, to obtain double the speed, instead of 
four times the power, very little over twice is needed. It must 
not be inferred that iu practice the theory is upset. The reason 
is that at a greater speed the obstacles on the road are overcome 
in a different manner, and therefore offer less resistance to 
the advance of the vehicle, than when travelling at a slower 

Electric Carriages. 

Carriages driven by electric energy have not yet come within 
practical range for general purposes. The weight of the 
accumulators and the necessity of charging stations are the 
stumbling blocks. The comparatively light accumulator, 
capable of being charged and discharged rapidly, must require 
frequent renewal, and this expense few are willing to face. 
Electrically-driven carriages may yet have a limited use. 

The Str pallet .Steam Motor. 

My faith is more than ever pinned on steam, after seeing the 
recent carriage of M. Serpollet in Paris. When writing about 
his carriage, and of st«aui geuerally, I had pointed out that 
complete success could only be obtained when a good heavy oil 
burner appeared, aud M. Serpollet accepting this view,set to work 
assiduously, and his labours have l>een crowned with success. 
The carriage I rode in is a light voiturette for two persons, with 
the boiler placed behind and out of sight. One large heavy oil 
petroleum burner serves for the fire. The engine of this little 
carriage can give off 10 horse-power with ease. The carriage is 
on three wheels, but I understand that four will be employed in 
the new ones. It runs up the steepest hills as if on level ground. 
The ride from Paris to Versailles is very hilly, aud with my 
carriage I required an hour and twenty minutes to make the 
journey, but the little Serpollet carriage covered the distance in 
somewhat over half an hour, and on the long steep inclines it 
rushed in front of every other vehicle, whether motor or horse 
drawn. The only fuel necessary to be taken in upon a long 
journey is water, and this is required but every three hours. 
A sufficient store of heavy petroleum can be carried for a very 
long journey. In the new carriages, which will be made after 
the model of the experimental one, a condenser will be added 
capable of condensing a portion of the steam, and thus enabling 
a longer journey to be made before obtaining fresh water. The 
carriage requires a few minutes' pre|>aration, say four or five, 
before it is ready to start. The time is occupied in the com- 
bustion of a small quantity of methylated spirit to warm up 
the burner that it can be lighted. The speed is regulated by a 
pedal, and the price is so reasonable, viz., £120, that this vehicle 
must have -in enormous future. There is not the slightest doubt 
that the steam-carriage, as solved by M. Serpollet, is the coming 
niie. The machinery is simplicity itself, and of a character 
known to almost every village smith — the ordinary steam- 
engine. The boiler is small, uoiiexplisive, and self-cleansing. 

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NovBMBKH,i896.j ttiM AVTOMOtOR AND ttOR$£LEi& VMlCLti JOlfRtfAL 


The burner has nothing in it to get out of order, and the power 
given off is enormous compared with the size and weight of the 
vehicle. Larger types will be made on the same lines as soon 
as the numerous orders, which are pouring in, can be got off 
hand. The weight of the carriage described is between 8 and 
9 cwt. It is unfortunate that the experimental carriage was 
not completed some months ago, instead of but one week before 
the race. Had this been the case steam would probably have 
competed successfully with benzine-driven carriages. I think 
it may be fair to point out that many boilers of this type are in 
existence ; indeed the principle of only admitting sufficient 
water into the boiler to supply the steam needed is much older 
than M. Serpollet. The chief credit which attaches to this 
gentleman consists in the fact, that after experiments extending 
over many years, and after repeated failures, he has, by his 
persevering efforts, probably attained a better knowledge of 
this class of boiler than anyone living, and his advice, guided 
by his experience, therefore, has far greater value than his 
patents, whether they be good or bad. Three weeks ago M. 
Serpollet left Etretat at 8 a.m. in his experimental steam- 
carriage, and arrived in Paris at 6 p.m., thus covering the 
distance of 240 kils. in 10 hours, at an average rate of 24 kils. 
the hour, which speed is equivalent to nearly 16 English miles 
per hour. The actual rate of running must have been greater, 
but the times of the various stoppages are not given. 

Steam, v. Petroleum. 

Those who have read what I have from time to time pub- 
lished on the Self-Propelled Traffic question may think that my 
views have somewhat changed, and that having been in favour 
of petroleum motors I now prefer those actuated by steam. 
This is by no means the case, because steam has always been 
my favourite, but I have simply discussed vehicles as they 
existed, and until recently the difficulties in the way of applying 
steam to this class of light traffic on highways had not been 
overcome. I still believe that motors employing light or heavy 
petroleum will have a considerable future, although eventually 
steam is likely to supersede them. For the moment electricity 
is out of the running, but it is quite possible that improvements 
will be forthcoming which will place this agency on an equality 
with steam, or even before it. 

Trade the Ruling Factor in Great Britain. 

In Fr-Mice, motor-carriages have b?en taken up as a kind of 
sport, and in general the class of men who purchase them care 
little whether they throw away £100 or not, but the great and 
immediate future of self-propelled traffic in England will 
undoubtedly be in connection with trade. The sporting element 
of society will never be induced to give up their horses, and the 
poorer gentry and small tradesmen cannot afford to purchase 
motor-carriages until they are assured that ;i really satisfactory 
vehicle can be obtained. There will undoubtedly soon be seen 
on the roads a very large number of motor delivery vans for 
railways, factories, shops, and other business houses, for the 
simple reason that they will not wait for the little refinements 
required in a private carriage, and the cost of replacing their 
vans at a later period will not be an important matter. The 
reason for this is that every motor-wagon or cart will be doing 
the work of from four to six horses per day at a far lower cost. 
The rent of stabling for horses will also be saved, and these 
economies will cover the cost of the van in a comparatively short 
time — say two or three years. The trader will not only reduce 
his expenses but add to his profits, because his circle of delivery 
will be much increased, since his vans will travel greater 
distances. Each van could ac;omplish a fifty mile run from the 
shop or warehouse in the course of an afternoon — a journey 
which no one would dream of attempting with horses. One 
other advantage, a motor-van can be left standing in an open 
yard, and at the end of a day's work may easily be sent to the 
outskirts of the town for shelter, where the rent is low. This 
point does not exist in the case of horse-drawn vehicles, since the 
horse cannot be left standing in the open and in all weathers. 
In winter especially, heavy traffic will be relieved of a great deal 

I of the cruelty to horses which accompanies it at the present 
i time, when on a slippery day we see horses losing their foothold 
> in all directions. 

Condition of the Roads. 

England is possessed of splendid roads as compared with 

I France, although it is true that in the latter country fine roads 

are to be found, but in village districts they are paved with 

stone in the roughest manner. Whatever our local authorities 

may say in regard to ecouomy of expenditure in road-making, 

it is a benefit to a district that the roads should be good. 

Anything which will induce people to travel through a locality, 

1 must be an advantage, since it leads to more money being spent 

: there ; and even where this is not the case, good roads must 

lead to increased business and a general reduction in the rates 

and taxes. 

.1 Forecast. 

I can picture to myself that in the next ten or perhaps five 

• years, the whole of the heavy traffic, as well as the public con- 
veyances of this country will be propelled by motors, probably 
steam, instead of by living horse power. Tradesmen and 

I country doctors will also have called in this method of loco- 
motion to their aid, and those whose occupation requires them 
to go to daily business by rail, will be able to live at greater 
distances from a railway station, thus paying a lower rent, 
which will more than compensate the expense of the motor 

The Speed Question. 

One of the most difficult points with which the Local 
Government Board will have to deal, is that of speed. My 
contention is that since "furious driving," and "driving to the 
public danger," apply to all light locomotives, whether bicycle, 
tricycle, carriage, or wagon, the police have complete power, in 
accordance with the Act, to control the traffic for the public 
i safety. Consequently, when dealing with speed, only one other 
condition is required, which the new rules will probably, in some 
form, provide for. It is, that the speed of any vehicle, at any 
time, shall not be greater than that the brake may bring it to a 
standstill within a given distance, say 50 feet, which is about 
twice the length of a horse and carriage. 


I can only conclude by expressing the hope that all those 
engaged in trade will give motor traffic a fair chance — not by 
rushing into the subject as enthusiasts who spend money without 
regard to profits — but as business men who exercise their 

• judgment, and prove by a true balance sheet, that motor traffic 
is the right thing in the interest of the community, adding 

' not only to the prosperity of the manufacturing classes, but 
extending also a helping hand to the working population. 
(Loud applause.) 

At the close of the address several questions were asked and 
answered, and a vote of thanks was passed to Sir David 
Salomons, on the motion of Mr. F. C. Danson, seconded by 
Professor Hklk-Shaw, and supported by Mr. W. J. Stkwart. 

On the following day Sir David Salomons left Liverpool for 
London. Prior to departing he paid a visit to the Town Hall, 
and was introduced to the Lord Mayor. The Earl of Derby 
expressed his regret that municipal engagements prevented his 

1 presence at the meeting of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association. 

] Sir David Salomons afterwards visited the Overhead Railway 
and docks, and was aceoinpauied by Colonel A. H. Holme, 
Professor Hele-Shaw, Messrs. S. B Cotterill, W. J. Stewart, and 

j E. Slirapuell Smith. It may be mentioned that Mr. Lawrence 
Jones has been appointed solicitor to the Liver|>ool branch of 

I the Association. 

The proceedings throughout were most successful, and the 
I reception accorded to Sir David Salomons was. very cordial. 
' Not content with the official luncheon, which we have reported. 

n -2 

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gome of the members entertained him to a quiet dinner at the 
Palatine Club, prior to the delivery of the address, and many 
necessary details of organisation were discussed and to some 
extent settled in this pleasant fashion. 

The local branch intends to practically disseminate all the 
information it can amongst its members, and various papers will 
be read before them during the session of 1 890-7. The first of 
these (illustrated by experiments) will be by Professor H. S. 
Hele-Shaw, M. Inst. C.E., &c, and will be delivered on Tuesday, 
December 1st 

All interested in Self-Propelted Traffic, who live within a 
convenient radius of Liverpool, should make it a point to join 
the branch, which bids fair to being a stalwart offspring of the 
parent Association. 


The Self -Propelled Traffic Association have derided that in future 
all communications to their members shall be conveyed to 
them through the column* of tlie Automotor and Horseless 
Vehicle Journal. We have made arrangements to enable 
this to be carried out. 


At the annual general meeting of the Royal Scottish Society 
of Art held in Edinburgh, Professor Armstrong, who presided, 
referred to the passing of the Light Locomotive and Light 
Railways Acts. These in relation to the powers they respectively 
conferred could not well be otherwise than rivals in public 
estimation, and it would obviously depend upon the manner in 
which each was administered which of them would achieve the 
greatest popularity and success. The cars would do less damage 
to the roads than the present traffic, and, moreover, they would 
be able to run on the roads as they were. The motor-cars would 
be able to enter fields and farmyards, and run alongside the 
loading station and upon the quays, so that the farmer would 
lie able, not only to deliver, but to receive his commodities direct 
and at first hand. He anticipated that in their day they were 
destined to witness a struggle for supremacy between the motor- 
car and the light railway, and whichever way the battle might 
turn, the outcome would be the same— the opening up of a new 
and extensive field for the exercise of that inborn mechanical 
genius and constructive skill which were the peculiar heritage 
of the British nation. (Applause.) 




It has now been decided by the members of the Nottingham 
Bicycle Club to hold a ( 'ycle, Cycle Accessories, and Motor-Car 
Exhibition in Nottingham early in the new year, providing a 
suitable hall can be secured, a point which a sub-committee is 
at present investigating. The matter was thoroughly discussed 
at a meeting of the members of the N.B.C., several members 
connected with the trade expressing the opinion that the 
exhibition was bound to be a great success. An influential 
committee was appointed, with Mr. Ben Richards as lion, sec, 
and they are going into the scheme thoroughly. There is no 
doubt that the many local manufacturers who do not care to «o 
to the expense of showing in Loudon will warmly embrace the 
opportunity which the N.B.C. are placing before them, and that 
if a hall suitable for the purpose can be engaged the exhibition 
will be a great success. 

With business-like promptitude the National Cycle and Motor- 
Car Insurance Company has come forward to meet the danger 
which may arise from the use of motor vehicles, and is prepared 
to insure the owners against damage to person or property. 
The offices of the C mip.iny are situated at 33, King Widiatn 
Street, London, E.G., and, with the object of obtaining some 
information as to its work, we recently sought and obtained an 
interview with Mr. Edward Willson, its able secretary. 

The task of organising an insurance company is au arduous 
one, involving, as it does, nearly as much work outside as it 
does in, and we were, therefore, not surprised to hear from 
Mr. Willson that he had recently visited the principal towns of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, arranging branches of the 


I Mr. Edward Willson, 

i Secretary of the National Cycle and Motor-Car Insurance Company. 

Company's business, inducting district officials, and interviewing 
| agents, and contemplated a trip to Paris for the same purpose. 
The difficulties in establishing a new insurance company are 
always very great, in consequence of the cost of initiating a 
successful opposition to the old-established and ofteu conserva- 
tive concerns which have the ear of the public ; but the great 
possibilities which are in store for the automotor industry have 
been alluring to Mr. Willson from the first, and suggested to 
him that a Company established for the purpose of insuring this 
traffic on the lines upon which existing companies insured 
ordinary horsed traffic would, by making it a special feature, 
attract to itself a volume of business concurrently with the 
extended use of the new vehicles. The idea was not an easy 
one to carry out. There were those who derided the notion 
of the motor-car being for another decade anything more than 
a phantasm. 

It became necessary, therefore, to expand the scheme so as to 
include all tiie ordinary branches of accident insurance. Hence 

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the title of the Company, which was the ultimate outcome of 
his efforts, viz., the National Cycle anil Motor-car Insurance 
Company. At this stage Mr. Willson entered into an alliance 
with Mr. James Jeffries, the alter ego of the undertaking, who 
occupies the position of the Company's manager. The title of 
the Company is certainly felicitous, but has a drawback in not 
sufficiently covering the various branches of the business, which 
also include insurance against personal accidents, sickness, 
ordinary traffic liabilities, employers' liability, burglary, plate 
glass, traction engines, sailing barges, and steam- tugs. 

Naturally a new comer in the insurance world has difficulties 
to encounter, but the Company, by a judicious selection of its 
officials, has made great headway, assisted as they have been by 
a board of directors constituted as follows : — Colonel C. W. 
Wilson, D.L., J. P. (chairman, the Brewers and General Fire 
Insurance and Guarantee Corporation, Limited) ; Mr. Clement 
A. Ravenscroft (director, Birkbeck Bank) ; Mr. David F. 
Carmichael (director, the Madras Railway Company) ; Sir 
Edward Lee ; Mr. C. H. Tindal, director, Walkers, Parker, aud 
Co. ; and Mr. Sidney Lee (editor Cycle Trade Journal, and 
director of the Dunlop-Truffeult Company). 

The board is composed of business men, who, in dealing with 
claims, have adopted a broad and liberal policy which can alone 
ultimately succeed in insurance matters. They avoid legal 
quibbles, and construe their liabilities to their clients in a 
generous spirit. 

The National Cycle and Motor-Car Insurance Company will 
exhibit, on the 20th instant, at the Stanley Show, at the 
Agricultural Hall, and on the 4th December, at the National 
Show at the Crystal Palace, their stand numbers being 6 ami 
117 respectively. It may be mentioned that they have secured 
a large amount of the insurance work amongst the exhibitors 
at both establishments. 


The first meeting thus session of the Bristol Association of 
Engineers was held on Saturday evening, the 24th ult., at the 
Queen's Hotel, Clifton, the President, Mr. John M. McCurrich, 
in the chair. There were present : Messrs. J. R. Bennett, H. 
A. Chattock, F. J. De Soyres, C. Cooper, W. Fiddos, J. H. 
Fiddes, T. J. Moss Flower, R. Fenton, G. E. Ford, G. Garrard, 
I). L. Harris, J. W. J. Harvey, F. W. Hudson, H. J. Jacques, 
A. W. Metcalfe, T. Morgans, J. A. McPherson, P. Monro, A. 
Peckett, T. L. Perkins, H. C. Parkinson, E. M. Rees, J. Rvan, 
W. Stagg, D. Stuart, W. Thomson, N. Watts, T. H. Yabbioom ; 
visitors, Messrs. Morgan and Brownlow. 

The President having thanked the members of the Associa- 
tion for the honour they had done him in electing him their 
President, and the ordinary business of the meeting having been 
completed, he called upon 

Dr. J. Rvan to read his paper upon " Motor-cars." Commencing 
with the early history of the subject, the speaker referred to the 
steam-carriages of Cugnot, of Symington, and of Trevethick. 
He dwelt upon the very considerable progress that was nride 
with steam omnibuses and coaches in the early part of the 
century by James, Gurney, Dance, and Hancock, as well as 
Maceroni and Squire, Hill, and others. The era of the traction 
and agricultural engine was next dealt with. The modem 
aspect of the question and the recent developments in motor- 
cars were finally treated and illustrated with numerous views. 
The results and lessons of the various French competitions were 
discussed. Paris-Rouen, 1894 ; Paris- Bordeaux, 1805 : Paris- 
Marseilles, 1896 ; and the ( 'liicago competitions of 1895 were 
considered. The paper was illustrated throughout by interesting 
oxy-hydrogen views. 

An interesting discussion took place on the conclusion of the 
paper, and the meet-ng was brought to a close by the President 
proposing a vote of thanks to Dr. Ryan for his interesting 


* # * We do not hold ourselves responsible for opinions expressed by 
oar Correspondents. 

•„• The name and address of th° writer (not nicessarilu for pnblic%- 
lion) MUST in all cases accompany letters intended for insertion, 
or containing queries. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — The Automotor has made a brilliant dSut. The 
editor, publisher, and everyone connected with it deserves the 
thanks and appreciation of the public for the very excellent 
publication they have so successfully started. The far reaching 
and enormous issues connected with, aud incidental to, the 
introduction of horseless carriages, it is impossible to estimate. 
The historian of the future will look back upon November Nth, 
1896, as an epoch to be marked for all time as one that effected 
one of the most revolutionary, yet at the same time useful, 
changes of a very changing century. 

Foremost among the few who called the attention of our 
Parliament to the startling and novel mode of travelling, the 
Right Hon. Shaw-Lefevre takes first place. Sir David Salomons, 
outside Parliament, both here and in France, has done giant's 
work in popularising this most modern mode of moving from place 
to place. Perhaps you will kindly allow me to take an humble 
share with my worthy colleagues in my just claim to be the first 
person who in this present House of Commons had the honour 
of bringing the matter of motor-cars before the notice of the 
House, and directing Mr. Chaplin's attention to it, who at once 
gave it his most cordial support, and with the able assistance of 
his Under-Secretary, Mr. T. W. Bussed, brought the Bill to a 
most triumphant issue, and pushed it through all its stages in 
the Commons and the Lords in a remarkably short time on 
August 14th last, when it had the Royal Assent. The general 
good sense of both Houses seemed to give an almost unanimous 
approval of the principle of the Bill, and sent forth this British- 
born bantling of foreign parentage, bred from an iron race of 
strong giants, to run on roads without rails— hither, thither, and 
everywhere — not merely from John o'Groats to Land's End, 
but, if necessary, from Chester to Calcutta, or Manchester to 
Moscow, when carried across the Channel. 

The recent races held in France from Paris to Bordeaux, and 
Paris to Marseilles aud back, the latter being held under most 
unexampled difficulties of storm and tempest, have uncontes- 
tably proved to a critical and yet appreciative public what 
enormous strides have been made in mechanical locomotion by 
these most modern discoveries of a century that first heard the 
screech of a railway whistle in our land, and gave birth to the 
wondets of electricity in motion, speed, sound, sight, and light, 
as instanced in the miracles of the electrophone, microphone, 
and kinetoscope, &c. When we think with what marvellous 
speed these wonders have been developed within the last few 
years, what great expectations may we not anticipate in the 
near future ! Looking back but a very few years we compare 
Stephenson's ''Rocket '' with our latest 9:j miles an hour express 
steam-engine — we compare the old " bone-shaker '" of 20 or 30 
years ago with the sylph-like "safety" of to-day. All this 
teuds to indicate, but faintly, what great advancement the 
engineering instinct aud inventive genius of our pe >ple is bound 
to achieve iu a very short time from the present small and 
crude beginning of the best even of our present motor-cars. Go 
on, great giant of genim — goon your great career till this old 
century of cycles dies of old age to renew its youth in the ever- 
increasing progress of science through succeeding generations of 
centuries till " time is no more/' 

I am, Sir, 
Your obedient scrjant and well-wisher, 
Cirlton Club, London. Cumminu Macdona. 

i' 3 

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To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — The following is a copy of a letter I have sent to a 
contemporary for publication. Will you oblige me by also 
inserting it in your columns ? 

" My attention has just been called to a note in a prominent 
part of your issue stating that there is a ' rumour ! that I have 
met with an accident in a Serpollet steam-carriage. Since I 
have not one in my possession, it is clear that such a rumour is 
unfounded, and I take the opportunity to contradict it, because 
it might injure the prospects of what is probably one of the best 
and cheapest motor-carriages of the day." 

I would point out that the editor of your contemporary is a 
director of the Daimler Motor Company, and therefore leave my 
readers to form their own conclusions as to the reason of 
inserting such a note, when it is remembered that he might 
have inquired of me by letter or telegram as to the truth of the 

Yours very faithfully, 

David Salomons. 
Broomhill, Tcnbridoe Wells, 
November 7th, 1896. 


To the Editor of The Aotomotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — The new Act should be of service in introducing a 
new method of propelling steam fire engines. Although few 
complaints can ever be made against the Fire Brigade for not 
being prompt at lire calls, yet thei-e is a certain amount of delay 
in getting the horses from the stables, and then attaching them 
to the fire engines ; and all this hindrance will be avoided if the 
engines are to be worked by the new motor power, for as soon 
as an alarm is given the engines can dash out of the station, and 
be at the scene of the tire in a very short time. The use of 
motor power instead of horse power to the engines will also 
be very advantageous in twisting in and out the traffic, and 
bringing the engines to a standstill much quicker than 
heretofore, and with very much less exertion, and it is 
perfectly clear that the expense will be materially reduced. 
It would be a happy idea if the Fire Brigade could manoeuvre 
some scheme so as to do away with that shouting, or, perhaps 
more correct, yelling, when a fire engine is going to a fire. I 
should think that a steam whistle, a bell, or some kind of horn 
would be a more appropriate instrument for clearing the 
road. I suppose, however, we must await events. — I am, 
yours sincerely, Watlino Street. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir,— The report of the meeting of the Warwickshire County 
Council and the speeches made by some of the members, if not 
very edifying, are at any rate somewhat amusing to read at the 
end of the nineteenth century, and would almost lead us to 
bulieve that we were living a couple of huudred years back, 
when, if anyone had been caught riding on a conveyance without 
any apparent motive power, he would probably have been burnt 
at the stake as being a magician. Alderman Flavel was very 
strong indeed in his denunciation of motor-cars, and gave it as 
his belief that they were "diabolical machines." Lord Willoughby 
de Broke, of course, was also very energetic in his wrath at the 
introduction of "these things" into an agricultural district, 
where no one has any right to be considered but landlords and 
farmers. It is an extraordinary thing that these people cannot 
see the necessity that exists for advancing with the times, and 
taking advantage of every new scientific discovery which tends 
to benefit the people generally. — I am, &c, Go Ahead. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — By the enclosed extract you will see that in the year 
1832 an attempt was made to introduce steam vehicles for the 
roads, and the first trip was to Birmingham. I hope that now 
the idea has been started again of introducing " motor-cars," 
it may be successful, and may be productive of good. Surely, 
omnibus and tram drivers and conductors, together with horses, 
will hail the day with joy when those who now go to church, 
chapel, Sunday lectures, and for pleasure, in public conveyances, 
will have their own vehicles, and leave the overworked a Sunday 
free from labour.— I am, &c., Antiouary. 

[Extract from Ladies' Magazine, November, 1832.] 

" Steam Coaches. — From Liverpool we learn that the steam 
coach of Messrs. Ogle and Summers, which has lately been 
making a trip to Birmingham, entered the former town on 
Monday, amidst the acclamations of a crowded populace. Among 
the party brought by her were the Messrs. Brotnerton, the late 
extensive coach proprietors between that place and Manchester. 
Thus has been accomplished by steam power, on our common 
roads.a journey from Southampton, through Oxford and Birming- 
ham, to Liverpool, over as irregular a surface of country as 
perhaps could have been selected for the purpose of the experi- 
ment. The objects sought, and of which there is a proof of 
accomplishment by these gentlemen, are, in the first place, a safe 
method of generating steam, in convenient space, in sufficient 
quantity to enable them at all times to propel vehicles on 
common roads, at any desired speed, and with such command of 
power as will overcome increased resistance from occasional 
obstacles, fresh gravelled, soft, or hilly roads. Secondly, the 
safe application of this power to vehicles of such construction, 
as will ensure action and progress on any description of ground, 
ami, nevertheless, be under the immediate control and certain 
guidance of the conductor." 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — It seems to me that the authorities would be unwise in 
going outside the Government regulations to place a limit on 
the speed of automobiles. By so doing there is, on the one 
hand, the risk of giving the reckless an excuse for too fast 
driving, inasmuch as they would urge that they were not 
exceeding the authorised speed ; on the other hand, there might 
and would occur, on roads where there was plenty of room and 
but little traffic, the absurdity of fast-driven horses passing an 
automobile which was proceeding at the reduced rate laid down 
by the local authority. In any case, an automobile is easier 
and more speedily controlled and stopped than a horse. Surely 
the wiser plan would be to leave automobile drivers to 
accommodate their speed to that of other traffic, and to proceed 
under the same responsibilities and risks as the drivers of all 
other vehicles, whether they be in charge of cycles, vans, 
carriages, omnibuses, Sc.-Faithfully yours, Miles. 

November 4th, 1896. 

"What shall we call our motor-cars when we get them?" 
asks a correspondent " We call our bicycles ' bikes.' On the 
same principle we might call our motor-cars ' mokes.' Imagine 
the delight of being requested by a charming young lady to 
' stop that moke ' for her. Mocar is not bad, but it sounds too 
much like ' Go-car.' I have a final suggestion to make, and I 
offer it to ' The Great Horseless Carriage Company, Limited,' 
free, gratis, and for nothing. Why should they not alter the 
name of their Company into the London General Pluribus 
Company, Limited '! Their conveyance could be called a plus 
to distinguish it from bus," 

Digitized b] 

Go ogl e 

NorzHBER, 1806.] 




" Motor Carriages : The Vehicles of the Future." By 
" Vagabond," the Cycling Editor of the Newcastle Daily 
Chronicle. (London : Messrs. Walter Scott, Limited.) 
Price 6d. 

This is a reprint of a series of well written and carefully 
compiled articles which appeared in our Northern contemporary 
at the end of last year. Tha author, who wields a graceful pen, 
has put together some old facts in a manner which renders them 
easy of reference, and the little book is in every way worthy of 
perusal by all interested in the subjeot. Doubtless in view of 
the great impetus which the events of the past few months have 
given to autoniotor work, the publishers will make it the basis 
of a more ambitious volume in the near future. 

"The Principles of the Transformer." By Frederick Bedell, 
Ph.D. (London : Macmillau and Co., Limited.) 

The author of this work, from his position as assistant 
professor of physics at Cornell University, and hi} deservedly 
high reputation in the mathematical field of electric science, is 
entitled to speak with authority on the abstruse and somewhat 
complicated problems involved iu the construction of trans- 
formers. The growth of this particular branch of electrical 
research has been rapid. Ten years ago, the idea of generating 
it current of high tension and low quantity, and then trans- 
forming it into a current of comparatively low voltage and high 
ampereage had hardly been thought of, but in the bare decade 
which has elapsed, the dream of the student has become the 
commonplace of the manufacturer. Only those who are 
intimately acquainted with the subject can attempt to estimate 
the great practical economies in distribution of current which 
have been rendered possible by the transformer, and the most 
expert cannot venture to prophesy as to its future value in 
electric lighting and the transmission of power. In the time 
which has elapsed since the initiation of the subject to the 
present day much valuable information and literary matter has 
teen contributed in a scattered way to the learned societies and 
to technical papers. To gather all this into one book, and to 
formulate a definite and intelligible scheme out of the multi- 
farious and often contradictory material at hand, was not an 
easy task, but the author has entirely succeeded. To the 
student and to the practical maker of transformers the work 
will be invaluable. 

" The Inventor's Adviser on Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks." 
By Reginald Haddan. (London : Harrison and Sous.) 
Price 3». 6d. 

All who desire a reliable, concise, and cheap guide to the 
patent laws and customs of the world, should obtain this book. 
It is alike useful to the inventor, the manufacturer, and the 
commercial man who desires to invest in patents. The favour 
with which it has been received ou all hands is testified to by 
the issue of this— the third -edition. The author treats in 
comprehensive and clear language of the English patent laws 
and rules, cases being cited to enforce the points laid down ; 
while, in the latter portion of the book, the laws and customs of 
all foreign countries are given, great care having been bestowed 
in making necessary alterations up to date. Another valuable 
feature of the work is contained in the chapters devoted to the 
commercial valuation of a patent ; under this comprehensive 
heading, the questions connected with the sale, purchase, and 
licensing of a patent are fully discussed, and a basis is laid 
down which cannot fail to be of use to those who wish to deal 
in patents, but are too often prevented from doing so by the 
wide diversity which usually prevails between two interested 
parties in their attempts to establish the present value of a 
share in a probably untried patent. The work is well got up, 
and, with 440 pages of technical matter of this description, it is 
marvellously cheap. 

" Notes ou Motor Carriages." By J. H. Knight. (London : 
Messrs. Hazell, Watson, and Viney.) 

The author of this little book is well known for the lengthened 
interest which he has taken in motor carriages on common roads. 
He is, therefore, fully competent to write a handbook which may 
be of service to those who take up the matter for the first time, 
while some of his hints will be useful to users of these vehicles. 
He discourses pleasantly and correctly enough upou the historical 
portion of his subject. The chapter on oil and other engines- 
while purely elementary — will be a means of introducing the 
subject to those who approach it for the first time. The weakest 
chapter in the l»ook is that devoted to electricity. It is so 
fragmentary in its character as to be useless iu its present form. 
Should another edition be issued, it would be better to omit it 
altogether, unless it is re-written in a much more comprehensive 
manner. The chapters relating to the French and American 
motor-car contests will be found useful for reference, as will also 
a brief but reliable list of books and articles, which may be 
consulted by those who wish to go deeper into the matter. The 
illustrations are sufficient for the purposes of the text, and the 
work may be safely recommended to tne amateur. 

The Leisure Hour for October has a very readable article, 
with a reproduction of a quaint old print, on Mr. Goldsworth 
Guroey's steam carriage. 


We are in receipt of the report of the Institute of British 
Carriage Manufacturers, edited by Mr. Andrew Barr ; it 
contains much interesting matter on carriages, and may be 
consulted with advantage by all interested in the allied auto- 
mobile industry. 

— ♦ 

The Cosmopolitan for October gives an illustrated account of 
the result of the competition for motor-cars which they recently 
organised, the prizes which they offered being 3,000 dollars. It 
is worthy of note that the prizes were awarded on the following 
points, the maximum being 100 : — 

Speed 35 

Simplicity of construction and durability .... 30 

Ease in operating and safety .... « 25 

Cost 10 

These, without being by any means ideal conditions, are 
considerably more satisfactory than any mere speed test. 

The Referee has devoted much space to the automotor question. 
The inimitable " Dagonet" has discoursed in his pleasant fashion 
of the dangers and changes which will follow in the wake of the 
new vehicle. Now the writer of " Our Handbook " has taken 
the matter in hand, and with that all-round mechanical and 
scientific knowledge which enables him to write sound and 
intelligible matter upon almost any conceivable subject, has 
imparted much good advice to the makers and users of the new 
carriages. Whatever other fate may await the automobile 
world, the public Press of this country are determined that it 

shall not die of neglect. 


Messrs. Reeves and Turner, of Chancery Lane, will publish 
immediately a book on the " Law of the Motor-Car ," by Mr. E. 
Grimwood Mears, Barrister-at-Law. The work contains an 
introductory chapter giving inter alia an account of the motor- 
cycle invented in 1881 b\ Sir Thomas Parky ns, and the subsequent 
litigation. A full text of the Act is given with explanatory 
notes, and the Petroleum Acts and the general law relating to 
carriages are therein embodied, together with the |>artially 
repealed enactments. There is an iiu]H>rtuiit chapter ou 
Negligence and Contributory Negligence, in which the rights 
and liabilities of persons in collision cases are carefully defined. 
Space is devoted to Employers' Liability, to Nuisance Obstruc- 
tion, and kindred topics. A review will appear in our next 


Digitized by 





We have the pleasure of giving an illustration of the 
Lutzmann Patent Motor-Van which has been imported 
by Messrs. Julius Harvey and Co., of 11, Queen Victoria 
Street. E.G., for Messrs. Lever Brothers, Limited, of 

Sunlight Soap fame. We have ourselves inspected this 
van and find the motor is very powerful and strongly 
made, in fact the van throughout is a first-class piece of 
workmanship, and is likely to prove a most serviceable 
vehicle for all trade purposes. Messrs. Harvoy have 
wisely bad the final painting and lettering done in London 
by Messrs. Mulliner, of 28. Brook Street, W., who have a 
high reputation for carriages of every description, and 

Messrs. Harvey's van is certainly one of the best finished, 
motor vehicles we have yet seen. In addition to the van, 
Messrs. Harvey were able to show us a Lutzmann motor- 
carriage, which is extremely elegant in design and well 
got up in every respect. We also illustrate this carriage, 
which, with the van, took part in the run from London 
to Brighton. 


We have received from Messrs. Julius Harvey and Co., of 
11, Queen Victoria Street, London, an extremely well got 
up catalogue of motor-carriages— some of the best types 
of Continental makes being illustrated. A reprint of the 
Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896, is added for the 
convenience of users. The motto of the firm is very apt, 
Shakespeare, as is usual in all difficult cases, being the source 
of the quotation, which runs : " And here an engine fit for my 
proceeding." Messrs. Harvey and Co. are to be congratulated 
on their enterprise, as one of the first pioneers in this new field. 

Mil. J. H. Paterson has been appointed manager of the 
Caledonian Motor-Car and Cycle Company, Limited, his business 
address being 265, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

Messrs. T. B. Barker and Co., of Schofield Street, Birming- 
ham, write to a local paper which stated that it was unable to 
ascertain that any motor-carriages were being made in the 
district, as follows : — " Allow us to say that the motor-car, of 
which we send a large photograph for your inspection, was 
made on our premises here, and that it has, during the last 
three months, travelled some hundreds of miles through the 
streets and suburbs of this city, carrying from one to seven 
passengers ; its normal complement, as you will see by the 
photograph, being five passengers. We thought it would be of 
interest to you to know that Birmingham is, as usual, abreast 
of, if not ahead of, other centres in this new industry. The 
motor is a petroleum engine with electrical ignition." 

The silver medal of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
lias been awarded to the Daimler Motor Company for their 
exhibit at Perth. 


The expectation of the motor-car is obviously abroad in 
the land, for the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers 
and Coach-harness Makers of London is offering, in its 
next series of prizes, a competition, open to British 
subjects generally, for designs of a self-propelled light- 
motor pleasure carriage, to convey two or more persons. 
The first prize will be the Company's silver medal and 
£20, and the second the Company's bronze medal and 
£10, given by its Master (Colonel John William Lee) ; 
while the copyright of any new design for which a prize 
is awarded will remaiu the property of the winner. The 
other competitions are restricted to British subjects 
engaged in the trade of coach-making, and resident in 
the United Kingdom, and they embrace working drawings 
for a single brougham, a single-horse Stanhope phaeton, 
and other kinds of carriages ; these having to be delivered 
before April 30th of next year. Previous competitions of 
the kind have resulted in some original designs, and 
much, therefore, is hoped from the present one. 

A scheme of considerable magnitude is in contemplation, 
having for its object the connection of Southport and Lythani 
by means of an electric tramway. It involves the formation of 
an entirely new carriage drive 30 feet in width, which will run 
parallel with the tram lines. Ultimately it is desired to continue 
the tramway to Blackj)ool. 

JDigitized by_ 



Herewith we give 
three illustrations of 
this machine, which, 
since its perform- 
ance in the Paris- 
Mantes contest, has 
been a theme of 
much discussion iu 
automotor circles. 

Fig. 1 is a photo- 
graph of the actual 

Fig. 2.— A front 
elevation, partly in 




Fig. 3.— A plan 
of steering details. 

Owing to the great 
pressure on our 
space we reserve a 
detailed description 
of the various parts, 
but the drawings 
will doubtless give 
nil the requisite 
information. The 
ownersof the patents 
in this country are 
the British Motor 
Company (Limited). 

Fiq. 3. 

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Contribution* and articles likely to prove of interest to our readers 
will receive due attention, bat in all eases the name and address of the 
writer must be given, not necessarily for publication. 

All matter intended for publication should reach us not later than 
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All Advertisements should be sent to the Advertising Department. 
F. Kino and Co., Limited, 02, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C., 
where Advertising Hates mail be had on application. 

The Annual Subscription is 7.v., including prepaid postage to any 
part of the world. 

Cheques and Post Office Orders should be made payable to F. K)NG 
AND Co., LiMITKD, and crossed London and County Bant; otherwise 
no responsibility will be accepttd. 

The Atri'OMoroK and Horseless Vehicle Journal can be 
obtained through Messrs. W. H. Smith and Son, at Willing 
and Co.'s bookstalls, and wholesale of Messrs. Horace Marshall 
AND Sons, Temple Mouse, Temple Avenue, London. 

When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal frotr. 
local newsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by filling up and forwarding, with 
remittance, the Subscript i >n Form accompanying the Paper. 

The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 


NOVEMBER 17th, 189(3. 


Ix drafting the regulations uvider the Locomotives on 
Highways Act, 189o, we have to thank the Local Govern- 
ment Board for having tried to do its best in the 
interests of the new-comer on the streets. In the original 
circular which they sent out to the Local Authorities 
they shadowed out the following as the chief points to 
be insisted upon : — 

A motor-carriage to come within the protection of the Art 
of last Session must not weigh more than 3 tons unladen ; 
and must not be used for the purpose of drawing more than one 
other vehicle, such vehicle and locomotive not to exceed an 
unladen weight of 4 tons. 

A motor- carriage must be constructed in such a manner that 
no smoke or visible vapour is emitted, except under temporary 
or exceptional circumstances. 

If a motor-carriage exceeds 336 lbs. in weight unladen, it shall 
be capable of working either backwards or forwards. 

No motor-carriage must exceed a width of 7i feet between its 
extreme projecting points. (Xov amended to (jit feet ) 

The tyres must be proportioned as follows : — 

Between J ton and 1 ton, not less than 2j inches wide. 
,, 1 ton „ 2 tons, ,, 3 „ 

„ 2 tons „ 3 tons, „ 4 „ 

No bosses or projections will be allowed, except in the case of 
pneumatic tyres, when the projections must be of the same 
material as the tyres. 

Every motor-carriage must be provided with two independent 
brakes of such a power that when the carriage is travelling at 
the rate of 14 miles an hour, the carriage can be stopped within 
a distance of 00 feet. 

The name and address of the owner must be painted on the 
side of the vehicle. 

The driver must be competent. 

I^anips must be carried at night. 

The driver must give notice of his position to the public by 
sounding a bell or by other sufficient signal. 

The vehicle must be brought to a standstill at the request of 
the driver of a restive horse or at the demand of any police 
constable. The putting up of a hand shall be a sufficient signal 
to bring this order into o]>eration. 

The maximum speed allowed is 14 miles per hour. (Amended.) 

The various County Councils have mainly fallen foul 
of the speed allowed, altogether forgetting that it would 
have been a maximum rate, and was safeguarded by the 
brake power insisted upon, while both drivers and owners 
are, of course, subject to the Common Law of the land. 
The consequence has been that a minimum of 12 miles 
an hour for the lightest vehicles', diminishing down to 
six miles for the heaviest types, has been insisted upon. 
This will doubtless satisfy the critics who imagined that 
a three-ton vehicle, driven by an incompetent amateur, 
who had never before seen a piece of mechanism, would 
be permitted to ruu amuck in a crowded thoroughfare at 
the greatest legal speed permitted originally by the Act. 
The regulation as drawn is almost prohibitive to motor 
omnibuses, and will doubtless be amended at the earliest 
opportunity. ' 

The chief point, however, is that the Local Government 
Board have done wisely in restricting the new rules to an 
operative period of six months. No great harm can be 
done in the interregnum by the small difficulties which 
have been thrown in the path of the owners and makers 
of the vehicles by the deviations which have been made 
from the original intentions of the Central Board. In 
the meantime, the drivers must show, by their con- 
sideration for the public interest, that restrictions are 
not justified. What is reckless and unlawful on the 
part of the owner of a vehicle drawn by a horse should 
be the test applied to the conduct of the driver of a 
motor-carriage, and if an owner employs bad workmen 
or purchases inferior vehicles as propelling power, the 
punishment which will ensue will soon act as the most 
effectual deterrent. 

We have dealt at length only with the question of 
speed, because we believe that the experiences of the 
next few months will demonstrate more fully the inutility 
of the present regulations than reams of argument could 
at the present moment. One final remark and we have 
done. The regulations provide a scheme for the com- 
pulsory display of lamps by the horseless vehicles, and 
the sooner this is applied to the whole of the carriage 
traffic the safer will our streets become. 


Following the admirable example set by Glasgow, a 
local branch of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association 
has been instituted in the great seaport which may be 




said to be the connecting link between Great Britain and 
the United States. The Western city, which has com- 
menced so well with a president of the standing 1 of Lord 
Derby, and with sach an influential backing of celebrities 
as those which assembled to li=ten to and applaud the 
interesting address delivered to them by Sir David 
Salomons, cannot fail to help to mould the future of 
the great industry which dates its new birth from the 
Uth of the month. 

la the course of his remarks, Sir David said much that 
was of invaluable use at the present stage of matters — 
he has had unique opportunities of testing the vehicles 
which our French friends have constructed, and from his 
independent and fortunate position can freely express 
his opinions. His views on the present position of the 
various motive powers will therefore be read with the 
keen interest which they deserve — for he has the courage 
of his convictions, and an adequate technical training and 
knowledge to back up his opinions when they are 

One item in his address strikes us as capable of much 
modification. He is doubtless correct when he states that 
the main principles of explosive engines are well known; 
but we cannot follow him in his seeming depreciation of 
the value of patents in automotor work. Doubtless many 
of the so-called inventions which have been introduced 
we valueless ; but before a motor-carriage free from 
vibration and using an engine propelled by a safe and 
heavy oil has been perfected, much inventive skill will be 
necessary — especially if other essential points, such as 
ease of management and economy, are to be secured. In 
snch a case the labourer will be worthy of his hire, and 
will receive it ungrndgingly from all interested in the 

This, however, is only incidental to the congratulations 
which may be addressed to the new branch. By adopting 
the principle of an extended course of lectures on all 
subjects of interest to the users of automotors, the 
Liverpool Society is doing well — for discussion and a 
liberal interchange of enlightened views must benefit the 
liters and makers of the new carriages. 


Iv a considerable portion of the bulky correspondence 
which has come to hand as a consequence of the first 
usue of this Journal, complaint has, inter alia, been made 
that none of the terms hitherto employed neatly describe 
'he vehicles which come within the provisions of the 
Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896. On one point at 
least all our friends are united, viz., that the Parlia- 
mentary phraseology is not worth imitation, while in the 
many suggestions which have been made we have not yet 
received, at least in our opinion, a better word than 
Antomotor. It is convenient to remember, does not out- 

rageously violate scientific principles, and does not jar on 
a sensitive ear as does the word " bike," which we bear 
so often in a kindred trade. 

The fact is that we want a coined phrase which must 
be apt and yet not too flippant — " horseless vehiclo " and 
" self-propelled carriage " are too lengthy and not. 
distinctive or exact enough — so, for the moment at least, 
we must be content to accept a compromise between those 
who would frame a word built on German chemistry lines, 
having some forty letters in it describing in brief all the 
complex operations which are required to propel a 
carriage by power, and the Ishmaels of philology who 
would be simply content to dub the new carriages as 
" mo-cars." 

We have, as we have stated, received many views on 
this interesting subject, but as they occur, in the main, 
in the course of private congratulory letters to the Editor, 
we have not published them, not caring to do so without 
the express permission of the writers. The matter, 
however, is well worthy of ventilation, and we invite 
correspondence upon it. Wo can hardly offer a prize for 
the best title, because the public will ultimately judge 
what word shall be the survival of the fittest ; but the 
correspondent who succeeds in hitting upon the term 
which the " man in the street " will adopt, will have 
at least the satisfaction of adding another word to 
the thousands which haunt our end-of-the-century 


We have received several letters from correspondents 
complaining of the apparently hostile attitude taken up 
by Engineering against the self-propelled vehicle. Most of 
these communications are of a private nature, while those 
sent for publication did not — either through inexperience 
in the use of the pen for journalistic purposes, or in 
consequence of the writer's wrath — treat our able con- 
temporary with the courtesy which is due to its high 
standing as a trade journal. 

We thiuk that Engineering has altogether failed to 
grasp the position taken up by those who are, seeking to 
introduce the new industry into the country. No one — 
least of all the owners and makers of the machinery — 
wishes to place vehicles of from one to three tons in 
charge of incompetent men to drive through crowded 
streets at the rate of some 14 miles an hour, with the 
certain result of dealing out death and destruction all 
round. This is the fear which seems to haunt our usually 
level-headed contemporary ; but every interest is opposed 
to the adoption of any such idiotic and suicidal tactics. 
The keynote of the advice given by all concerned in 
automotor work is to go slowly at first ; to avoid the 
slightest suspicion of fear at any cost ; and to win public 
support by accomplished facts of safety and convenience. 
If we attempted to traverse some of the comments of 

t; 1 

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[Novembbb, 1896. 

Engineering our remarks might be discounted, as 
emanating from a newspaper identified with this par- 
ticular industry, so we prefer to quote from an article 
which appears in an independent journal — the County 
Council Times — some remarks with which we cordially 
agree. They are as follows : — 

"The motor-car is not to be made as useful as it should be 
just yet, for there are evidently still many old and foolish 
prejudices to be broken down. There is an idea in some 
quarters chat the object of the inventors of motor-cars has been 
solely to produce a machine which shall personate the ' raging 
lion ' on every road in the country, and shall seek not only 
whom, but what it may devour. The motor-car is not a 
dangerous machine, any more than an ordinary carriage and 
pair is dangerous ; and on country roadB, where it will be most 
frequently met with, it will be far less dangerous than a horse- 
drawn vehicle, which travels faster there than in a city. The 
motor-car, from the fact of its being machine-driven, is better 
under the control of its driver than a horse-drawn vehicle can 
possibly be, and both the steering and the brake-power are so 
much more perfect that danger is greatly reduced by them. 
Nevertheless, although the man with the red flag will cease to 
be necessary at the end of next week, the speed at which motor- 
cars are to be allowed to travel is being ridiculously restricted. 
The Local Government Board thinks that 10 miles an hour is a 
more suitable speed than 14 miles ; and some people prefer 8 miles 
to 10. But, since 10 miles an hour will probably be the limit 
imposed, let us consider what that means. The mail-coaches 
which still leave London at night for Guildford and Brighton 
travel, when they get out of the suburbs, quite 14 miles an 
hour. The coaches which run during the season are not much 
slower. An ordinary carriage and pair travels more than 
10 miles an hour ; and a cyclist is never ' hauled up ' for 
furious riding unless he is going at a rate of 15 or 16 miles per 
hour. In Warwickshire the Council has declined to sanction a 
higher speed than 10 mileB an hour for what one member, 
Mr. Flavel, calls these ' diabolical, ' machines. But e"en in 
Warwickshire opinions are divided, for another member, 
Mr. Vero, means to try a motor-car and ' go as hard as ever he 
can' ; so perhaps we shall have an agitation for greater freedom 
when the cars become better known. 

In all friendliness we would ask the editor of Engineering 
to look a little more kindly towards the new industry, the 
legal birth of which only dates from the 14th of the 
present month. 

Forthcoming Exhibition. — One of the special attractions 
next year to mark the sixtieth year of her ' Majesty's reign 
will be an electrical and engineering exhibition to be held at 
Newcastle on-Tyne. There being no permanent building in 
that city adapted for showing heavy machinery and machinery 
in motion, a site on Pandon Dene has been secured, on which 
special temporary buildings will be erected, and will be so 
arranged as to meet the requirements of the exhibits referred 
to. It is intended to be strictly an exhibition, and in no way an 
organisation for the sale of goods. Exhibitors, however, will be 
allowed to book or take orders for the various specialities. What 
are known as bazaar goods will be absolutely excluded from the 
exhibition. The importance of Newcastle as an electrical and 
general engineering centre will naturally create special interest 
in an exhibition of the articles described. It is intended to 
make a special feature of cars and cycles propelled by electric 
or other motor power. Exhibitors in these lines will find it to 
their advantage to be adequately represented at the exhibition. 
Mr. H. Engel has the matter in hand, and intends making sub- 
stantial provision out of the proceeds for the Royal Infirmary, 
which will take the form of " a donation from the exhibition to 
the new building fund." 


We herewith illustrate a couple of carriages fitted with 
motors on the well-known Britannia electric system, the 
rights of which in this country have been purchased 
by the British Motor Syndicate. One great feature of 
this motor is the ease with which it can be adapted to 
existing carriages in case the owner desires to substitute 

motive power for the horse. The photograph of a 
Victoria is taken from a carriage which was taken ont of 
the ordinary stock of a coachbuilder, and converted into 
a motor-carriage by the addition of a box under the seat 
to hold the battery, the Britannia motor and axle being 
substituted for the ordinary axle box, and these, with 
the addition of a simple and effective form of steering 
gear, being all that was required for the conversion. The 

dog-cart was altered in an equally simple manner, the 
battery in this case being placed at the driver's feet. The 
carriages are extremely smooth and easy in running, and 
are very fast ; the amount of power provided and the 
general efficiency of the motor renders them capable of 
attaining a good speed on gradients. Mr. J. Vaughan- 
Sherrin is the inventor of the motor. Both of these 
vehicles took part in the procession to Brighton. 

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Perhaps the most striking feature in the Lord Mayor's 
Show, on the 9th, was the appearance of the motor-car. 
It was certainly the item which was received with the 
greatest amount of cheering in such crowded thorough- 
fares as Moorgate Street, Choapside, Fleet Street, and 
the Strand. The past and the present were admirably 
and pictorially contrasted. Immediately preceding the 
horseless carriage, moving with grace and freedom, 
and adapting itself, nnder the alternate steering of 
Mr. Henry J. Lawson and Mr. Charles McRobie Turrell, 
to all the exigencies of the narrow lane through the 
closely-packed and swaying crowds in the thoroughfares, 
nnd to the frequent halts and irregular pace of the 
snake-like procession, was the ancient stage coach, with 
passengers in the picturesque costumes of the last 
century, and the quaint guard, nrmed against highway- 
men with n huge blunderbus. The motor - car was 
dubbed "New Times," 
and there could be no 
question of its "up- 
to-date" type. The 
property of Mr. 
Henry J. Lawson, its 
dexterous driver, the 
"New Times" (which 
we illustrate here- 
with) is to outward 
appearance an ele- 
gantly - modelled en- 
larged landau, capable 
of holding four inside 
(which is beautifully 
upholstered in dark- 
green cloth and 
leather) and two in 
front. On the right 
of the front seat is 
the steering - wheel, 

more easily manipu- "Nhw times 

lated than horses' 

reins, to which the car is more instantly obedient than 
ever horses could be under the guidance of the most 
expert whip. The driving power is petroleum, and the 
propelling engine, the Daimler motor, which is stowed 
away behind and beneath the body of the car, so as 
to be hardly noticeable. Vibration has been reduced 
to a minimum, and the rattle and whirr of the gearing 
has been obviated by the employment of leather belt- 
ing, instead of cogs, on the driving wheels. All the 
wheels nre also furnished with rubber tyres. The car, 
which, by the way, had as an inside passenger a repre- 
sentative of the Daily Telegraph, moved with gr. at ease 
and silence, and the success of this official introduc- 
tion of the " New Times " c.irriage <o the streets of the 
Metropolis was bejond question. 

The Proprietors of " Jerezcona" have hit upon a very novel 
method of advertising their speciality, and at the same time 
affording amusement by a trial of literary knowledge for 
the winter evenings. Valuable prizes are offered, and full 
particulars may be had from 38, Leadenhall Street. 

Electric or Mechanical Haulage Considered. 

Nothing has been heard for some time of the scheme for 
the transfer of the Metropolitan tramway systems to the 
County Council. When the question was last discussed 
by the Conncil, the offer of a syndicate to lease from the 
Council, after that body had purchased them, the under- 
takings of the North Metropolitan and the London Street 
Tramways Companies was rejected. Since then the 
Highways Committee have had several schemes under 
consideration, and the result of their investigations is 
contained in a voluminous report. The committee have 
come to the conclusion that an arrangement should be 
made with the companies mentioned for the purchase by 
the Council of their lines and depots, and for leasing tbem 
to the North Metropolitan Company for a comparatively 
short time. 

The proposal is that the companies shall sell their 
tramways to the Council at £10,000 per mile for double 

and £5,000 per mile 
for single lines. 
Without entering into 
details of the two 
systems, it may be 
stated that, at this 
rate, the purchase- 
money for 43| miles 
of double lines — single 
lines included as half 
the length of double — 
will amount to about 
£437,000. To this 
sum, however, must 
be added £101,798 
paid for about five 
miles of the London 
Street Company's 
undertaking Already 
purchased by the 
Council and leased to 
motor-cab. that company. This 

brings the total capital 
expenditure up to about £540,000. The Council will 
receive £45,000 fixed rent, which is equal to 85 per 
cent, per annum on the capital outlay, and which 
will be further augmented by the rent of freehold and 
leasehold buildings, and 5 per cent, of the increase of the 
gross receipts over those of 1895. This, moreover, leaves 
out of account any profit that may be made from new 
extensions or connections. At the expiration of the lease 
to the company, in 1910, the Council will, it is estimated, 
have received by way of fixed rent and percentage of 
receipt< a sum of £903, 63U, of which £187,854 will have 
been applied to the reduction of debt, £251,869 to pay- 
ment of interest on loan, and £403,907 in relief of rates. 
The relief to rates during the first year will be £25,875, 
after payment of £32,295 for interest, and repayment of 
capital, which the committee consider "an exceedingly 
good return on the capital invested by the Council." 

In addition to preparing this scheme for the transfer 
of the tramway systems, the Highways Committee have 
discussed the advisability of adopting some system of 
electrical or other mechanical haulnge in substitution for 

k 3 

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horse traction ; and have arranged with the company 
that, if at any time daring the continnance of the lease, 
the Council should consider it desirable that some form 
of traction, other than horses, should be adopted, the 
leasing company will D3 prepared either to carry out the 
necessary works on terms to be arranged, or, should the 
Council exBcute the works, to pay a fixed rent and a 
share of the extra profits which may accrue in this way. 
If future developments in the system of traction by 
electricity or otherwise should promise a very largely 
increased return, by reason of saving in working expenses 
and increase in number of passengers carried, the bulk 
of such profit should, the committee state, accrue to the 
Council and the ratepayers rather than to any private 
corporation. The ultimate decision as to the proposals 
of the Committee has been adjourned pending further 
negociations on the subject. 


A meeting of the members of the Newcastle-on-Tyne Farmers' 
Club was held on the 7th inst. in the Club Rooms, Town Hall 
Buildings, Newcastle, Mr. E. J. Browell occupying the chair. 

Mr. John Morrison, F.C.S., read a lengthy paper on 
''English Roads and Road Transit of the Present and the 
Future, from an Agricultural Point of View " ; and in his intro- 
duction said his statements and conclusions must be regarded 
as those of a critic rather than an exnert. There could be no 
question, the writer proceeded, that cheap transit is the true 
key to the whole position as regards foreign competition in 
agricultural produce, and only by fighting it could British 
agriculture keep its head above water. There was the unfortu- 
nate peculiarity about agriculture, that its operations for a given 
volume of results are diffused over an enormous area The 
quantities per acre to be moved in one direction or another were 
comparatively small. He went on to point out that road haulage 
by means of horses had long been regarded as a comparatively 
extravagant method, and reviewed at considerable length the 
history of the movement of mechanical cars on roads, and the 
difficulties placed in the way of their development. Having 
touched upon the various restraints put by Act of Parliament 
npon road locomotion by steam, Mr. Morrison said the new 
Locomotives on Highways Act inaugurates an entirely new 
rtgime. After commenting adversely as to the great speed 
allowed, Mr. Morrison said the probabilities were that no such 
speed would be required for commercial purposes, and regretted 
tiiat the framers of the new Act seemed to have been influenced 
in the interest of vehicles of a non-commercial class. He then 
discussed the merits and demerits of the various kinds of motive 
power, and said that one of the weak points in the new Act 
was that— owing to its 3-ton weight limit — it gave very 
little fairplay to steam, which presented more possibilities of 
usefulness than oil, and was the only source of road motor 
power which up to the present possessed the slightest economical 
importance, while a really successful and practical oil road -engine 
had not yet been exhibited, He then proceeded to deal at 
length with the Light Railways Act of last Session, and stated 
that his own experience was that what agriculture really wanted 
was a four or five ton locomotive, capable of hauling five to 
10 tons load at a six or eight mile speed, with but a man and 
a boy in attendance. 

In the course of the discussion which followed the reading of 
the paper, Mr. W. Trotter said good roads were undoubtedly 
necessary. He was of opinion that the cost of repairing should 
be divided, as in Scotland, between the occupier and the owner 
of the laud. He complained of the imperfect way in which 
roads were made. 

Mr. Forstkr C'oull thought the roads should be maintained 
by the nation. 

Mr. John Philipson, speaking as a carriage manufacturer, 
said he believed the vehicle of the future would be the steam - 
carriage. He did not think the petroleum-carriage, with all 
its complications, would ever be reliable, at any rate for the 
agriculturist. The electric-carriage would be the carriage of 
the future, however, so far as regarded large towns, where they 
could have storage stations. He did not think there was yet 
one reliable vehicle in the market There was still wonderful 
scope for development, and he looked forward to the English 
engineer giving that attention to the subject, which would 
sin mount the difficulties that had shown themselves both in 
Paris and America, and to their producing a vehicle superior to 
aDy of them. Englishmen had been handicapped by legal 
restrictions, but these having been removed to a very great 
extent, a stimulus was given to the younger generation of 
engineers to produce a vehicle suited not only to carrying 
purposes, but also to the conveyance of passengers. These new 
carriages should be protected back and front with lights. He 
was inclined to think that something like eight or ten miles 
an hour would be the average speed. With good roads and 
proper vehicles to bring agricultural produce to the centres of 
population, they would constitute one of the greatest boons, 
and at the same time do much to alleviate agricultural 

Mr. Knox-Lyal said light railways would not do agriculturists 
as much good as one of those steam-cars, which could go from 
one place to another to collect the produce. He believed the 
speed ought to be restricted. 

The Secretary said the committee of the club were in 
communication with a company in London who were desirous 
of obtaining information with a view to the construction of 
light railways in various parts of the country. If particulars 
could be laid before them to show that such a railway was 
desirable and would pay in some particular locality, they were 
prepared to send someone down. He (the secretary) would be 
glad to hear from any member of the club on the subject. 

The Chairman agreed with Mr. Knox-Lyal that light 
railways did not promise so much for a part of the country like 
theirs as a carriage to travel independently over the existing 
roads. He also was of opinion that very stringent regulations 
were necessary in connection with the management of the new 
vehicles in order that pedestrian and horse traffic might bu 

On the motion of Mr. Potts, a vote of thanks was accorded 
to Mr. Morrison for his paper. 

Dr. Skelio, of 1 1, Ludgate Hill, who is well known as an 
organiser of Continental trips, is arranging a series of Motor- 
Carriage Journeys at home and abroad. 

A Sign of the Times. — Messrs. Chadwick and Sons, the old- 
established and well-known auctioneers, of St. Martin's Lane, 
are, we believe, the first firm of repute to announce thei# special 
facilities for dealing with the new automotor vehicles, whether 
by auction or valuation. The firm's reputation and experience 
should secure them a goodly portion of the business likely to 
come forward with the introduction of this new and important 

In our last issue a couple of mistakes occurred, for which the 
difficulties incidental to the production of a first number can only 
be offered as an excuse. In thanking our contemporary, the 
Kent and Sttsscc Courier, for the courtesy extended to us, we 
inadvertently described that paper as the Kent and Susses 
Chronicle ; while the heading to Mr. C. Harrington Moore's 
letter re the " Motor-Car Run to Brighton " was interpreted by 
the printers as a " Motor-Car Race to Brighton." The context 
of the letter sufficiently explained what was really intended ; 
but we presume our friends, the printers, were too sportsman- 
like to imagine that the rival vehicles could be sent on their way 
without an effort being made to determine which could cover 
the distance in the shortest time 

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The Aberdeen Motor Car and Cycle Company. 

Tub shares of this new Motor-Car and Cycle Company are 
reported to have been practically all taken up. Originally it 
had been intended that the Company should be a private one, 
but now it has been decided to make it public. When all 
preliminaries have been adjusted, the Company propose to at 
once proceed to organise a factory for the manufacture and sale 
of the machines specified in their prospectus. The premises 
~S>: 414, Union Street, Aberdeen, vacated by Messrs. Gifford 
and Son, have been secured for this purpose, the shop being by 
situation specially adapted for show purposes. The Company 
propose manufacturing a special cycle of their own, and will 
likewise hold agencies for a number of leading firms in the 
south. They will also be agents for a new motor which has 
been devised for the propelling of any cycle. Also they will 
hold an agency for the Great Horseless Carriage Company. In 
order to spread the business, agencies on behalf of the Company 
will be established throughout the north. The manager 
appointed by the Company is Mr. J. H. Paterson, and it is 
expected that the business will be under way by Christmas. 

Midland Cycle and Motor-Car Exhibition. 

The statutory meeting of shareholders of this Company was 
held at the Grand Hotel, Birmingham, on the 11th instant. 
Mr. J. B. Burman presided, and there was a large attendance 
of shareholders. 

The Chairman explained that the Company had now been 
duly registered, and the capital considerably over applied for. 
The allotments had been made, and the preliminary arrange- 
ments decided upon for the holding of the exhibition at Bingley 
Hall from January 22nd to 30th inclusive. A number of 
applications for space had already been received, and everything 
was progressing in the most satisfactory manner. 

The election of the Board of Directors was then proceeded 
with, anil resulted as follows : — J. B. Burman (chairman), 
W. Calcott (Coventry), R. F. Hall (Birmingham), F. H. Parkin 
(Wolverhampton), F. Westwood (Birmingham), J. H. Price 
(Birmingham), J. Urry (Bicycling Xeics), and C. Wheelwright 
(ISiri/cling A'eics). The registered offices of the Company are at 
174, Corporation Street. Mr. C. Wheelwright, of Lucifer House, 
Liouel Street, Birmingham, was elected secretary. 

A vote of thanks to the chairman closed the proceeding". 

j Ramsay's Horse, Carriage, Cycle, and Autocar 
Repository (Limited). 

This is a new Company, formed with a share capital of 
£60,000, for the purpose of erecting an extensive repository 
in the Hammersmith main road, for auction sales, &c. The 
directors are Sir Edward Lee, Messrs. Charles Fox, Robert 
Johnson, and W. D. Ramsay, and the offices 223, Hammer- 
smith Road, W. A dividend of 10 per cent, per annum is 
anticipated ; and provided the proposals of the Company 
are efficiently carried out, there is no reason why the share- 
holders should not receive all the advantages the directors 

New Companies. 

Thk number of new companies registered at Somerset House 
•luring October was 382, with capital amounting to £'23,6(55,740, 
as against 280 in September, with an aggregate capital of 
•£10,695,774. The following are more particularly related to 
horseless vehicles : — 

' Capital. 

British Electric Traction Company (Limited) .... £600,000 
British Pure Acetylene Gas Syndicate (Limited) 50,000 

Beeston Wheel Company (Limited) 10,000 

Coventry Wheel Company (Limited) 12,000 

Coventry Motor Company (Limited) 10,000 

King and Rool's Starting Gear Syndicate 

(Limited) 3,000 

Midland Cycle and Motor-Car Exhibition Com- 
pany (Limited) 1,000 

Rosser Cycle and Vehicle Brake Company 

(Limited) 5(>,00O 

Starley Bros, and Westwood Manufacturing 

Company (Limited) 110,000 

Savage's Engineering Works (Limited) ... .... 120,000 

Steam Carriage and Wagon Company (Limited) 1,500 

New Issue. 

With a capital of £150,000, iu £1 share.', the Louden 
Electrical Cab Company (Limited) has been formed to place on 
the streets of London electrically-propelled cabs (British Motor 
Syndicate patents), to supersede the present hansoms and four- 
I wheeled cabs. The cabs will ply for hire in London iu the same 
. manner as the present hansoms, and at the same rates. Two 
j sets of accumulators will be supplied to every cab, each set, it 
I is claimed, being capable of propelling the vehicle 40 miles with 
I one charging. It is intended to open dep6ts in different parts 
of London, so that the driver will Ihj able to change accumu- 
lators without always having to return to his own station. The 
Company will acquire for the price of 50,000 shares, or cash in 
lieu thereof, the license from the British Motor Syndicate 
(Limited), subject also to the payment of a royalty of £4 per cab 
per annum. The said price has been fixed by the Traffic Syndi- 
cate (Limited), who are the vendors to the Company. The whole 
j of the shares are offered f..r subscription, £100,000 being for use 
I as working capital. 

Walter C. Bersey, A.I.E.E., M.I.C. and M.E., the engineer 
to the Company, also represents the following kindred organisa- 
tions : — The Great Horseless Carriage Company (Limited), the 
j British Motor Company (Limited), the Motor-Car Club. 
I Mr. Bersey's two carriages in Saturday's procession were 
! pronounced a success. The large landau was driven by Mr. 
i Bersey himself. This gentleman has constructed several carriages 
! —omnibus, vans, cabs, phaeton, and landaus — which have run 
an aggregate of considerably over 10,000 miles during the last 
four years. These vehicles are covered by several patents, which 
are now owned by the British Motor Company (Limited) ; anil 
the Great Horseless and London Electrical Cab Companies are 
| working under licenses from the British Motor Company. 
i A practical demonstration of the ca[«bilities of the new cabii 
I was made on Monday in the presence of a large number of 
]>eople, when one started from the Royal Hotel, blackfriars, at 
12.30 for the City. In the carriage were the Earl of Fingall, 
Mr. Frank Gardner, Mr. Davison Dalziel, Mr. If. Mulliner, 
while Mr. Bersey was on the box. The eariiage was driven 
down Queen Victoria Street, past the Mansion House, and round 
the Bank, into Throginortou Street, the ease and facility with 
which it was guided through the crowded streets and the entire 
absence of any vibration pioving that the introducers of this 
new form of locomotion for the public are justified iu their 
anticipation of a successful future. 

Capital ok Cycle Companies.- -The popularity of bicycling 
is demonstrated in some measure by the fact that since the first 
of the year over £11, 000, 000 has been invested in new cycle 
companies. Up to the end of last year the capital of the cycle 
companies was less than ,£'6,000,000. It h:is thus been nearly 
trebled since January. This figure does not include capital 
invested in the numerous private concerns in different parts of 
the country. Nearly 2,000 patents for inventions connected 
with bicycles or accessories were applied for during 1895. The 
value of the bicycles made in a year in Great Britain, at the 
present rate of production, is .£12,000,000. 

En refcrant auz annonccs on est pri6 dc rapporter le noni de 
"The Automotok ank Horseless Vehicle .loinxu.." 

v. 4 

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An agitation has been set on foot in Manchester with the 
object of compelling the owners of omnibuses and 
tramway cars to provide covers for outside seats to 
protect them from rain in wet weather. The movement 
deserves to succeed. " If you don't like to sit on a wet 
seat, walk," is not good policy for either the public 
or the omnibus and tram proprietors. 

An electric tramway is proposed to be constructed at 
Bray ; the agents for the promoters are Messrs. Molloy and 
Molloy, 18, Eustace Street, Bray. The company which 
they represent is called the Electric Pioneering Company, 
with a capital of £100,000, and they propose to expend 
from £30,000 to £40,000 on the scheme. At the annual 
meeting of the Bray Township Commissioners held 
recently the matter was very favourably received. 

The Dublin United Tramways Company intend to 
promote an Order in Council to authorise their making 
considerable extensions in the city and townships. 

Penny rides on tramcars are popular, but when a 
passenger is compelled to take three separate tickets and 
pay for them in the three instalments at different stages 
of the journey, the process is apt to be somewhat 
irritating. In Leeds, on the Corporation tramways, 
tickets are only issued of one value, viz., one penny, 
and when a rider has exhausted the potentiality of one 
ticket, he has to take another, and so on to the end of the 
journey. It is little wonder, therefore, that we learn, on 
the authority of the Leeds Mercury, that the system is 
causing a good deal of dissatisfaction. Tickets of various 
values should be at once adopted ; it is easy for an 
intelligent couductor to prevent any attempted fraud on 
the part of those who would ride a long journey with a 
short-distance ticket. 


The men employed on the Manchester Tramways have 
been dissatisfied with their hours of work, and at one 
time a strike was imminent. This has been obviated by 
an arrangement, commencing on the 1st of this month, by 
which the hours of the drivers and conductors are reduced 
to 11 per day, and the wages of the horse-keepers are 

Either the local opinion of Bradford is not favourable 
to electricity, or the terms offered by the tenderers were 
not considered satisfactory, as we find that last month 
the offer of the Simplex Electric Tramway Conduit 
Syndicate to work the proposed tramway line to Great 
Horton was declined by the Bradford Town Council. 

In Nottingham there has rec mtly been a battle — not 
of gauges —but of the particular power to be applied to the 
tramway systems of the Corporation. For the moment 
the advocates of cable lines seem to be in the ascendant, 
but probably those interested in other methods will make 
their views heard. In Nottingham the cost of running the 
cable system, when in full working order, is estimated at 
about 6<2. per car mile. 

The Swansea Improvement and Tramway Company 
have agreed to sell their tramways to the Swansea 
Corporation for a nominal purchase price of £32,000, but 
as this amount is contingent upon certain conditions it is 
subject to modification. The Company in return get a 
21 years' lease of the line at a rental which will fluctuate 
between £5,000 and £6,000 per annum. The Corporation 
intend to substitute electric traction for horse power, and 
this they will do in connection with an extensive scheme 
of electric lighting which they have in contemplation. 

A cycle which "can easily be driven at the rate of 
35 miles an hour," is one of the wonders promised us by 
the chairman of the Company owning the patents. The 
surprise one feels at the announcement is certainly not 
lessened when we are told that the word " ' easily ' means that 
only one-tenth of the power required to drive an ordinary 
cycle will be needed for getting the enormous speed out 
of the new machine." This is all delightfully vague, and 
is not rendered any clearer by the chairman's explanation 
that the cycle is to be " driveu neither by chain, gearing 
rods, nor mechanical contrivance, but by a wonderful 
adaptation of an old principle in use in our chief public 
buildings to-day." The Belfast Northern Whig, which 
appears to be in the secret, prophesies that the power is 

The Blackburn Corporation have applied through their 
town clerk, Mr. R. E. Pox, for power to raise a loan, 
£10,000 of which is to be devoted to electric traction, 
and £18,000 to the extension of the very successful 
electric lighting plant which has already been laid down, 
but which is not equal to all the demands made upon it. 
The price to be paid by the Tramway Company for electric 
power has been fixed at 3d. per car mile, and both the 
Corporation and the Company are stated to be satisfied 
with the agreement. As no opposition has been made to 
the loan, there is no doubt that the Local Government 
Board will sanction it. 


A larue scheme for the extension of the tramway 
system of Liverpool has been prepared, and is n >w under 
the consideration of the Health Committee. 

It is proposed to apply for powers to construct an 
electric tramway next year from Laxey to Ramsey, Isle 
of Man. 

A Company is shortly to put 24 motor-omnibuses on 
the road between Birmingham and Warwick, which will 
convey passengers the whole distance at a return fare of 
Is. Hd. , or half the third-class railway fare. To give 
another example of the cheapness of the new traction, a 
motor-car containing four passengers was lately run for 
80 miles in Warwickshire at an expenditure in oil of 3s., 
or 9<2. a head. It would be curious indeed if the railways 
at the end of the century were to find themselves once 
more face to face with their earliest competitor, traction 
by road. 


The Clontarf and Hill of Howth Tramways Company, 
Limited, have presented a memorial to the Lord Lieu- 
tenant, praying for an Order in Council to authorise the 
construction of a tramway between Clontarf and the Hill 
of Howth. 

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NOTBMBBR, 1896.] 



In Tokio electric tramways are only to be permitted 
as a municipal concern, and progress has been retarded by 
a recent refusal of the City Council to allow the utilisation 
of the head- waters of the Tamagawa for the generation of 
the necessary motive power on the plea tbat the town 
water supply, which is drawn from a lower reach of that 
river, might suffer contamination. 

Birmingham being so much interested, there is no doubt 
that a representative exhibition of cycles and motor-cars 
hpld iii that city would prove to be of great benefit to the 
two industries concerned, and we are therefore not 
surprised to learn that a Company is being formed for 
the purpose of making a demonstration of this kind. 
The proposed Company, which is to be called the Midland 
Cycle and Motor-Car Company, Limited, has received so 
much support that more than the total capital required 
has been promised. The exhibition, which is to be held 
in Birmingham early in January, should act as a great 
stimulus to the cycle and industries. The 
promoters hope and believe that the Right Hon. Mr. J. 
Chamberlain, M.P., will consent to open the exhibition. 

Mr. H. W. Staner, of Coventry, in a letter to the 
Western Morning News, takes to task some correspondents 
in that journal who have attempted to somewhat belittle 
the results which have been attained in the recent contests. 
As he truly observes, our Continental friends have been 
the modern pioneers in this matter, and the greatest 
credit is justly due to them for what they havo achieved. 
He concludes an interesting communication as follows : — 
" As a matter of fact, the reason for abstention of the 
Anglo-French vehicles was found in the fact that the 
English-made carriages wero not ready, and it is to bj 
hoped that when the great British contest takes place 
next year the home-made productions will have passed 
the experimental stages, and be in a condition to compete 
in a hard and protracted trial under the eyes of 
mechanical experts, with proper regulations and tests, 
to ascertain power, fuel consumed, weight, and all-round 
efficiency. b'inally, I would like to emphasise the fact 
that every autocar contest which has been held up to 
now has provided all intelligent autocar designers and 
builders with many invaluable object-lessons and useful 
hints, the practical results of which can be seeu in 
numerous improvements, both in design and construction, 
of the later pattern of horseless vehicles." 

The directors of the Dublin Bread Company (Limited) 
deserve notice as perhaps the first public concern in this 
country to advertise for tenders for a motor-van. We 
trust that these requirements have been met ; if not, 
their consulting engineer, Mr. b\ J. Warden-Stevens, 
34, Victoria Street, Westminster, may doubtless be 
pleased to hear from those who can meet his requirements. 

Here is " A Sign of the Times." Mr. Jas. Cooper, the 
well-known auctioneer of Newcastle-ou-Tyne, recently 
sold at his Crown and Thistle Mart, in that city, a 
number of heavy draught horses and car:', aud chain gears. 
His instructions were from Messrs. Nimmo and Sons, 
brewers, of Castle Eden, and the reason assigned for the 
sale is " owing to their having purchased a traction- 

The municipality of Buenos Ayres must do pretty well 
out of the local tramways, tt levies a tax of 6 per cent, 
on their gross receipts, and the amount collected by tbi3 
moans last year was £91,113. 

Evidence of the wido disparity which wonld have 
prevailed in various districts had the various local 
authorities been empowered to fix the speed at which 
motor-cars could travel in different parts of the country, 
has been amply given during the last few weeks. 
Members of a large number of County Councils, under 
the erroneous impression that with them, nnd not the 
Local Government Board, rested th9 fixing of the 
maximum speed, gave notices of motion to deal with the 
subject, bat wore, of course, ruled out of order. Thi? 
spaed actually proposed to bo allowed varied between 
four miles per hour and the actual maximum of 14. The 
first-named retrograde step was proposed in Scotland, 
while tho Midlands and the South were generally in 
favour of a liberal welcome to the new comer on the 
roads. The mean average of the various proposals made 
worked out at 9\ miles per hour. We have, indeed, 
reason to be thankful that we have only one body to deal 
with in this matter, otherwise the resulting chaos would 
have been terrible. 

Birmingham, always a model Corporation, is about to 
effect some very great improvements in its at present 
very excellent tramway service, and an interesting report 
on the subject may be expected at an early date. At 
present the tramway system extends 14J miles outside 
the city, and these connections will, in all probability, be 
taken even further. 

In West Hartlepool the electric tramway system has, 
after a six months' trial, been found to give general 
satisfaction to the inhabitants. Although overhead wires 
are used, they are not regarded locally as unsightly, 
while the smoothness of running leaves little to be 
desired. The members of the Middlesborough Town 
Council have recently inspected the line, and will report 
at an early date whether they recommend the example to 
be followed in Ironopolis. In the course of a speech 
made after a luncheon at Hartlepool, Alderman Bulmer, 
responding for the Middlesborough Corporation, said he 
and his colleagues were well pleased with what they had 

The Tonge Parish Council have decided in favour ot 
electric tramways, and intend to use their influence with 
the Bolton authorities to get them constructed. 

The Bolton Corporation have succeeded in persuading 
the Horwich Urban District Council to adopt electric 
tr.imways. The cost of laying the line is estimated at 
about £1,000 a mile, or a total of £12,000; the electric 
equipment will cost £2,000 per mile, bringing the total 
cost of the rolling plant and lino up to about £19,000. 
If the Horwich Council generated its own current, a 
further capital expenditure of some £15,000 would be 
necessary, but this is to ba obviated by the Corporation 
furnishing the supply from their own station at a rent to 
be agreed. Powers to carry out the scheme are to be 
np;>li-d for at onre. 

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Stirling tramways are to be extended by the Bridge of 
Allan Tramways Company (Limited). 

A new Company has taken over the Highgate Hill 
Tramways, London, and are busy with necessary repairs 
to plant and roadway. 


Mr. J. H. Wilkinson, of Chancery Lane, London, 
presided over a meeting held in the Hoghton Chambers, 
Hoghton Street, Southport, on the 22nd ult., when a 
provisional committee was appointed for the purpose of 
putting into due form, prior to the formation of a limited 
company, the scheme of Mr. Stewart Speddy, Southport, 
for constructing a roadway and electric tramway from 
Southport to Lytham. The estimated cost was put at 
from £450,000 to £500,000. 

The Manchester City Council have discussed the speed 
of motor vehicles under the new Act, and have recom- 
mended the Local Government Board to restrict the 
maximum to six miles per hour within a given radius of 
the Manchester Town Hall. 

The Gloucestershire County Council have contented 
themselves with suggesting that there should be two new 
bye-laws, the first providing that any motor exceeding 
one ton in weight should not exceed the rate of four miles 
an hour in crossing any bridge exceeding a 12-foot span, 
and a second forbidding two motors crossing any bridge 
at the same time. 

The Coventry Electric Tramways Company propose to 
apply for Parliamentary powers to extend their present 
system by about six miles and a half. 

The opposition which magisterial minds can bring to 
bear on suggested improvements was voiced by Mr. 
Hopkins, the stipendiary magistrate at Lambeth Police 
Court, who recently fined a cyclist 10*. and costs for 
furious riding, and then went out of his way to remark : 
'' It's a horrible thing to think that in another fortnight 
we shall have the auto-cars doing the same kind of thing. 
What will then happen I don't know." To presuppose 
that the owners of the new vehicles intend to break the 
law is neither impartial nor judicial. 

The Dundalk Town Commissioners have resolved to 
apply for a Provisional Order enabling them to light the 
streets of the town by electricity, and to run their trams 
by the same power. 

» — ■ 

A Daimler motor-carriage was recently on view at 
Asbford, and caused considerable interest in the vicinity 
of the " Saracen's Head," the headquarters of its driver. 
It had travelled from Margate to Ashford in about three 
hours — leisurely progress being made on a Sunday after- 
noon under the old Act. The weight of the carriage was 
about 28 cwt. 

We understand the Gorleston and Southtown Tramway 
Company are seeking Corporate sanctiou to extend their 
line from Pier Walk to the vicinity of the South Pier, 
and to apply electricity as a motive power. 

The Warwickshire County Council, in considering the 
proposals of the Local Government Board with regard to 
the regulation of motor-carriages, ultimately adopted the 
report of a committee recommending that the speed 
should be 10 miles an hour, instead of 14, and the 
maximum width of a vehicle 6£ feet, instead of 7£ feet. 
This was carried by 33 votes to 24, but not before Lord 
Willoughby de Broke had made an earnest effort to get 
the speed reduced to eight miles. He held that, as the 
representatives of an agricultural district, they should 
encourage horse-breeding, and put all the obstacles they 
could in the path of what another worthy member 
described as "diabolical machines." His Lordship and 
his supporters are at least half a century behind the times. 

The London cabby has assuredly fallen on evil days. 
Threatened by the rivalry of the motor-car in tho future, 
and railway, monopoly in the present, he may well be at 
his grumpiest and surliest. Everything has gone wrong 
with him. Embarked by his union on a strike which 
everyone i-ealised from the first must end in disaster, he 
fails to comprehend even now that he is beaten. His 
union, too, landed him still deeper in the mire. Their 
proposal to carry the war into the enemy's camp by boy- 
cotting the railway stations, and putting down passengers 
with their bag and baggage outside, was certainly one of 
the most audacious suggestions ever entertained, but they 
alienated any little public sympathy with their cause 
which might have been felt. Besides, it placed the 
drivers absolutely at the mercy of their fares, who were, 
of course, quite justified in refusing to pay should the 
men refuse to drive them to their destination. That such 
a proposal should ever have been entertained shows to 
what desperate straits the men were brought ; but, thanks 
to the vigorous utterances of at least two of the London 
magistrates, the boycott was as short in its duration as 
the sentences upon the drivers would have been long had 
the mad scheme been persisted with. 

Mr. Wolfe Barry's inaugural address as the President 

for the year of the Institution of Civil Engineers, on the 

3rd inst., largely took the form of a review of the progress 

made in engineering science during the 60 years of the 

, Queen's reign. Perhaps the most attractive part of Mr. 

Barry's address was that in which he dealt with the 

' appearance of the automotor as a factor in our everyday 

life. In his opinion we are now on the eve of a develop- 

' ment in automotor carriages and wagons which will be 

\ as remarkable and far-reaching as that of the bicycle. 

j He thinks it will probably prove that the automotor will 

i accommodate much of the traffic to be served by light 

! railways, and render to a large extent nugatory the legis- 

I lation of last Session on this subject, more especially if 

I provision is not made in the construction of such line3 

j against the evils of break of gauge. 

A decided novelty was seen in the course of the 
November municipal elections at Coventry. Voters were 
conveyed to poll in motor-cars. This is the first time the 
new vehicles have been brought into such nse in 
England. The motor-cars are the earliest to be made in 
this country, having just been produced at the Coventry 

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As a contribution towards solving the problem of 
locomotion in London, Mr. J. Allen Baker, a member of 
the County Council, has prepared an elaborate memo- 
randum dealing with the question in various aspects, and 
discussing incidentally the scheme now under consideration 
f>r the purchase of the two metropolitan tramway systems. 
He has drawn up a statement based upon information 
collected by himself at Blackpool, Huddersfield, Leeds, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, and other cities where mechanical 
traction or ^he municipal working of tramways is in 
vogue. The result of his inquiries is summed up in the 
statemeut that he is " more than ever confident that the 
Council will not obtain full value for their property, 
either in t'ie sense of 1 giving an efficient service to the 
travelling public of Loudon or an adequate profit to the 
nite payers, until they adopt a suitable system of electric 
traction and have the full benefit of the very great 
advantages that are to be derived therefrom." Experience, 
he a Ids, is universally in favour of municipal as against 
company working of tramways, and he oppose* the scheme 
now before the Council on the ground that it would delay 
municipalisation for a period of 14 years. 

It is announced that there is to be an auto-car race on 
the Riviera early next year. It is being organised at 
Nice by a number of amateurs, but it will be open to 
makers as well as amateurs. The race will probably be 
from Nice to Marseilles and back, a distance of 450 kilo- 
metres. It will most likely take place in February, 

It is statsd that, in view of the electric omnibuses 
which will be placed on the London streets, the London 
United Tra'nways Company contemplates a second 
attempt to obtain Parliamentary powers for the substitu- 
tion of electric for horse traction on its lines from 
Hammersmith to Kew and Richmond, and from Uxbridge 
Road Station to Acton. 

Thk automotor drivers of Hamburg have established 
a strike record. Five-sixths of them went out, leaving 
the public without the indispensable horseless carriage, 
and in one day the terms of the men were conceded, and 
the Hamburg citizens again enjoy their usual facilities of 

Motors for horseless sleighs are among the latest 
novelties. They are light, powerful affairs, and can be 
run by au amateur as easily as those attached to horseless 
carriages. The sleighs are designed to be run either on 
snow or ice. 


The City of Belfast has, by a majority of 24 to 9, 
resolved to adopt the overhead system of electric 


London is charged £75 per horse per annum for the 
hire of 137 horses for Fire Brigade work. Any practical 
proposal, therefore, which would have for its object the 
reducing of this big item of £10,275 is sure to receive 
careful attention at the hands of the authorities. 
America, as usual, is leading the way in such matters. 
A big self-propelling steam fire-engine is already in use 
at Hartford, and Fire Commissioner Russel, of Boston, is 
about to order two of the same kind for his city. 

A correspondent suggests that while the County 
Conncil is asking the Local Government Board to reduce 
the speed of motor-cars it might also devote some 
attention to the size and weight of traction engines. His 
house, he says, which is in one of the nearer London 
suburbs, suffered a veritable earthquake from the passage 
of one of these gigantic machines past its doors. The 
whole house seemed to sway, and small articles of 
crockery and furniture clattered as if there had been a 
genuine earthquake, 


Hull seems likely to be amongst the leaders of the 
automobile movement. A motor-carriage belonging to 
Messrs. Thornton, Varley, and Vo.<, a well-known firm of 
drapers in Prospect Street, Hull, has been perambulating 
the streets for-a month past; now comes the news that a 
local Company for manufacturing automotors will be 
launched shortly, and that already there is a large 
demand for the shares. . 

The Lancashire County Council have adop'ed a stupid 

recommendation of their Main Roads Committee, to the 

, effect that the speed of the new motors should not exceed 

six miles per hour. This decision was come to after a 

vigorous protest from the Chairman of the Board, who 

. pointed out that it was expected, and no doubt would bo 

1 the case, that half the motor-carriages would be rcnlly 

, p ivate carriages, which would not b8 more liable to 

I injure the bridges than any other private carriage which 

, went over them now. In France a light kind of motor- 

| carriage was much in use on the roads, and it was to 

, be remembered that if a bicycle had motor power it 

would come under the rule. He suggested that the 

i proposed rate of six miles an hour should only refer to 

heavy traffic. To apply it to light vehicles would be, in 

his opinion, objectionable. He did not think the Council 

! should do anything to limit the use of the new carriage 

I when it came into operation, and on that ground he 

| appealed to them to reconsider their recommendation. 

The Board, however, would not listen to reason, and, as a 

| body, rendered themselves ridiculous by their resolution. 

The North Riding County Council were not much 
better, as they resolved to recommend that the rate of 
speed at which light locomotives shall travel on public 
highways shall be, for 12 months at least, not more than 
10 miles an hour. 


The Works Committee of the Acton District Council 
have instructed the clerk to the Council to write to the 
secretary of one of the motor-car companies, asking for 
an estimate of the cost of a scavenger's cart fitted with 
motors. It has not yet been decided to dispense with 
the horses now in use, but it is thought that motor 
scavenging carts will be a mor* economical means of 


From far-distaut Rangoon we hear that the ladies have 
taken the automotor under their protection and made it 
popular — as a practical protest against the cruel manner 
in which horses are treated there. The engineer drivers 
are smartly dressed in a sort of Spanish costume of dark 
blue velvet, and the " turn-outs " are reported to present 
an extremely taking appearance. 

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Fio. 1. 

Fio. 2. 

JTia. 3. . Fl °- 6. 

For description of the above vehicles see page 73. 

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For description, of the above vehicles see page 73. 

1'IU. 16. 

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(See Pages 64, 65, and 66 for III titration*) 

On Saturday last, the long looked for and much discussed 
date on which motor-carriages could be legally driven 
through our streets without absurd restrictions arrived. 
Those of us who have in the past indulged in stolen rides 
in out of the way places, undertaken with a due fear of the 
police ever present to the mind, naturally took the earliest 
opportunity of making use 
of our new-found liberty. 
Without incurring the ex- 
pense of a Continental trip, 
we were on the stroke of 
that midnight which 
ushered in a dismal 14th of 
November, at liberty to 
career at will through the 
streets of London, hampered 
only by thoughts of Local 
Government Bonrd regula- 
tions, which will doubtless 
be modified at the end of 
the six months for which 
they have been officially 

Personally, we celebrated 
the occasion by taking a 
phaeton out of its quarters 
at about ten minutes to 
twelve, being duly guarded 

by a policeman, who exer- f 10 

cised solemn care that' we 
did not start a moment 
before the " grim clutches 
of the law " were released 
by statute. Once the clock 
had really chimed the man 
in blue had lost his terrors, 
and with a vigorous cheer 
from the crowd which had 
gathered round, we started 
on our way through the 
traffic, encountering in our 
progress the good- h o moured 
chaff and comments of the 
omnibus and cab driveis, 
who were conveying belated 
theatre-goers and diners-out 
to their homes. About an 
hour or so of this on a bad 
November night, with the 
prospect of a heavy day 
before us, was enough for 

amusement, and after com- Fio, 

paring not-.-s with a few 

others who had similarly celebrated theoccasion, we gladly 
adopted Pepys's phrase of " then to bed." 

The early morning— say between eight or nine — might 
have pleased a Mark Tapley, but with the prospect of a 
run to Brighton on vehicles which had never before been 
legally tried in England, the outlook was about as bad as 
it could well be. A drenching rain had fallen heavily for 
hours, the roads were soft and muddy, while a mist — 
heavy enough to be almost described as a London fog — 


hung about the streets in the vicinity of the river with 
a chilling depression which might have well checked any 
enthusiasm on the part of those who might otherwise 
have been expected to be interested in the new vehicles. 
The inhabitants of the Metropolis and the surrounding 
suburbs soon showed, however, that climatic conditions 
would hardly prove to be any check at all upon their 
curiosity to see the new carriages, and to celebrate the 
day on which they might be used in their streets. The 
procession to Brighton, which had been organised by 

Mr. H. J. Lawson and his 
confreres of the Motor-Car 
Club, was in the mouths of 
the multitude ; fabulous 
sums were on offer for a 
seat in one of the carriages ; 
crowds of moie or less 
known people vied with 
each other for the posses- 
sion of tickets to the Hotel 
Metropole to view the start 
in comfort, while outside 
the great British public 
took possession of every 
available inch of Northum- 
berland Avenue, its ad- 
jacent streets, and the 
roomy Thames Embank- 

Writing with an intimate 
knowledge of the crowds 
which have been seen in the 
streets on great . occasions, 
we unhesitatingly assert 
that never before have so 
many thousands of people 
been gathered in a given 
space as those which con- 
gregated in the immediate 
vicinity of the Hotel 
Metropole to see the start 
of the motor - carriages. 
The throng came at last 
not in hundreds but 
thousands, and in the end 
the streets were absolutely 
impassable. The first carri- 
ages to take up their 
position in the vicinity of 
the Whitehall entrance of 
the hotel arrived at about 
9 o'clock, and from thence 
onward until the start at 
10.30, the police force, both 
on foot and on horseback, 
waged one continual war 
with the crowd to get the 
vehicles into position, and to make such arrangements as 
would enable them to get a fair chance of starting when 
the time arrived. 

While all this was going on outside of the hotel, the 
interior presented a very animated appearance as the 
numerous gnests invited to an inaugural breakfast by 
the Motor-Car Club put in an appearance. In addition to 
the representatives of most of the important newspapeis 
in the kingdom, and the members of the Club, many 


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notable persons were present at the repast, which was 
presided over by the Earl of Winchilsea, among his 
supporters being Lord Fingall, Lord Cardross, Lord 
Trinilestown, Lord H. Fitzgerald, Col. Sir V. Majendie, 
Col. Fitzgeorge, Sir J. Ewart, Mr. B. Barnato, Mr. H. J. 
Lawson, Mr. Jerome K. Jerome, and many others equally 
well known. Mr. Chas. McRobie Turrell and the 
Secretary of the Club, Mr. Harrington Moore, were here 
and everywhere throughout tho day, indefatigable in their 
efforts to ensure the comfort of the guests. The Chair- 
man, in the course of some well-chosen remarks, pleaded 
for consideration on behalf of the drivers who had 
undertaken that day to pilot down to Brighton carriages 
with which they had but little acquaintance under 
circumstances of unusual difficulty, their task being 
tendered the harder by the crowds which they would 
meet, and the weather which was to be faced. To 
this would have to be added the fact that many of 
the carriages starting were comparatively old types of 
Continental makes, which had covered considerable 
distances and had sustained much wear and hard usage, 
so that they could nor, fairly be taken as being at all 
representative of the motor-carriages which may be 
reasonably expected to be ultimately produced by the 
Erglish companies and firms engaged in this industrv. 
The noble Chairman's remarks were well received, and 
at the conclusion of the breakfast a dramatic "drop 
curtain" was effected when the Earl of Winchilsea tore 
into tatters one of the red flags which have hitherto 
been compulsorily carried in front of traction-engine and 
motor-bicycle alike, and thus symbolically emphasised 
the fact that the day of freedom in this matter had at 
length arrived. All those who were not bound for Reigate 
and Brighton by train to watch the arrival of the 
carriages at those places then repaired to the windows of 
the hotel to witness the start, and amongst the crowd of 
special sightseers who occupied prominent positions in 
the principal rooms we noticed the Duke of Teck and the 
Saxe- Weimar family. 

Punctually to time the vehicles were re.«ly to start, the 
official programme and order being as follows : — 

1. Pauhard dog phaeton. 

2. Mr. Luwsons private landau. 

3. Panhard and Levassor, the winning carriage at the 

"Paris- Marseilles" race. 

4. The Hon. Evelyn Ellis's private carriage, Daimler 

type. J 

5. Daimler phaeton. 

6. Daimler phaeton. 

7. Daimler carriage, second in " Paris- Marseilles " race. ' 

8. Pauhard and Levassor wagonette. 
!) and 10. Daimler dog cart. 

11. Pauhard and Levassor omnibus. 

12. Daimler dog-cart, Mulliner'sjimited body 

13. Daimler's two-seat carriage. 

14. Peugeot Freres omnibus. 

15. Bersey landau, electrical. 

16. Bersey phaeton, electrical. 

17. Bersey hansom, electrical. 

18. Britannia Victoria, electrical. 

19 and 20. Britannia dog-cart, electrical. 

21. Britannia Victoria, electrical. 

22. Britannia Bath chair, electrical. 

23. 24, 25, and 26. Auglo-French phaeton. 
27, 28, and 29. Arnold sociable, Bentz motor. 

30. Arnold Sunlight. Soap van, Bentz motor. 

31. Arnold Victoria, Bentz motor. 

32. Pennington tandem. 

33. Pennington tricycle. 

34. Pennington cycle safety. 

35. 36, 37, and 38. Bollee motor-cycle, Bollee motorcar. 

39. De Dion tricycle. 

40. De Dion racing tricycle. 

41. Barrie Bersey, private carriage. 

42. Lutzmann phaeton. 

43 and 44. Dnryea carriage, American. 
45 and 46. Rub tricycle. 

47. Three-wheel dog-cart, New and Mayne, oil. 

48. Hunt's Panhard and Levassor omnibus. 

49. Bucknall private carriage. 

50. L'Hollier tricycle. 

51. Lorraont Paris steam bicycle. 

52. Lutzmann van, Sunlight Soap. 

53. Petter's oil motor-carriage. 

54. Messrs. Penn's steam-carriage. 

The route taken was by way of the Victoria Embank- 
ment, Westminster Bridge, Lambeth Palaoo Road, Albert 
Embankment, Harleyford Road, Kennington Oval, Brixton, 
Streatham, Thornton Heath, Croydon, Purley, Merstham, 
Reigate, Crawley, Hand Cross, Bolney, Alboumo, 
Pyecombe, Patcham, and Preston Park. 

The carriages with their drivers had been in readiness 
for more than an hour before Mr. H. J. Lawson, as pilot, 
gave the signal to start ; but when progress had to be 
made then came the troubles of the police. A solid wall 
of people in front and an all too narrow lane at the sides 
of the drivers seemed to arrest all attempts to proceed. 
However, by a judicious admixture of force and persuasion, 
coupled with the good humour of the crowd, a commence- 
ment was at length made, the onlookers being vigorous 
with their cheers and ready with their comments. The 
feelings of the " man in the street " towards the new- 
comer are somewhat difficult to ascertain. We told off 
one of our representatives to specially advise ns on this 
point, but he failed to give us much help. His testimony 
was to the effect that the trade unionists had somehow 
got it into their heads that the whole procession was an 
organised opposition to the cabdrivers on strike ; while 
the mothers were of opinion that from henceforth the 
streets would not be safe for women or children ; and the 
City men thought that "no fellow would ride behind 
a 'bus horse while he could glide along like that." 
All were unanimous, however, on one point — that the 
show was the most novel which London has seen fcr 
years. Perhaps when our contributor has had time to 
analyse the result of his investigations, he will see 
that the public— like all of ns — cannot yet attempt to 
fathom what will be the ultimate result of the new 
method of transport which has been introduced into our 

Coming to the actual start of the procession, 
such im-pection as could be obtained from even 
the most advantageous stand in the hotel, was an 
imperfect and obscure one, but it could be seen that 
in the forefront of tho procession was the pilot car, 
displaying the violet and gold banner of the Motor-Car 
Club, the President of which, in yachting costume and 
wearing an armlet of blue and crimson, steered the 
machine— a dog-cart with a hood — which was propelled 
by a Panhard motor. Next to it in the order of starting 
— which, however, was soon disarranged by the vicissitudes 
of the journey — was the Daimler " Present Times " closed 
landau — the same which took part in the Lord Mayor's 
Show. Then came the winner of the Paris-Marseilles 
race, having two places in front, with a protecting hood, 

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and two places behind, the passengers being seated back 
to back. Colonel Sir Vivian Majendie was on this car. 
Next in order was the Daimler private carriage, owned 
and driven by the Hon. Evelyn Ellis — a vehicle which 
has already travelled 2,000 miles. It holds four people, 
dog-cart fashion. All these were provided with petroleum 
motors. Three tricycles, tandems, constructed on the 
Bollee system — cumbrous-looking machines, with huge 
rubber tyres, but having powerful 1^- horse-power oil- 
motors — followed, together with a Kane-Pennington 
bicycle. In their rear was a phaeton giving room for four 
travellers, who were assured of some protection from 
inclement weather by a roof and a glass screen. An 
advertising delivery van (Messrs. Peter Robinson's) 
preceded another of the yellow-wheeled cars which 
appeared in the Paris-Marseilles race, in which it 
actually proved the fastest. Mr. Turrell was in charge, 
and his sole companion held aloft a red, white, and blue 
flag, intended to commingle the French and English 
colours, with a tattered and besmirched red traction- 
engine flag also attached to the pole. After this, in order 
of starting, was another of the French automobiles, the 
winner of the second prize. It was a wagonette, with 
room for a driver and three passengers, the Earl of 
Wincliilsea taking the box seat. Other vehicles, also 
driven by Panhard and other motors, built according to 
patents owned by the British Motor Syndicate, followed, 
one of them being a neat bus (Harrod's), with accommo- 
dation for four inside, aud another being the Panhard- 
Mulliner dog-cart. 

It was altogether a matter of hazard on the part of 
those who started for Brighton by motor-car whether they 
would ever reach their destination. A Press represen- 
tative who was fortunate in having the opportunity of 
travelling by a car which completed the journey satis- 
factorily supplies the following record of the run : — 

Our car was No. 15. It was the one which actually came in 
first in the Paris-Marseilles race, but was placed second in order 
of merit. M. Merckel, who steered it on that occasion, and 
whose portrait appears in Fig. 4 of this number, was our driver, 
and his coolness and discretion, with daring and nerve at ticklish 
moments, were much to be admired. Lord Winchilsea sat on 
the box of this conveyance, which carried four persons in all, 
two in front and two in wagonette seats, facing each other, 
behind. The six horse-power motor, built by Panhard, an 
improved Daimler, was driven by petroleum, and it made 
690 revolutions per minute, the gearing permitting four rates of 
speed — the fastest, I understood, being 25 miles an hour. 
Reversing gear enabled us to go backwards or forwards at will, 
and, instead of bands and rubber pulleys, which, if too soft, are 
liable to lengthen and burn, creating an horrible odour, the 
power from the motor was transmitted from the shafting by a 
chain travelling over a cogged wheel attached to the axle. Two 
brakes were fitted, and the machine was under splendid control, 
as the incidents of the trip will show. 

We had to forge our own way through the huge crowd which 
filled the Thames Embankment, the temporary stoppage of a 
parcel van in front of us having led the siiectators to close up 
their ranks, but following in the wake of Mr. Turrell's " flier " 
— its record speed is 32 miles an hour — we presently crossed 
Westminster Bridge, cheered by tens of thousands. The 
pavements, the housetops, the range of hospital buildings 
belonging to St. Thomas's, the river craft, and every inch of 
foothold on the ground, or high above it, were black with 
people. From Vauxhall— where the first car fell out — we 
steered through the crowd there assembled, and through 
Kennington to Brixton the concourse of spectators was 
immense. The red parcel van again indulged in vagaries, but 

before the police could deal with it as an obstruction it again 
went merrily onwards. Not so a motor-cycle, whose owner I 
saw despondently wheeling it back 'along the edge of the crowd, 
until, as I afterwards learned, he could find a hansom to carry 
off the disabled machine. Cabmen were just a little incredulous, 
aud 'bus drivers were sarcastic as to the capabilities of the new 
machines. " I don't think much on 'em," said one ; but the 
tram drivers — who have been accustomed to the cable trams on 
Brixton Hill— were more tolerant. 

This long but gentle rise, followed by Streatham Hill, attain- 
ing to a height of 184 feet, did, indeed, tax the climbing powers 
of the weaker machines, aud, as was subsequently reported, 
many of them got no further ; but given a good car, we soon 
left the laggards behind. It was at the Crown aud Sceptre, 
where the pilot car took refuge for a while, that we started in 
good earnest, travelling through thick lanes of men and women 
and children, pursued by a flight of cyclists, and running side 
by side with trotting mares in tandem, on one of which was 
impudently perched a dog, maintaining his equilibrium wonder- 
fully. To this point we bad been an hour on the journey for 
the six miles covered ; but in spite of the rising ground, which 
did not trouble us much, except to put into play the gearing 
for reduced speed, with increased climbing power, we got to 
Streatham Library at 11.40, ten minutes after leaving the 
Crown and Sceptre ; and four minutes later we were passing 
the common, and left behind us the Excelsior coach, which had 
been obliged to stop to water its horses. But we needed 
nothing for many a mile yet. Onward we sped, a welcome 
warmth diffused about our feet, and a trail of steam behind 
us, which was reminiscent of the atmosphere of " washing-day," 
but otherwise there was no discomfort due to the vehicle 
itself. It is true we were bespattered with mud, but this 
was thrown up from the tyres of some too attentive cyclists 
who, realising that the car was a good pace-maker, rode 
closely in our rear, trusting to us for a signal to check a 
collision, as they were without brakes. Out-distancing an Irish 
jaunting-car tandem, down we went to Norbury, made light of 
the ascending road through Thornton Heath, and so on to West 
Croydon, and into its main street, as the hands of the clock of 
the Town Hall pointed to the hour of noon — just 10 miles in one 
hour aud a half. The Croydon townspeople to a man had turned 
out of doors, business came to a standstill, and domestic servants 
and errand boys rejoiced in a brief respite. Away we went 
through the High Street of the suburban borough, past the 
coaching-houses, once the pride of the old town and the hope of 
the future, now that the glories of the road are to be revived, 
and so into the open country, with the rice thrown by a well- 
wisher still in our ears and working down our backs, just as 
though we were a runaway pair returning from Gretna Green, 
and were welcomed by friends who had aided in bringing about 
the elopement 

At Purley Corner, a point from which the bicycle records are 
made, we began at 12.10 p.m. a run of 10J miles to Reigate, for 
the road led us through Redhill. But we had a long climb 
before us, having to ascend from 220 feet to 434 feet— the highest 
altitude of the chalk ridge just before reaching Merstham. The 
fog had now lifted, and the genial weather had tempted carriage 
folk from miles around to line the roadside, and holiday had 
been permitted to the boys and girls of the Reedham Orphan 
Asylum, who gave us a hearty cheer. 

Down the hill into Merstham, having caught here and there 
a view of the special tiain from Victoria on its way to Reigate, 
we plunged. For the first time we felt the exhilaration of 
travelling at 25 miles an hour in a motor-car. Not a thought 
of danger, not a thought of what might happen if the smaller 
car in front of us suddenly broke down, and we were unable to 
avoid a collision ; but full of confidence in our driver, down we 
went, descending over 200 feet in the couple of miles which 
separates the picturesque village of Merstham — one of the 
old coaching places of call — from Redhill. This is the modern 
part of the ancient borough of Reigate, and it owed its creation 
entirely to the reluctance of the Reigatonians of those days to 
allow the Brighton Railway to pass through their town — an 
error of judgment which has ever since been regretted. Into 

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Red hill, avoiding the shorter route vid Gatton Corner, we go, 
leaving its Marble Hall and quaint Town Hall — a relic of the 
days when Gatton was a pocket borough — behind us as in a 
flash, for it is nine minutes only since we quitted Merstham. At 
Redhill two roads are open to us, either we may take the " classic : ' 
coach road through Horley, Balcombe, and Cuckfield, places 
whose inns figure so frequently in old prints — or we may 
diverge through the rapidly extending residential town much 
patronised by stockbrokers and City magnates, into Reigate. 
It was at Reigate that luncheon awaited us, and our appetities 
were sharpened by the fresh air. So thither we proceeded, a 
little more cautiously, perhaps, as the throngs of bystanders 
were great. We pulled up in the market-place, close to its 
quaint isolated Town Hall, at I o'clock, having completed the 
10J miles from Purley Corner in 50 minutes, and the whole 
distance from London, 22| miles, in two hours and a half, in 
spite of all obstacles of crowded streets, and unfavourable 
conditions of the roads. 

"Reigate welcomes Progress." Such was the inscription 
prominent amidst the flags and bunting. The market-place 
was jammed with vehicles and cyclists. Never in its history, 
not excepting the memorable occasion when, in 1880, 40 cyclists 
essayed and 20 only succeeded in ascending Reigate Hill by the 
help of the stone tram line, has the retired coaching town been 
so busy. Its hostelries were overflowing, and mine host of the 
White Hart, what with coach parties to provide for, cyclists 
and others, was obliged to have recourse to the Public Hall as a 
supplementary luncheon place, where many of the motor-car 
visitors, most of whom had arrived by train, could be served 
with a substantial meal. For us it was a meal taken in a hurry. 
We were anxious to make the most of the daylight, and we 
were free to start as soon as ready. Dnring the 50 minutes 
we stayed in the town there were a few opportunities of com- 
paring notes. We learned that certain Bollee tricycles had gone 
ahead, and that the first car to enter Reigate 20 minutes before 
us was the Duryea — an American invention, which explodes 
the charge in the motors by an electric spark. It had joined 
the procession on the road. The Duryea pressed onwards, and 
the first prize winner in the Paris race was the only car visible 
when we drew up alongside it ; but in a few minutes we were 
joined by the pilot car, driven by Mr. H. J. Lawson, which had 
waited a little on the road, and at a quarter to two the Paris 
car, driven by Mr. Turrell, came to hand, with a grievous tale of 
disaster ; for, after water leak had been put right, the gearing 
went amiss, and the brake b/oke. What became of this 
unfortunate car, in the end, I am unable to say. We saw, too, 
the roofed phaeton come in, and subsequently heard of the 
parcel vans, after some misadventures, and the Anglo-French 
conveyance putting in their respective appearances.. But time 
was up, ana off we started independently at ten minutes to 
2 o'clock for a run of 30 miles to Brighton. 

A fairly ievel road between Reigate and Crawley, passing 
through Hoothwood and Lowfield Heath, suggested to Lord 
Winchilsea some timing. Accordingly, he discovered that the 
first mile was covered in 4£ minutes, the second in 3 minutes 
20 seconds, the third in 4£ minutes, the fourth in 4 minutes, the 
fifth in 4 minutes 40 seconds, and the sixth in 4 minutes. Of a 
dozen cyclists who had started from Reigate with us quite fresh, 
eight now remained, and we passed the phaeton which had gone 
ahead of us. Cottagers waved us welcome as we sped by, and 
peasants stared at us in amazement. Crawley we found in 
festive array — with a gre#t banner in blue and white strung 
across the road, between its open-timbered or tiled-fronted 
houses, to bid " Success to the Motor-car." The George Hotel, 
with its curious dragon signboard swinging from a beam athwart 
the high road, was the ceutre of local activity. Away we 
went, over the level crossing, near which a train was kept in 
waiting, and through the town, the inhabitants giving us a 
pretty wide berth. They had grown cautious already ; for, as 
we afterwards heard, an accident - had, a short time before our 
arrival, happened. The first car to pass through the old- world 
town had knocked down a little girl named Dyer, the daughter 
of a publican at Three Bridges. She had been struck on the 
head whilst leaning forward, and a cyclist who was following 

fell on her with his machine. She was removed to the inn, and 
the latest reports were that she was not injured seriously. Our 
time to Crawley for the last three miles had been 134 minutes ; 
and, as one after the other the milestones were passed, we com- 
pleted 9jf miles in 45 minutes. It was a delightful piece of 
woodland road which took us in the direction of Handcross. 
Brown oak leaves, the ruddy foliage of copper beeches, and the 
green Scotch pines, made together a picture of late autumnal 
beauty, but the trees, charming as they were, and the carpet 
of dead leaves, caused the road to be very damp, and at this 
period of our journey it took us fully llj minutes to complete 
one mile, and in this the cyclists gained upon us, as they always 
did when we were laboriously, but steadily, ascending declines. 

" This hill is dangerous for cyclists." Whether M. Merckel 
saw the placard or not, or whether he chose to disregard it, I 
cannot say ; he certainly approached the notorious descent of 
Handcross Hill with apparent indifference. To rush through 
the air at the speed of a torpedo-boat destroyer, down a narrow, 
curving road, enclosed with hedges, and without being able to 
see what was to the front of us, was a novel and thrilling 
experience. The gradient is very steep. One minute we were 
500 feet above the sea level, and the next 300 feet only. We 
had accomplished this rapid descent of 200 feet in a few seconds 
of breathless suspense, when the slightest error of steering 
would have landed us into one bank or the other, or plunged us 
into the midst of cyclists who were waiting at the bottom of the 
hill to see how we should take this admittedly awkward piece 
of country. We did it magnificently, without a swerve. And 
all the while our motor was actively impelling us onward, 
adding to the velocity which had been already imparted to the 
vehicle by the momentum. It was a grand sensation, and the 
danger of the feat was not lessened by a rearing horse attached 
to a cart which we narrowly shaved at the foot of the hill, and 
which we had calculated would involve us all in utter wreck 
and discomfiture. 

After this incident things appeared somewhat tame, and it 
scarcely stimulated our pulses to hear that we had covered two 
miles in five minutes. But the cyclists deserved attention. 
One by one they had found the pace too killing or had met with 
mishaps. The gruesome, mud-bespattered group, one or two 
with blood running from their lips, into which they had pressed 
their teeth, their naggard faces covered with splashes of clay, 
held on manfully as long as they could. One man incautiously 
followed too closely in our rear, and when we suddenly 
slowed he could not avoid a collision. Frantically ho 
grasped the back of the car, and away he was dragged from 
the saddle of his machine, whilst his friends cried out, " Let 
go, let go ! " as he was borne off at 10 miles an hour, until, 
releasing his hold, he fell in the road, picked himself up, 
rejoined his cycle, and was seen no more. Another tumbled 
from his machine, and rolled neatly to one side just in time to 
avoid a second motor-car which was catehing us up. A third 
man held on to our car for miles, but in spite of the lift, and 
the circumstance that the roads were getting less greasy, owing 
to the rain, he could not go the pace, and he, too, dropped off — 
the lust of the disheartened men of the wheel who had failed to 
beat the motor-car. The driving rain tended to make the last 
stage of the journey one of discomfort. At Bolney (3.6 p.m.) 
we rejoiced the heart of an ostler by proving to hini that our 
motor could drink up two large pails of water, and a liberal tip 
was forthcoming for it. At Albourne Green, four miles 
farther on, happily, we did not neeil to patronise the facetious 
blacksmith, who placarded his forge with a notification that 
motor-cars could be repaired " while yon wait." Some other car 
did, however, break down hereabouts. Having left Bolney at 
3.22, we arrived at Piecombe at 3.53, and thence, with a 
descending gradient, passing on the road foxhounds, coaches, 
carriages, cyclists, and spectators of all sorts and conditions, 
who had defied the weather. We ran past Patchani, where 
another breakdown subsequently happened, and so to Preston 
Park, where we were welcomed with the flattering inscription : 
"Centuries look down upon this, your immortal ride." We had 
allowed Colonel Sir Vivian Majeiidie's car to get ahead of us, so 
that on arrival we found ourselves second in the order of the 

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[N'OVBMBBB, 1896. 

procession which the Mayor of Brighton was waiting to conduct 
to the Hotel Metropole, so soon as the pilot car should arrive, 
which it presently did. We pulled up in line at 4.15 p.m., and 
thus we had been 5 hours 45 minutes on the road, or, less the 
time spent at Reigate and Bolney, 4 hours 40 minutes for the 
50 miles. 

It was blowing half a gale and was very wet when, having 
safely traversed the crowded thoroughfares of Brighton and 
the Front, we reached the hospitable quarters of the Hotel 
Metropole, and at this destination other cars arrived one after 
the other ; but it was impossible to tell which had survived the 
extremely hard test to which the motors had been subjected. 
Telegrams posted up in the hotel announced to the visitors that 
60 vehicles would start from Charing Cross, but "they will not 
all reach you." And this was true. But the actual number 
could only be conjectured. A thinning-out process went on all 
day. At Brixton the numbers declined ; at Streatham, 28 bad 
passed at 12.39 p.m. ; at Thornton Heath, 26 at 1.45 p.m. ; 
at South End, Croydon, 22 motors were counted by 1.48 p.m. ; 
at Beigate, at 2.2 p.m., 9 cars had arrived ; at Crawley 
the first car passed at 1.20 p.m., and 4 others at 1.30 p.m. ; 
at Hurstpierpoint, on the Cuckfield Road, one car went 
by at 2.11 p.m. At Brighton, at 6.30 p.m., Mr. Harrington 
Moore stated that 15 had arrived, and amongst the minor 
accidents notified was a punctured tyre, which, however, did 
not prevent the Kane -Pennington bicycle from arriving all 

The following is the official list of the cars which reached 
Brighton in the course of the afternoon and evening up to 
6 o'clock, when the timekeepers (Messrs. J. Dring and R. 
Coleman, who officiate for the National Cyclist Union) retired : — 

Description of car. 

Bollee car 

Bollee car 

Panhard omnibus .... 
Mr. H. J. Lawson's car 
Panhard and Levassor 
Britannia bath-chair 
Daimler phaeton 
Pennington tricycle .... 
Bersey landau 
Panhard wagonette .... 
Anglo-French phaeton 
Daimler dog-cart 
Bersey hansom 

Time of arrival 

at Brighton. 







. 2 



. 3 



. 4 



. 4 



. 4 



. 4 



. 5 


. 5 



. 5 



. 5 



. 5 



5 41 30 

Some adverse comments having been made in the Press as to 
the comparatively small number of motor-cars which arrived at 
Brighton compared with those which paraded outside the Hotel 
Metropole, it may be as well to explain that more than half of 
the owners never intended to go all the way to Brighton, it being 
arranged that they should simply take part in the inaugural 
start. The reason for adopting this course was in order that 
the public safety might be ensured, because with comparatively 
inexperienced drivers the task of negotiating a new vehicle 
through the immense crowd which thronged the streets would 
have been fraught with great danger. The police authorities 
would not give any facilities for practice before the Act of 
Parliament actually came into force, as shown by their successful 
prosecution of one driver who ventured out at 10 o'clock on 
Friday night and also by their unsuccessful application for a 
summons against Mr. H. J. Lawson for driving a motor in the 
Lord Mayor's Show. Then, too, after a few miles had been 
traversed, the unfavourable state of the roads and weather 
doubtless deterred many of those who would otherwise have 
gone the whole of the journey. 

With reference to this point the Motor-Car Club yesterday 
issued an official report on the run from London to Brighton on 
Saturday. The committee state that it was at first decided 
that only cars officially tested and passed should enter for the 
ride, but this was overruled, and an open event decided upon. 
Instead, therefore, of 20 efficient cars entering as pre-arraDged, 
all kinds of experimental machines took part in the demonstra- 
tion. The committee go on to explain the manner in which the 
cars arrived, and state that no accident of any kind happened 
to those belonging to the club. After the banquet, the com- 
mittee examined 20 cars, and beyond the lower half of each 
vehicle being smothered with mud, they were in perfect condi- 
tion, and ready to take the road again immediately. Eighteen 
of these cars were lent by members of the British Motor 
Syndicate. The committee award gold medals to the first eight 
motor-cars which arrived in the town. Considering the head 
wind, the beating rain, heavy roads, and congested traffic, and 
considering the fact that 20 motors out of 22 which left Brixton 
arrived at Brighton during the evening without accident, they 
add that a feat has been accomplished far exceeding their most 
sanguine expectations. 


The dinner given in the evening at the Hotel M6tropole, 
Brighton, by Mr. Harry J. Lawson, " in celebration of the 
passing of the Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896, the Magna 
Charta of Motor-Cars," took place in the Clarence Rooms, and 
was a brilliant success. The company numbered some 200. 
Lord Winchileea (President of the Club and Chairman of the 
Great Horseless Carriage Company) presided, having, on his 
right, Mr. Hairy J. Lawson, the genial host of the evening, and 
on his left the Mayor of Brighton (Alderman J. (J. Blaker, J.P.). 
Those present also included : — 

The Marquis of Queensbury, Sir Somen Vine, Sir Joseph Ewart, 
M.D., J.P., the Mayor of Reigate. Mr. J. T. Allbutt (Huuiber and Co.), 
Councillor Broadbridge, Mr. J. Bradford, Mr. J. B. Baxter, Mr. C. N. 
Baker, M. Bollee (inTentor of the Bollee car), Mr. W. C. Bersey 
(Great Horseless Carriage Company), Mr. J. J. Clark, J.P., Mr. C. 
W. C. Crandon (Great Horseless Carriage Company), Mrs. Crandon, 
Mr. Childs, Alderman Davey, J. P., Mr. Dcvine, Mr. Dalzicl, 
M. Daimler (inventor of the famous motor), Mr. Duncan, Mr. C. 
McB. Turrell (Deputy Secretary British Motor Syndicate), Mr. H. 
Fenney, Mr. Roger Fuller, Mr.. S. Gorton (New Beeston Cycle 
Company), Rev. Prebendary Hannah (Vicar of Brighton), Mr. D. 
Sherwin Holt (Daimler Motor Company), Mr. Rowland Hill (New 
Beeston Cvcle Company), Mr. Innes (Beeston Tyre Company), 
Dr. Iliffe (New Beeston Cycle Company), Mr. Henry Jelley and 
Mr. James Jelley (Beeston Tyre Company), Mr*. Harry J. Lawson 
and the Misses Lawson, Mr. J. H. Mace (Daimler Motor Company), 
Mr. W. OlliTer, Mrs. Olliver, Mr. C. Osborn (Secretary Great Horse- 
less Carriage Company), Mr. W. Phillips (Humber and Co.), Mr. E. 
F. Pierson (British Motor Syndicate), Alderman Sendall, J.P., 
Councillor Stafford, J.P., Mr. Frank Sliorland (Raleigh Cycle 
Company), Mr. C. N. Stewart (Great Horseless Carriage Company), 
Mrs. Stewart, Mr. J. Tonks, and Mr. Van Praagh. 

The loyal toast having been honoured, the Mat or of Brighton 
proposed " The Motor-Car Club," remarking that although, in 
accordance with the request he had received, his remarks would 
be few, they would be none the less sincere and cordial. He 
was sure they would agree with him that that would be a red- 
letter day in the history of the country, and certainly in the 
history of the town of Brighton (applause), because they took 
it as a compliment that on that, the first day on which the 
Act came in force, the Motor-Car Club should have chosen 
their town as the one to come down and visit. (Applause.) He 
had the pleasure of riding down from Preston Park on the 
foremost car, and he was bound to say it was one of the most 
pleasant rides he had had in "his life. It was true that the 
elements were not altogether favourable to the ride, but he 
would venture to call their attention to the fact that it wa9 
a big christening, and that they very often found water at 
these christenings. (Laughter.) As they were aware, the 

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reason that they were that day, for the first time allowed to 
pass along the Queen's highway, was the removal of a flaw 
in the law, and it was largely through the influence of the 
Motor-Car Club that the law had been so altered as to allow 
the public to make use of this — in his opinion- -greatly improved 
means of locomotion. In honour of the event the Brighton 
and Sussex Goldsmiths' Association had presented him with 
some of their registered designs, with the arms of Brighton 
suitably engraved, and he would ask their Chairman whether 
he would accept, as a small memento of the occasion, one of 
those medals. (Applause.) It was characteristic of the town 
that people coming there to live never left the town. By some 
singular accident twenty years ago Mr. Lawson did leave 
Brighton, but he had returned to it in his triumphal car, and 
they might depend upon it that if he went away it was because 
he had that car, and could so easily come down again from 
London to Brighton. (Laughter and applause.) He had great 
pleasure in submitting to them the toast of " The Motor-Car 
Club," coupled with the name of Mr. Lawson. (Applause.) 

Mr. Harry J. Lawson, in responding, said that remarkable 
occasion was the first meet of the Motor-Car Club on the great 
day of the emancipation of his very much-beloved motor ; it was 
the day of the great deliverance of our roads and highways from 
the reign of quadrupeds and the rule of, well — other animals. 
(Laughter.) For 16 long years the lovers of science had been 
waiting for this day with the full knowledge that machinery 
and science were equal, nav, vastly superior, to any animal 
power. (Hear, hear.) That day was a victory. (Hear, hear.) 
He did not know how many there were at the start — but he 
himself counted 32 cars. At the start the procession was broken 
in halves by a great rush of people, ana he had heard that a 
part of them never started at all. (Laughter.) It was utterly 
impossible to get through the people ; the enormous crowd was 
greater than that at the Lord Mayor's Show on the previous 
Monday. (Hear, hear, and applause.) The 11 cars which were 
particularly his detachment were his Syndicate's cars, and they 
were supposed to be the latest improved patterns. (Hear, hear") 
He was very pleased to be able to announce to them that every 
one of those cars was in Brighton that night. (Applause.) With 
the exception that a bolt fell out of the cylinder of the car on 
which he rode, involving half an hour's delay, he had had the 
most pleasant ride the weather would allow. (Laughter.) It 
was lovely until they got just beyond Crawley, and then it did 
rain very hard. (Laughter.) He thought the rain was helping 
them, because had the weather been fine people would have said 
they would not have brought out their cars had it been heavy 
weather. In spite of the weather, however, in spite of many 
inexperienced drivers, and in spite of the very hilly nature of 
the roads, he had a telegram to say that no fewer than 22 cars 
had arrived in Brighton — or were still on the road. (Laughter 
and applause.) The most remarkable performance of the day 
was undoubtedly that of M. Bollee, the great French inventor, 
who was there that evening. He left Brixton at half-past 11 
and arrived in Brighton at 25 minutes past 2. (Applause.) 
Mr. Lawson then gave the names of others who were among the 
earliest to arrive, and said the question was, What did all this 
mean 1 It meant that they were able to deliver goods by road 
from London to Brighton ; and they had done so that day. 
(Applause.) Now they would be able to start a carriers' wagon 
at 5 in the morning, arrive in Brighton and return again to 
London by 1 o'clock, and cnce more return and make a 
second delivery in Brighton in the afternoon by 5 o'clock, 
returning to London again by 9 o'clock in the evening. 
Proceeding, he said he believed the coach which accompanied 
them that day arranged for five changes of horses to keep up 
with them. That was 20 horses for the one journey. Of 
course, there were some trotting mares on the road which 
simply went by his car, but he pointed out that there was very 
good reason for not keeping up with them, because the law 
forbade him to travel more than 12 miles an hour, though 
trotting horses, cyclists, and butchers' boys might travel at any 
fate they liked. (Laughter.) He went on to say that that was 
the inaugural day, the birth, of one of the greatest industries 
the world had ever seen (hear, hear), because it would branch 

off in all directions. Their forefathers made great fortunes by 
the introduction of machinery, and he hoped that men of the 
present day would do the same. (Hear, hear.) According to 
the Press of that week, the safety bicycle trade, of which he 
was, as they knew, the acknowledged founder, had already 
reached an annual sale of no less than £12,000,000. And if 
that had been done with regard to cycles, what, indeed, would 
motors do ? He believed that almost every kind of domestic 
life was going to be affected by it (laughter), and that the value 
of property and land would also te affected. The Brighton 
builders gave season tickets to connect their houses with 
London. They would not do that in the future. They would 
put up a handsome little coach-house, and put a handsome little 
motor in it, and by that very motor they would connect it with 
the town. Land 10 miles outside the town would become 
almost as valuable, if there were good roads, as land in the 
interior. Now, that was an enormous item, but it was bound 
to come ; there was nothing to prevent it. He did not believe 
it would stop even there. He believed the houses themselves 
would take to moving. (Laughter.) Why should they all 
stick together in one place? Why should they not be able 
to say iu London, " We have had enough of London ; we'll be 
off to Brighton " — then put a little oil into the motor and away 
you go ! The houses moved in America, and houses were going 
to move here. They would naturally like to know what kind of 
system was employed in propelling the cars that day. In 
nearly every case oil was used, but he pointed out that the 
benzoline, which was meant by the word " oil," only escaped by 
half-drips, and that the atmosphere had an important part to 
play in supplying the motive power. When electricity was 
used the only trouble was in " charging up," but wherever the 
electric light was there they could get it charged. They simply 
had to take out one set of batteries and leave them to be 
charged while they used another lot already charged. Motor- 
cars were not fully developed yet. It seemed to him that if oil 
could give all this immense power at present, it was only for 
them to wait a few months and Great Britain would produce, 
he hoped, a car really perfect — that was to say, with much less 
noise than at present. Numbers of the cars that came that 
day were English as well as French, German, and American, 
and every one of them was a little better than the other. They 
kept on improving. He did not know a single accident that 
had happened that day — except two. (Laughter.) One of 
them he saw himself. A horse (it pained him to say) and trap 
knocked down a cyclist and ran over him. He was sorry to 
say, also, that he saw a motor-car knock down, he believed it 
was a child, at Crawley, but he was pleased to say it was not 
one of their cars. He believed, however, it was not at all the 
driver's fault, for it seemed the police had just cleared a 
pathway, and then the child dashed right across in front of the 
motor. Such an accident would happen to anyone, horse or 
motor. (Hear, hear.) People who saw his carriage in the 
Lord Mayor's procession on the previous Monday confidently 
informed him that it was driven by electricity. One man 
shouted out to him, " What about the 'osses, sir ? " He said, 
What about them? He saw that the "whip makers of Walsall" 
had been holding meetings and writing to the papers carefully 
signing themselves anonymously as " friends of the horse " 
(laughter and applause) — the poor animal with a " leg at each 
corner" which stood so much flogging from them. Oh, the 
irony of it ! Friends of the horse f After they had broken 
his heart, broken his spirit, " broken him in," as they called it, 
they put a great load behind him, and because he tried to run 
away from it and run away from them, because he could but 
drag the load with him in his vain attempts to get free, they 
said, " Behold the friend of man ! " He was afraid if they 
gave the horse a chance he would not show such friendship. 
He had a painful recollection of giving a horse a chance in 
Richmond Park the other day. He suddenly put his steering 
wheels round where his head was, while he himself went straight 
on ! And when he woke up among the dead leaves he found 
the " friend of man" had gone home. But not so the motor : 
like a fair angel of science it now stood holding out to them and 
to all Britain its dainty levers, saying, " Take me ; I am your 

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willing slave. I will work incessantly from early morning till 
late at night — all night, too, if it is only your will ; and, as your 
most humble and obedient servant and slave, I will earn the 
everlasting gratitude of mankind, the triumph of science, and 
bring wealth and prosperity to the whole nation at large." 

Mr. Van Praaob, in proposing "The Industry of Motor- 
Cars," said the day was not far off when it would be as difficult 
to think of the world without motor-cars as it was now to 
think of the world without railways. Only a year ago, when 
Mr. Lawson told him he was going to buy the Daimler motor, 
he could scarcely imagine a man speaking in that way, and he 
ventured to say there were very few in that room who knew a 
year ago about motor-cars. Mr. Lawson, in forming the British 
Motor-Car Syndicate, had brought into it three important 
factors — himself, his money, and his influence. (Applause.) By 
his influence he brought in some of the most important men 
who directed the industries of the present day, and the Syndi- 
cate set about buying all the patents of any value, making the 
industry what it should be, to place England side by side with 
Germany, and France, and America, ana other nations of the 
world. Mr. Lawson was the pioneer of this industry, and by 
his exertions, directly or indirectly, he had brought abort the 
alteration in the law without which the event of that day could 
not have occurred. The British Motor-Car Syndicate had now 
given birth to a great and important Company, the Great 
Horseless Carriage Company, which would give English engineers 
and inventors an opportunity of competing with the world in 
designing and making motor-cars. The Daimler Company had 
also been formed, and now they were on the eve of a new 
departure — an electrical cab company for London, which, he 
understood, would be launched almost at once. In conclusion, 
he eulogised the services of Lord Winchilsea in connection with 
the movement, remarking that they might be proud and grateful 
to have such a leader. (Applause.) 

Lord Winchilsea, in responding, said he had been asking 
himself whether they were that day taking part only in an 
interesting scientific experiment, or whether they had been 
founding a great national industry. He was bound to say that 
that afternoon he had felt they were making an industry very 
fast, when he found by his watch that they were working on at 
something like 24 miles an hour. (Laughter.) The impression 
that they had arrived at a very practical point in this industry 
was put in his mind as they flew over the intervening 
50 miles between London and Brighton. He must say that, 
bar weather, he had never had a more delightful ride in 
his life. (Applause.) He was delighted to find there was 
a complete absence of smell and a complete absence of 
vibration, and that the carriage was under perfect control, 
while horses had such little regard for their impending doom 
that they took no notice whatever of the car as it passed. 
(Applause.) He was struck with the attitude of the crowds 
which lined the roads everywhere. It seemed to him that 
they too felt that something more than an experiment was 
being carried out, and that a practical step forward had been 
taken to increase the facilities and enjoyment of their lives. 
Of course the legal restrictions which only came to an end 
that day had been a very serious barrier indeed to the 
prosecution of the motor-car industry in this country — so much 
bo, indeed, that practical engineers had scarcely turned their 
attention to the subject. At the same time, he believed that 
when their engineers did turn their attention to the matter 
England would not long remain behind other nations in this 
respect. Such companies as the Great Horseless Carriage Com- 
pany had great responsibilities in placing before the public 
really serviceable articles, and he hoped the public would be 
patient with them for a few months while they were perfecting 
their tyj>es, and that when they were placed in the hands of the 
public a certain amount of responsibility would rest with their 
owners, and that they would De treated with the forbearance 
due to an instrument, of whose powers those who used it had an 
imperfect knowledge. He believed motor-cars would be of the 
utmost use in collecting and distributing agricultural produce. 
(Applause.) He had long felt they would be infinitely superior 
to light railways, and the Chairmen of more than one of the 

great railways, with whom he had had an opportunity of dis- 
cussing the matter, shared that opinion ; and looked forward to 
the time when they could be supplied with motor parcels vans 
to send out to agricultural districts as feeders of their main 
lines. He was very glad to think the use of motors would be by 
no means confined to private individuals. He believed the 
Government would make large use of them to expedite and 
improve the parcels post. (Applause.) The industry would 
give employment to numbers of people, and afford an outlet for 
a great deal of capital at present locked up. Be must point out, 
on behalf of those responsible for the industry, that the motors 
already introduced might, even in the opinion of their inventors, 
be immensely improved, and that probably the motors of a few 
years hence would be very much more perfect than the motors 
of to-day ; but with that reservation he was convinced that they 
had arrived at a period at which these motors were, if not 
perfect, yet applicable for practical purposes. (Applause.) 

Sir Sohers Vine, in proposing the next toast, said those who 
were interested in this motor-car industry should acknowledge 
the hearty co-operation they had received from the representa- 
tives of the local governing authorities. The authorities might 
well be expected to be among the first to practically apply this 
industry within their respective areas, and certain it was that 
in the exercise of their judicial and administrative functions 
they would have an influence on the industry which might be 
most conducive to its prosperity. These authorities were 
represented there that night oy the Mayors of Brighton and 
Reigate, and he asked them to drink to their healths. 

The Mayor of Reigate having briefly replied, saying he 
was extremely pleased with the proceedings and speeches, 

Alderman J. G. Blakbr (Mayor of Brighton) said he was a 
little more doubtful than the previous speaker about the 
proceedings and speeches. He was quite prepared to hear 
from Mr. Lawson great things, but he was not prepared to hear 
him say that houses were likely to go about like motors. 
(Laughter.) If that was the case he was quite sure they would 
be found to be missing when the collector of rates went round 
(renewed laughter), and if that were so they would not find 
such fine roads as they did when they entered Brighton that 
day, or that electric light which had so brilliantly lighted the 
thoroughfares. In the name of the Corporation and inhabitants 
of Brighton he must cordially welcome them to the town. 

Alderman Da vet then proposed " The Press," saying he was 
proud of the independence it displayed, and glad that England 
had a Press second to none in the whole world. The toast 
having been acknowledged, 

Mr. Lawson presented M. Daimler with the handsome silver 
trophy which was won in the Paris-Marseilles race by Messrs. 
Panhard and Levassor, who desired that it should be handed to 
M. Daimler, because he was the inventor who, ten years ago, 
made the first successful oil motor. 

M. Daimler briefly replied, and the company then dispersed. 

Yesterday morning, at Brighton, there was a parade of 
motor-cars. Thirteen vehicles assembled at the Hotel Metro- 
pole, including heavy vans, cycles, and phaetons, and went 
along the front to the eastern boundary and back to the hotel, 
where the procession dispersed. Subsequently the cars were to 
be seen in various parts of the town, especially on the King's 
Road, where great crowds of people had assembled. Numerous 
photographers were at work, and several cars and groups of 
cars were taken. With few exceptions the horses at Brighton 
have shown no alarm at the motor-cars. One horse attached to 
a private carriage became alarmed when the procession returned 
to the hotel, and jum]>ed the railings in front of the building. 
It alighted safely on the pathway, but the shafts were broken, 
and the vehicle was otherwise damaged. The cars returned to 
London this (Tuesday) morning, parading at the Hotel Metro- 
pole at half-past ten. 

Some idea of the large number of persons who 
witnessed the run to Brighton may be gathered from 

Digitized by 




an experience of our own. We published a cheap 
souvenir number of The Automotor and Horseless 
Vehicle Journal, containing a programme, some infor- 
mation, and a few pictures of the carriages. The issue 
was, perhaps, one of the largest ever made by a technical 
or trade journal ; but it was exhausted in the London 
.streets in less than one hour ; while from the orders 
which rained in from the agents at least another 25,000 
could have been absorbed in the metropolis alone — to 
say nothing of the principal towns on the line of route, 
Brighton alone asking for a further supply of 5,000. 

With the object of inspecting the carriages which the 
British Motor-Car Company (Limited) and Mr. H. J. 
Lawson intended to send on the journey to Brighton, we 
recently visited the exhibit at Wembley Park. Armed with 
a permit signed by Mr. Chas. McRobie Turrell, Mr. 
Lawson's able private secretary, we examined the remark- 
ably interesting collection of motor-vehicles which has 
been' collected there. They show at a glance the progress 
which has been made on the Continent in the manufac- 
ture of these carriages ; and one is enabled to trace 
almost instantly the evolution of the automotor of 
to-day — from the original Daimler motor, constructed 
some 12 or 15 years ago, to the actual winners of the 
Paris-Marseilles race — purchased by the English Company 
and then finding a resting place at Wembley pending the 
tour to Brighton. In Mr. J. Thompson Smith the Company 
has an able and obliging representative, who kindly placed 
the whole of his exhibit at our disposal, and enabled us 
to test the smooth working and excellence of the motors 
of the various manufacturers which are represented. 
Perhaps one of the most interesting items of a long scries 
of trials was a run on the Panhard et Levassor carriage, 
which took the second prize iu the Paris-Marseilles 
contest; with the driver " up " who successfully steered it 
throughout the 10 days of tbe I'Vench run. 

What skill and an amplitnde of brake-power can 
accomplisb when accompanied with pluck was well shown 
by him. Driving his carriage at a rate of more than 
23 miles an hour down a hill, he steered it round ponds 
and obstructions with an ease which rendered ono 
oblivious of the danger which would otherwise have been 
too apparent. The certainty with which this master of the 
new art could manipulate his mechanism was shown by the 
fact that, running at full speed down hill, he could stop at 
a signal within five yards of operating the brakes. All who 
wish to see what can be done now, and who would desire 
to form an opinion of tbe future possibilities of motor- 
carriages should visit Wembley and see the most concrete 
exhibition of varied applications of motive power to road 
vehicles which at the moment of writing can be found in 
the country. 

We photographed some of the most interesting exhibits ; 
all, with the exception of the first, being among those 
which took part in the procession to Brighton. They 
are reproduced on pages 04, 65, and 66, and the following 
particulars briefly describes them; but we shall doubtless 
deal with some of them more fully in an early issue, when 
we have more space at our disposal : — 

Fig. 1.— The original Daimler motor, constructed by M. 
Uaimler, and in connection with which all his original experi- 
ments were made. It is of historical interest, and its owner 
would not allow it to be sent to this uouutry until a bond of 
something like £1,000 had been entered into to secure it safe 

return. The material used throughout is of the crudest 
description, the seat being a piece of sheet iron beut over. It is 
well worthy of inspection by all interested in automotor work. 

Fig. 2. — Daimler quadricycle, a much more recent machine, 
but still an intermediate vehicle in the stage of development. 

Fios. 3, 4, and 5. — These represent the three winning 
Panhard et Levassor carriages in the Paris-Marseilles contest. 
In Fig. 4, the driver photographed is the same who was in 
charge of the vehicle throughout the French race. 

Fio. 6. — The Dion tricycle, which has hitherto proved the 
most successful oil-motor for light work on the Continent. Its 
splendid racing performances were set out in our last issue. 

Fio. 7. — Daimler vis d-vit; about three and a half horse-power, 
with four speeds of four, seven, 11, and 14 miles an hour. 

Fio. 8. — Daimler omnibus, with six places ; five I.H.P., 
reversible at all four speeds to which it is geared ; the maximum 
rate of progress being 16 miles au hour. 

Fio. &. — Roger Victoria ; about three and a half I.H.P., 
with two speeds and two independent brakes ; maximum speed 
10 miles per hour. 

Fig. 10. — SerpolU»t steam carriage, with six seats ; fitted 
with two independent brakes ; speed about eight miles per 

Fio. 11. — Bath chair, electrically propelled on the Britannia 
Company's principle. 

Fio. 12.— Daimler phaeton ; reversible on all speeds — of 
which there are four up to 18 miles ; I.H.P., about four. 

Fio. 13. — Daimler omnibus ; four places ; for railway station 

Fio. 14. — Daimler Victoria (French type) ; reversible ; four 
speeds, maximum 16 miles per hour ; about three I.H.P.* 

^ww^^w^w^^^w^**** 1 ***^^ 


The directors of the Automobile Club have decided to 
iustitute a series of trials for heavy vehicles to be held 
early next year. These trials will last about- ten days, 
and will be divided into three classes of vehicles with 
fifteen and thirty seats and goods delivery vans. The 
programme of these trials will be published in about a 
fortnight's time. The directors have also made arrange- 
ments for the apprenticeship of auto-car repairers, who 
will be trained in the factories of the principal makers, 
and thus be fully qualified and competent to carry out iu 
different parts of the country any repairs required by the 

auto-car owner. 

M^^^^^^^^^^^^WW 1 **^ 1 ^^^ 

Journalism on the Rampaoe. — The Eoe.uiuf Standard, in 
its desire to be picturesque, is becoming inaccurate. In the 
course of a description of the Lord Mayor's Show it stated, 
with reference to the motor-carriage which took part, that " the 
stench of the j>etroleum it emitted was strong enough to excite 
a good deal of hostile comment along the whole line of route. 
If this is the case with an ordinary carriage of the brougham 
class, what is to be expected now that omnibuses, cabs, wagons, 
and carts are all to lie driven by machinery ? Cologne, one of 
the foulest-smelling towns in Europe, will be as Arabi the blest 
by the side of Loudon. It is to be hoped that someone will 
invent a respirator for the nose and mouth, containing a drug 
to neutralise the odour of petroleum." We have never con- 
tended that perfection has been reached in our infant profey', 
but a description such as this could only have been written by a 
student of romance, or by a correspondent who, not being 
present, took the " Show " for granted. 

• The photographs for these illustrations and of the other carriagi s 
appearing in this paper, which took part in the Brighton t rip, were 
specially tnken for the Avtomotok anu Hobsklkss Vkiiiclk 
Jol'aN.tL by Mr. H. W. H. Paluier, Springvulc, St. (jrermuiu's Knad, 
Forest Mill, S.K. 

Digitized by 





W. H. Andrews (Colchester). — An eugraving, showing the 
details of the motor in question, has been prepared and 
will appear in an early issue, probably the next. We are 
utterly unable lo advise you as to " exact results on a pro- 
longed run " ; you had better apply to the inventor for 
permission to make a trial. 

K. 0. Carmichael (Leith). — Your better course is to consult a 
reliable patent agent ; in our own opinion, the combination 
specifically as claimed would be good subject-matter, but 
any re-shuffling of the parts would put you out of court. 

Nemo. — Write to Chapmau and Halls for a copy of their 
catalogue ; if they have nothing to exactly suit you, Spon's 
may supply you with an American work. 

G. Moore (Newcastle-on-Tyne). — We have already arranged ; 
but thank you, and shall always be pleased to obtain 
particulars of the forthcoming novelties which you mention. 

G. S. (Liverpool}. — A gradient of one in ten can easily be 
surmounted by a Levassor carriage. For particulars as to 
prices in England, write the Great Horseless Carriage 
Company (Limited), 40, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C. 

Edward C. (Southport). — Whether you hold your shares or sell 
them must depend to a large extent upon your financial 
position. If you can afford to lock them up and wait, keep 
them, but if you want money sell them, they are unques- 
tionably speculative. 

F. C. Whitton (Essex). — We do not care to give you the infor- 

mation for which you ask. We can supply you with a list 
of the directors of the companies you mention, but it would 
not be fair to furnish the names of their confidential 
employes. If you wish to apply for a situation do so in the 
usual manner. 

G. F. (Maidstone). — Emphatically no ; we have not any axe of 

our own to grind. 

Eccles (Maida Vale). — Write to Mr. Andrew Barr, at 32, 
Moorgate Street. He will send you full particulars of the 
objects of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association. 

A. Vesey. — Communicate directly with MM. Panhard et 
Levassor, 19, Avenue d'lvry, Paris, or to the British 
Motor Company (Limited), and they will give you parti- 
culars of some vehicles which will meet your requirements. 

G. Edwards (Brixton). — Your better plan would be to finish 
the experimental motor before advertising for a partner, 
as you state that you have the means to enable you to do 
that. You will then get far better terms — if your expecta- 
tions as to the results are realised. We return -your 
drawing ; the weak point is that you have not adequately 
provided for compression. 

Novice (Manchester). — You may take it as positively certain 
that the cylinder of an engine of that power would have 
to be water-jacketted for any lengthened run. 

Novelty (Bristol). — An ether engine is very alluring, but you 
under-estimate the practical difficulties. 

Information Wanted. — Bead our description in this issue, and 
then pay a visit to Wembley Park. 

We have just received from Messrs. Whittaker and Co. two 
works on motor-carriages, viz., " Carriages Without Horses Shall 
Co," ably written by Mr. A. P*. Sennett and splendidly illus- 
trated. It is published at 2s., and is wonderfully cheap. The 
other book is " Autocars," a translation from the French of 
M. D. Farman. As these have come to hand on the eve of 
publication, we hold over detailed notices till next issue. 

Motor Cars. — Caution ! Before purchasing a motor car, wait 
and see the Britannia Company's newly patented engines, 
which require no lamp after starting, and which require no 
dangerous essence or spirit. Address, Colchester. No con- 
nection with other firms advertising in similar name. [Advt. 


Alleged Infringement of a Patent 

The patent action Magee v. Taugyes (Limited), was decided in 
the Scotch Court of Sessions on the 4th instant The plaintiff 
appeared in person ; the defendants were represented by 
Mr. Ure and Mr. Wilson, who were instructed by Messrs. 
Davidson and Syme. 

After hearing evidence, Lord Pearson disposed of a note of 
suspension and interdict presented by John Magee, engineer, 
36, Pembroke Street, Glasgow, against Taugyes (Limited), 
hydraulic and general engineers, Cornwall Works, Birmingham, 
and carrying on business there and at 96 and 98, Hope Street, 
Glasgow. The complainer averred that he was the true and 
first inventor of improvements in gas motor engines, patented 
by him in 1892, which were of great commercial value, and that 
the respondents in the course of their business had infringed 
his patent by manufacturing and selling gas motor engines 
embodying a material part of his invention. He applied for 
interdict against the infringement. The respondents pleaded 
that they had not infringed the letters patent founded on, or 
otherwise that the letters patent were invalid on several 
technical grounds, and also for the reason that the complainer 
was not the true and first inventor ; or that the invention was 
not new at the date of the patent ; that the alleged invention 
did not constitute proper subject*matter as a ground of letters 
patent, and that the invention was not useful. 

Lord Pearson decided that the respondents had not infringed 
the complainer's patent, and that the patent was invalid. He 
therefore refused the note, with expenses. 

A Motor-Car Purchase. 

In the Court of Queen's Bench, on Monday, the case of 
Koosen v. Rose was heard. 

In this Mr. John Adolphus Koosen, a gentleman residing at 
Southsea, sued Mr. S. Rose, a bicycle manufacturer, carrying 
on business at Southsea, to recover £150, the price of a motor- 
I car. Defendant denied liability. 

| Mr. Wheeler, Q.C., and Mr. W. H. Nash appeared for the 
plaintiff, while Mr. Willis, Q.C., represented the defendant. 

It appeared that last summer plaintiff was the owner of a 
Lutzmann patent motor-car, constructed to carry two, which 
had been exhibited both at the Imperial Institute and the 
Hurlingham Show. In August plaintiff aud defendant met, 
and plaintiff said that, after having had a trial of the car on 
Southsea Common, the defendant, on August 22nd, agreed to 
purchase it for £150 — £100 down and £50 in three months. A 
receipt was drawn up and signed, but plaintiff said it was not 
handed over, as defendant had not a cheque for £100 with him. 
The defendant took the car to the carnival which was held later 
in the day on Southsea Common, and on the following Monday 
he refused to pay any portion of the purchase-money or to take 
the car, which had been placed in the plaintiff's stable after 
the carnival. Plaintiff further said that the car was capable of 
going up gradients. 

The defendant contended that the contract to purchase was 
conditional on the car working satisfactorily during the carnival, 
and that as the car broke down he was under no obligation to 
complete the purchase. 

Mr. Justice Wright, at the conclusion of the evidence, said 
that plaintiff's story as to the sale was borne out by the receipt 
which had been put in, and on which the defendant made an 
endorsement. He therefore gave judgment for the plaintiff for 
the amount claimed. 

An important patent action is in progress in the Chancery 
Division of the High Court, before Mr. Justice Romer, viz., 
the Pneumatic Tyre Company (Limited) e. the East London 
Rubber Company, Limited. A talented array of counsel if 

Digitized by 


.\*>VEM IB t, I. 



engaged on both Rides, and the decision on the alleged infringe- 
ment will be awaited with great interest. As only the pleadings 
have been opened, we withhold a report until our next issue. 
The next case in the list before the same Judge is the Pneumatic 
Tyre Company (Limited) v. Friswell. 

»««*W%*««#»«%*** , ****^«* - »*W»*''»*' 


A collection of interesting objects was recently collected at the 
Royal Aquarium under the title of the Craftsmen's and 
Industrial Exhibition. There was little to specially interest our 
readers, with the exception of the stand of Messrs. New and 
Mayne, of Palace Chambers, Westminster. This enterprising 
firm, besides a varied collection of electric-light fittings ana 
sundries, showed a Woolf-Muller bicycle operated by a petro- 
leum motor, the oil used being a safe form of benzoline. 
Although there are many points in connection with this machine 
which need perfecting— indeed, we believe that a new type will 
be shortly placed on the market — it is an interesting object. At 
the meeting of the Manchester Wheelers it is credited with a 


ruu at the rate of 30 iniltu iu an hour, and it had covered a mile at 
Oatford in 2£ minutes. It has been run comfortably from 
Woking to Devizes, and was frequently seen in various parts of 
Surrey until the police interfered. Another object wnich is 
well worth inspection is the well-known New-Mayne patent 
electric rudder-motor. To those who are iu search of an ingenious 
and efficient power for the propulsion of small motor boats, we 
can cordially recommend this as worthy of investigation and 
trial. We herewith illustrate an automotor laundry van just 
completed by Messrs. New and Mayne. This vehicle took |>art 
in the tour to Brighton on Saturday last. 

Ha hirdetok irjak kerunk a "The Automotor and Horse- 
less Vehicle Journal " gondolni. 

Acetylene Motor-Cars. — The Journal of Oas Lighting 
states that a firm of Italian engineers has recently built some 
miniature motor-cars for which acetylene serves as the motive 
power. The charge consists of acetylene diluted with 15 times 
its volume of air ; and with this mixture it has been found 
unnecessary to use water for cooling the cylinder. The method 
of igniting the charge has not been divulged. According to the 
" Gastechniker," the motors maintain a speed of 600 revolutions 
throughout a working period of 15 hours. The weight is only 
about 20 lbs. ; and 0'8 brake horse-power is developed. The 
cost of working is said to be about - 6rf. per hour. 

In our last issue we gave brief particulars of the results 
of the horseless-carriage races held at the Rhode Island 
State Fair. Now that our American exchanges are to 
hand we are able to give fuller particulars, aud the 
Horseless Age supplies us with the following particulars : — 

Out of the twelve original entries only eight started. 
These were the Duryea Motor- Wagon Company, J. Frank 
Dnryea, Geovge Henry Hewitt, Fiske Warren, George H. 
Morrill, jun , William M. Ashley and Son, Riker Electric 
Motor Company, and the Electric Carriage and Wagon 
Company. The last two were electric vehicles, the first 
being an entirely new one and the second the " Electro- 
bat," which received the gold medal at Chicago last 
autumn. All the remaining wagons were of the Duryea 
model, one being entered by the Duryea Company and 
the rest by private purchasers. 

On Monday, September 7th, about 5.30 p.m., the 
carriages were called upon the track, and numbers were 
assigned to them, as is customary in horse racing. 

Each carriage being required to carry a weight of at 
least 165 pounds iu addition to the driver, all prefeired 
to take this in the form of an extra passenger, who was 
either an employe, or friend of the owner, or some well- 
known student of the subject. 

All the contestants were sent back some distance behind 
tho post for the start, and came up in good order. At the 
word the electric-carriages shot ahead, followed by the 
entry of the Duryea Motor- Wagon Company. The other 
Duryea wagons were road-wagons not geared for high 
speed, and they fell back from the start. Throughout the 
five miles dnsh the electric-carriages gradually increased 
their lead, finishing close together, the Riker carriage first. 

The first Duryea wagon was about three-quarters of a 
mile behind the winners. 

A very strong wind was blowing, and the track, while 
fast for horses, was too rough and lumpy in parts for 
motor-carriages. The time of the four leading vehicles 
for the first heat was as follows : — 

Eiker Electric Motor Company 15 m. la 

Electric Carriage and Wagon Company .... 15 ni. 14 s. 

Duryea Motor Wagon Company 18 m. 47 s. 

William Ashley and Son 20 m. 59 s. 

As this was the first heat ever run on a track between 
motor-vehicles, it is reasonable to suppose that the con- 
testants felt new and strange, and could not do themselves 
full justice. On the second day, however, they gained 
courage, and determined to improve on the time of the 
previous day. 

At the word the Riker vehicle took the lead, as on the 
first day, maintaining it to the finish, closely followed by 
the Duryea wagon and the wagon of the Electric Carriage 
and Wagon Company. 

This heat was closely contested by the three leaders, 
and evoked great enthusiasm from the spectators. Tho 
time was a considerable improvement over that of the 
preceding day. 

Riker Electric Motor Company 13 m. 6 s. 

Duryea Motor Wagon Company 13 in. 13s. 

Electric Carriage and Wagon Company .... 1 I m. 33 s. 

William Ashley aud Son ... Hi m. 31 s. 

Digitized by 




VKMBBB, 1896. 

On Wednesday and Thursday a violent north-easterly 
storm prevailed throughout that section of New England. 
Rain fell in torrents, and the wind played havoc with 
the shows and with the plans of the management, and, 
therefore, all races were declared off on these two days. 

On Friday the weather cleared, and by the afternoon 
the track was in good condition. 

The electric carriages dashed off at a two-minute pace, 
closely followed by the Dnryea wagon. A little beyond the 
half-mile the Duryea wagon was pulling up with the two 
electrics when a tyre punctured, and the wagon gradually 
lost headway. The Riker carriage maintained its lead 
until the home stretch was reached, when the other 
electric spurted ahead and crossed the line a second 
ahead of its rival. Much better time was made by all 
the entries in the third heat, scarcely one falling below 
the 15 miles an hour limit. The times of the fourwinners 
were as follows : — 

Electric Carriage and Wagon Company .... 1 1 m. 27 a. 

Biker Electric Motor Company 11 m. 28 e. 

Duryea Motor Wagon Company 11m. 59 s. 

William Ashley and Son 15 m. 47 s. 

The race was conducted by the Association under the 
general rules applied to trotting races, and the awards 
were made upon this basis. The conditions called for a 
20-mile race of tive heats of five miles each, one on each 
of the five successive days of the fair, but as unfavourable 
weather prevented the completion of more than three heats, 
three-fifths of the purse only was divided in the following 
proportions : — First money, to the Riker Electric Motor 
Company, of Brooklyn, N.Y., 900 dollars ; second, to the 
Electric Carriage and Wagon Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 450 dollars ; third, to the Duryea Motor- Wagon 
Company, 270 dollars ; fourth, to William Ashley and 
Son, -Springfield, Mass., 180 dollars. 

Public interest in the motor races in Providence and 
vicinity was very keen, and quite a number of students 
of the new method of locomotion came from distant points 
to witness the trial of speed. 

The electric carriages weighed from 2,200 to 2,500 lbs. 
in racing trim, including passengers, the heavier of the 
two being that of the Electric Carriage and Wagon 
Company. The leading Duryea wagon weighed about 
1,200 lbs. all on. 

The fastest mile was covered by the Riker electric 
carriage, the time being 2 minutes 13 seconds. 

It was quite generally commented on by the audience 
that the electric vehicles made as much or more noise than 
the gasoline at high speed. 

Professor W. H. Pickering, of Harvard University, acted 
as Chairman of the Board of Judges. 

From the Chairman of the Judges. 

Cambridge, Mass., 

September 20th, 1896. 
Now that the Providence races are over, and we have had an 
opportunity to examine and weigh the results, I think we must 
conclude that some very valuable information has been obtained. 
Unlike the Chicago and New York competitions, this was a 
speed contest pure and simple. Only eight vehicles were 
entered for competition, and, therefore, according to the 
published rules governing the races, no other points were 
considered by the judges. The comparison between the electric 
and gasoline carriages was particularly interesting, and the 
results were quite different from those obtained at Chicago. 
No electric carriages were entered in the New York uoutest. 
While at Chi'iago the electric carriages were badly beaten, at 

Providence both of those entered came out with flying colours, 
distinctly in advance of the best gasoline engine. 

The reasons for this difference are obvious. In Chicago the 
race lasted several hours, and the course lay over a rough and 
very difficult track. In Providence, on the other hand, the race 
lasted but a few minutes, and the course lay over a hard and 
perfectly level road. Both vehicles, doubtless, have been much 
improved since the Chicago race ; but were it to be tried over 
again to-morrow, we cannot doubt that the result would be 
the same. 


— * — 

Not a Novelty. — " A fine idea these new horseless carriages 
are, and what a novelty ! " 

" Novelty ? Not a bit of it. I travelled in one more than 
thirty years ago, when I was a little child." 

" Nonsense ! Where 1 " 

" At Margate. It was in a railway train." 

The H 'estminster cartoon for the month of October, by Mr. E. 
Blomfield, quaintly represents some woe-begotten quadrupeds 
looking over a fence at autorootors and motor-driven bicycles 
careering gaily by. Above their heads is a board with the 
inscription : — " Horses for sale, very cheap ; no reserve. 
Reduction made if bought by the dozen. Premises to be 
used for motor-car sheds." The prophetic newspaper quotatiou 
at the foot of the picture is as under : — " [The establishment 
of so many autocar and motor-car companies in Victoria Street 
is causing grave concern to the equine interest, who foresee 
with sorrow that their services may soon be at a discount. — 
Vide Daily Press.]." 

Thk Entfaete expects that the motor-carriage will bring about 
the destruction of a good number of old horses, in which case we 
may expect to find some of our beef-essences quoted at lower 
prices than those which now obtain. 

Our contemporary Answer* recently published an amusing 
article on the future of horseless carriages, the illustrations 
accompanying it showing a run with the hounds on a motor 
"bike"; a cricket match, England v. Australia, played on 
wheels ; the Derby of 190(5, ridden on wooden horses profiled 
by motors ; a convenient suburban residence being removed on 
wheels by a tractor to the seaside ; and an excited crowd at the 
Zoo inspecting a " very rare animal " — the horse — described as 
the " Equs Cabullus ; born in the menagerie." 

The motor is not to have it all its own way. Someone in 
Perthshire is advertising for a ''steady, respectable man as 

Our contemporary the Referee recently celebrated its 
thousandth number by a special and exceedingly interesting 
issue. "Dagonet," in the course of an amusing attempt to 
forecast the contents of the two thousandth number, gives 
the following as an extract from it: — "The Zoological Society 
have been fortunate in securing a splendid specimen of that 
now almost extinct animal, the horse. It will no doubt be an 
object of great inteiest to the thousands of young people who 
have heard their parents speak of this once-popular beast of 
burden, but have never seen one themselves." Verb. sap. 

The Daily Mail celebrated the 14th inst. with a humorous 
forecast of the autoiuotor carriage in 1921. One picture, repre- 
senting the |>etroleum-driven sportsmen of the future stalking 
wild horses, was very funny. 

A Cycle, Tyre, and Motor-Car Exhibition is to be held in the 
Royal Dublin Society's premises at Ballsbridge, Dublin, from 
the 16th to the 23rd of January, 1897. Applications for space 
should be made to Mr. R. Wilson, 14, D'Olier-street, Dublin. 

Digitized by 

Go ogle 




A New Solid Rubber Tyre. 

Messks. J. W. and T. Connolly and Co., of Wharf dale 
Road, King's Cross, London, are the introducer.* of the 
"Ideal " tyre, which, although comparatively new in this 
country, is a tried and proved success in the United 
States. It comes from the land of its origin with 
unquestionable evidence in its favour, as most of the 
leading carriage-makers have sent testimonials in its 
favour— until they bulk up into a very considerable 
volume. Many of those who have fitted it to all descrip- 
tions of vehicles state that they prefer it to all other 
makes, and in proof of their faith in it have discarded 
other tyres which they had previously u^sed, and rely 
entirely on this one. We have had an opportunity 
recently of testing this tyre, and we are of opiuion that 
it is exceedingly well suited to automotor carriage work 
of all kinds, and will be extensively employed in this 
industry. The details of the construction of the tyre 
and the mean3 of securing it will be readily seen from 
the following illustrations : — 

polis. It is claimed that the amount of rubber used in 
one of their lj-inch sections is great or than that con- 
tained in an English section of lf-inch. The broad fact 
that in America there are more than 10,000 sets of wheels 
running with these tyres without any complaint will 
doubtless be the most effective testimonial in its favour. 

The Britannia Company's Motor. 

Experiments have been in progress for some months : 
past at the Britannia Company's works in Colchester, 
with a view to the perfection of an engine and auto-car to 
meet the requirements of the Act. The engine is very 
small and light for its power. 

The motor and carriage are not yet quite completed, 
but we trust in an early issue to publish a sectional. 
detail and the result of an experimental ride on the 
vehicle. In the meantime we publish an external view 
of the motor, which is to be celled the " Facile." 

Amongst the many advantages which are justly 
claimed for it we think the most important may be 
briefly summarised as follows : — From the method in 
which the tyre is fastened on to the rim by two 
heavy endless wires it is a mechanical impossibility for 
the tyre to roll out of its rim, while the rim cannot 
cut or injure the rubber. Here we may incidentally 
mention the fact that the material used in making the 
tyre is of the best quality, and is quito equal to that used 
by our own leading manufacturers. In consequence of 
the method of making, and the high-class character of 
the robber, it is found possiblo to highly compress the 
rubber in placing it upon the wheel, su that, should 
the tyre be cut or damaged by contact with sharp stones, 
bottle glass, or any undesirable obstacles of that kind, it 
will rapidly close up, and no distinguishable injury is 
sustained. As a consequence the wheel rims look fresh 
and well, even after a considerable amount of hard wear. 
Those in search of a reliable tyre for all kinds of work, 
which . will stand all sorts of usages and still ride 
smoothly, should communicate with Messrs. Connolly, 
who have already introduced it largely into the metro- 

Tho advantages claimed by the manufacturers are the 
following : — 

1. Great simplicity. 

2. Automatic ignition after a few minutes of pre- 

liminary heating. 

3. No heating tube is required, hence the burstings 

and renewals are avoided. 

4. A battery is not used. 

5. An impulse takes place every revolution. 

We look forward with interest to a test of this motor 
and carriage. 

Gearing for Motor-Cars. 

A PATENT has been taken out by Mr. Nightingale, of 
Chester, for an improved gearing for bicycles and motor- 
carriages. The chain is so constructed that it runs on a . 

Digitized by 




drum between discs on stnds, pins, or rollers, which are 
said to " give it tremendous gripping power, and at the 
same time reduces friction to a minimum." The gearing 
can be changed at will for one of greater or smaller 
diameter, to suit the rider's choice, thus adapting the 
machine for hill-climbing. The advantages claimed by 
the patentee aro that it is impossible for the chain to kink 
or slip. The chain differs in design from any other, and 
although each section is made of solid steel of great 
strength, it is lighter than those in ordinary use, its 
weight being only J lb. The sections are so formed that 
it can be worked over a much smaller driving-wheel than 
those at present in use for high gears. On account of the 
chain running between discs there will bo no necessity 
for a gear-case, and there is no danger of the clothing 
getting entangled in the gearing, as only a smooth surface 
is presented, the conical portion of the groove facing 


The electrical carriage which is here illustrated is 
operated on the Bersey system, and the rights in it are 
held by the Universal Electric Carriage Syndicate 
(Limited), 39, Victoria Street, Westminster. 

The accumulators are of special patented design and 
suited to the variations of discharge which are at times 
necessary. Instead of usiug an ordinary fluid electrolyte, 
a special " afluidic " or " dry " material is used, thus 
practically converting the cell into a dry battery. The 
many advantages of this are obvious, among others being 
the impossibility of spilling, splashing, and spraying of 
acid in the carriage. The strength is regulated by a 
single driving switch, giving any degree of speed required 

downwards. This gearing will, it is stated, be exhibited 
at the Stanley Show. 

It has occurred to a lady resident in the outer London 
suburbs to patent a detachable motor, which shall be 
alike available for a family carriage, a farm wagon, a 
common cart, a plough, a thrashing machine, or a chuff- 
cutter. She has given her motor the figure of a horse, on 
which the driver may or may not sit, on the assumption 
that the real live horse already in possession may not 
take with kindly sympathy to its rival. 

" The coming of the motor-car," writes a correspondent in the 
Illustrated and Dramatic News, " seems to me to be a certainty as 
far as parcel traffic is concerned. The wear and tear of London 
van horses has immensely increased of late. In the large 
establishments the average working life of a horse is but three 
years, although each pair-horse van has two pairs, and each 
'single one two. I am sure that for the quick- trotting vanner 
the demand will be much less in the future, and I strongly 
advise breeders and farmers to turn their attention from these 
to other sources of profit." 

and also causing the vehicle to run either forward or 
backward. Re-charging can be readily effected, as the 
accumulators are carried in a tray, which slides into a 
well in the vehicle. A fresh set can be substituted for a 
discharged one in two minutes. 

These carriages are lighted by electric lamps, supplied 
from the same accumulators working the vehicle. 

An average run for a carriage is about 35 miles at 
about eight miles per hour without taking in a fresh supply 
of storage batteries. 

Two motors arc used in each vehicle, connected through 
a special two-speed gear to each of the carriage wheels. 
The speeds may be readily altered by the driver. The 
whole of the motors and gear and also the carriage wheels 
are run on special ball bearings. The steering is very 
easy, and can be readily acquired with a very small 
amount of practice. 

Om De maatte reflectere ovenstaaende Avertissement, behag 
da ta novue "The Ahtomotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Digitized by 





Is our last issue we published a photograph of Sir David 
Salomons, the President of the Self-Propelled Traffic 
Association, and in this, "which is published a few days 
after the legalisation of such vehicles on our roads, it is, 
we think, appropriate to select Mr. Andrew Barr as the 
subject for our portrait gallery. As Secretary of the 
Association of which Sir David is the President, Mr. Barr 
lias many qualifications in his favour. He is young, 
energetic, and clever, but besides all these attributes, 
invaluable as they are in themselves, as Secretary of the 
Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers and a member 
of the Coachmakers' Company it was a happy idea to ally 
him with the automotor vehicle. He has formed the 
connecting link between the old order of things and the 

new, and his unique position has enabled him to assist in 
bringing together the somewhat antagonistic elements 
which are comprised in the coachbuilders of to-day and 
the engineers who are hopeful of displacing the horse 
by steam, gas, or electrical power equivalents. The 
importance of combination in this matter can scarcely 
be overestimated — the coachmaker is as essential to the 
evolution of the horseless vehicle of the streets as the 
engineer, aud without the hearty co-operation of the two 
the ideal vehicle which we all hope to see — and to own — 
will be almost an impossibility. 

The constitution of the Self-Propelled Traffic Associa- 
tion has assisted, materially in the getting together of an 
able and independent council. When a body of men of 
high standing are combined to obtain the repeal of an 
obnoxious law, without any ulterior objects in view, 
success can hardly fail to attend their efforts ; and the 

ltimate result of the labours and advice of the President 

of this Association, and of its Council and Secretary, is to 
be found in the Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896, and 
the Local Government Board regulations, which we 
publish in another column. The aim of this public- 
spirited body has been not the aggrandisement of a few, 
but the welfare of the many, and as a natural consequence 
their representations have been treated with deserved ■ 
respect by the great public departments and by the 
Minister in charge of the Government measure of last 

Like Sir David, Mr. Barr is by no means an enemy of 
the horse. In response to an interviewer he gave vent 
to the following views : — 

"With regard to the equine world it will mean the 
survival of the fittest. We shall have good horses. The 
lame, the halt, the blind, and the ' roaring,' will go to 
the knacker's. There will be no use for the five-pound- 
ten ' work-hini-till-he-drops-down-dead ' animal which 
some omnibus and cab proprietors are in the habit of 
sending out to be ' used up ' after dark. Our eyes will 
no longer be greeted with the spectacle of curious people 
crowding round the corpse of a horse which is awaiting 
the van that is to take it to the tan-yard. Horses will 
still be ridden and driven for pleasure, but for commercial 
purposes they will be almost universally discarded, so 
soon as the self-propelling cart is a recognised boon to 
every tradesman." 

" Who will be the first to adopt the horseless carriage, 
do you think '< " — " The omnibus companies, without a 
doubt. Why ? Why, because they will save what they 
now spend on the up-keep of their horses — that is to 
say, they will save on each pair of horses from a pound 
to twenty-five shillings a week, and as each 'bus requires 
about five teams, the saving in horseflesh, stabling, and 
stablemen's wages will be very considerable. As far 
back as 1834 an omnibus used to run from Paddington 
to Regent's Park and the City, carrying 14 passengers 
at 6d. per head. It is certainly strange that 60 years 
have been allowed to pass by without an attempt being 
made in London to organise self-propelling vehicles of 
the same kind." 

" I suppose there wouldn't be so many ' blocks ' in the 
traffic if horses were dispensed with ? " — " Well, there 
would be far more room, and, as the traffic would be less 
congested, self-propelling vehicles would widen the streets 
without making any charge for it. Another important 
advantage would be the diminution of the wear and tear 
which the streets suffer from the horses' hoofs. . There 
would be a lot more room, you see, considerably less 
noise, a great saving in road-mending, and not half so 
much work for the hospitals in the shape of street 

" But I suppose these self-propelled vehicles would 
occasionally cannon into one another ? " — " Accidents 
of that sort would be very few and far between. A self- 
propelled carriago can be manoeuvred as easily as a 
tricycle. Besides, there would be no loss of life occasioned 
by runaway horses." 

" Can't the autocar run away ? "— " No, nor blow up. 
The autocar, you must understand, is in very much tho 
same stage now as the steam-engine was in 1820. But 
invention is encouraged in these (.lays as much as it was 
stifled in those ; so that directly the ' driving ' of a Belf- 
propelled carriage in the streets is made legal, the 
manufacture of the New Vehicle will spring up all over 
the country." 

Digitized by 




With this slight statement of his opinions on anto- 
motors in general we mast, leave Mr. Andrew Barr for 
the present, with the addition of an opinion of oar own, 
that he is distinctly the right man to hold a none too 
easy post, viz.. that of smoothing the difficulties in the 
way of the transition of the carriages of to-day into the 
automotors of: the fnture. 


Compiled for "Thb Automotob and Hobsblbss Vkhiolb Journal" 
by Hbrbebt Haddan and Co.. Registered Patent Agents, of 
18, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C., London. 

Patents Applied For. 

20,951. September 22nd, 1896. W. 8. Ross and W. 
Alexander. Improvements in driving gear for auto-cars and 
other vehicles and navigable vessels. 

21,101. September 23rd, 1896. W. Lowe and G. R. Wilford. 
Improvements in velocipedes, motor-cycles, motor-cars, and the 

21,114 September 23rd, 1896. W. H. Deavillb. Improve- 
ments in motor wagons and vehicles for common roads. 

21,122. September 23rd, 1896. E. A. Ashcroft. Improve- 
ments in the propulsion of bicycles, tricycles, motor carriages, 
and like vehicles. 

21,136. September 24th, 1896. F. Lister. Improved oil or 
gas engine applicable for use in the propulsion of vehicles. 

21,264. September 25th, 1896. F. C. Blake. Pneumatic 
spring or vibration insulator for motor-cars or other vehicles. 

21,274. September 25th, 1896. W. J. Munden. Improve- 
ments in motor vehicles. 

21,307. September 25th, 1896. W. J. Perrett. Improve- 
ments in motor-cars. (L. Lockert, France.) 

21,330. September 26th, 1896. A. Baoshaw and J. T. B. 
Bennett. Improvements in driving chains for use in bicycles, 
tricycles, velocipedes, motor-cars, carriages, vehicles, and other 
such purposes. 

21,429. September 28th, 1896. W. Woolf. Improvements 
in driving chain for bicycles, tricycles, and other velocipedes 
and horseless carriages. 

21,558. September 29th, 1896. E. Thomson. Improvements 
in and connected with gearing for motor-cars and such like. 

21,675. September 30th, 1896. C. M. Johnson. Improve- 
ments in and connected with motor carriages. 

21,697. September 30th, 1896. F. W. Lanchester. Improve- 
ments in power-propelled vehicles. 

21,731. October 1st, 1896. W. Richardson, A. Richardson, 
aud S. Green. Improvements in velocipedes, bicycles, tricycles, 
motor-cars, and other road wheel machines. 

21,743. October 1st, 1896. C. M artel. Improvements in 
the construction of hydro- carburetted air engines, and in their 
application to tram and other road carriages. (Date applied for 
May 5th, 1896.) 

21,772. October 1st, 1896. F. W. Lanchester. Improve- 
ments in power-propelled vehicles. 

21,802. October 2nd, 1896. S. Gorton, W. Taylor, and 
The New Beeston Cycle Co., Ltd. Improvements in or 
relating to velocipedes, auto-cars, and the like. 

21,821. October 2nd, 1896. A. Pflueoer. A new or 
improved alarm signal device for use on tramcars, motor-cars, 
and like vehicles. 

21,968. October 3rd, 1896. C. A. Bouneviallb. Improve- 
ments in driving gear for cycles, motor-cars, and similar vehicles. 

22,085. October 6th, 1896. A. Blechynden. Improvements 
in self-propelled vehicles. 

22,090. October 6th, 1896. D. Cutler. Improvements in 
driving mechanism for cycles, common road vehicles, and 
machines generally. 

22,144 October 6th, 1896. The British Thomson-Houston 

Co., Ltd. Improvements in electric or other motor-trucks. 
(N. C. Bassett.) 

22,261. October 8th, 1896. L. B. Tristram. Protector from 

22,286. October 8th, 1896. W. H. Waud. -Improvements 
in gas or vaporised-oil driven locomotives or cars. 

22,412. October 9th, 1896. F. F. Wellington, E. P. Allam, 
and H. W. W. Drdmmonds. Improvements in or connected 
with reversing gear for motor-driven vehicles. 

22,453. October 10th, 1896. W. A. Martin. Improved 
driving gear for motor road cars. 

22,609. October 12th, 1896. A. J. Bodlt. Improvements 
in or relating to driving and guiding mechanism for self- 
propelled and similar vehicles. (G. Lacoste and H. O. Duncan.) 

22.637. October 13th, 1896. G. Priestly. Improvements 
in cycles, motor-carriages, and vehicles of a similar character. 

22,668. October 13th, 1896. C. Bdrgess. New or improved 
chain speed gear for motor- vehicles. 

22,738. October 13th, 1896. The Steam Carriage and 
Waoon Co., Ltd., and J. E. Thornycroft. Improvements in 
motor-propelled vehicles. 

22,979. October 14th, 1896. L. Gunn. An automatic 
signalling appliance for motors, auto-cars, and ordinary carriages. 

22,871. October 15th, 1896. W. Simpson, W. L. Bodman, 
and D. H. Simpson. Improvements in the construction of 
steam generators for motor-vehicles. 

22,915. October 15th, 1896. T. Coulthard, jun. Im- 
provements connected with the driving gear of auto-cars or 
mechanically-propelled vehicles. 

22,922. October 16th, 1896. W. T. Bdrbey and H. A. 
Hutton. Improvements in and connected with motor-cars. 

23,066. October 16th, 1896. R. J. Wilkinson. Improve- 
ments in brakes for cycles, carriages, motor-cars, and other 
road vehicles. 

23,174. October 19th, 1896. E. T. Wainwrioht. Improve- 
ments in or relating to the construction of carriages (road 
vehicles), horse or horseless. 

23,265. October 20th, 1896. J. M. Collins. Improvements 
in the driving mechanism of velocipedes and motor-cars. 

23.337. October 21st, 1896. R H. Smith. Oscillant driving 
wheels for motor-carriages. 

23,386. October 21st, 1896. G. Mabbctt and B. G. Price. 
Improvements in bicycles, tricycles, and other velocipedes, and 
in motor-cycles. 

23,424. October 22nd, 1896. J. Graham, Balbride, Carlogie 
Road, Carnoustie. An improvement in the apparatus for 
steering of vehicles, motor-cars, and the like. 

23,604. October 23rd, 1896. J. Roots and C. E. Venablbs. 
Improvements in or connected with oil motors for vehicles, 
cycles, boats, and the like. 

23,615. October 23rd, 1896. M. Archer. Improvements 
in auto-cars aud like vehicles. 

23,802. October 26th, 1896. J. 0. O'Brien. Improvements 
in auto-cars. (L. M. D. Triouleyre.) 

23,825. October 26th, 1896. H. Belcher and A. H. Niblett. 
Improvements in or relating to motor-vehicles. 

23,992. October 28th, 1896. R. A. Marples. A new system 
of electrical propulsion for cycles, and common road and other 

24,058. October 28th, 1896. R A. Marsh. Improvements 
in gas and oil motors, especially applicable to motors intended 
for the propulsion of vehicles. 

24,085 October 29th, 1896. W. Angus, and D. Lewars. 
Improvements in the method of attaching motors to road 
carriages, vans, and other vehicles. 

24,154. October 29th, 1896. A. Roubleff. Improved means 
for preventing or reduciug vibrations and shocks in motor-cars, 
cycles, and other vehicles. 

24,280. October 31st, 1890. F. R Simms. Roller springs 
for motor-cars and other vehicles. 

24,306. October 31st, 1896. T. MoCartbr and T. Cooper. 
Improvements in fluid pressure motors. 

24.338. October 31st, 1896. H. H. Mulliner. Improve- 
ments in motor-carriages. 

__ Digitized by 




Specifications Published. 

16,068, August 27th, 1895. Propulsion of road or other 
vehicles. Michael Holroyd Smith, 161, Trinity Road, Upper 
Tooting, Surrey, Engineer. 

According to this invention it is proposed to employ a small 
explosive engine such as indicated at a, which drives directly 
or otherwise an air-pump or compressor such as b, which 
serves to charge a receiver c, which supplies the comprested air 
to a small air-engine d running at a high velocity, and com- 
municating its power to the shaft it is required to drive or to the 
axle or wheels of the vehicle either directly or by means of 
worm or other gearing. 

In order to secure lightness, which is especially desirable in 
the case where the above arrangement is employed to operate a 
motor-car, the air receiver c may be made to serve as the 
foundation or bed plate for the explosive and air engines, and the 
oil-tank may be placed either below the receiver or in any con- 
venient part of the vehicle, the stopping, starting, and speed of 
the air-engine d being controlled by valves and operating 
handles placed so as to be easily operated. 

When compressed air escapes from the exhaust-pipe of an 
air-engine intense cold is usually produced, which may cause 
the outlets to become choked, and it is therefore proposed to 
employ an arrangement such as that shown, in which the 
the water in the jacket round the explosive engine cylinder a 
circulates by means of a pipe 1, tank 2, and pipe 3, round the 
exhaust port and cylinder, if desired, of the air-engine d, and 
thus imparts the heat the water has derived from contact with 
the explosive cylinder, to the ports, &c., of the air-engine, the 
water, which has then fallen considerably in temperature, being 
returned by pipe 4 to the cylinder a, which it thus tends to 
keep cool. 

A valve arrangement for supplying the compressed air to the 
explosive cylinder for producing the compression charge (and 
thus saving the engine the work of compressing on its return 
stroke) is used, in which a piston- valve reciprocated by some 
moving part, and having a regulated stroke, works in a 
casing, preferably cylindrical, situated beneath or near to the 
cylinder a. 

When an explosive engine operating in the ordinary manner 
is running and charging the receiver c, the pressure of air in 
the receiver may be made to operate a valve controlling the 
engine, and the arrangement may be used alone or in conjunction 
with a centrifugal governor. 

As the duty of the explosive engine is to keep the receiver 
charged, thus maintaining a pressure and volume of air to work 
the air-engine, it follows that if the air-engine is doing light 
work the pressure in the receiver will rise and the load upon 
the gas-engine increase, and, unless some provision were made, 
the receiver would burst or the gas-engine be pulled up, and 
therefore it is proposed to employ a relief arrangement which 
may be a separate valve, or made in conjunction with the 
valves of the air compressor 6, in which the inlet valve of the 
air-pump chamber is controlled by a diaphragm in a passage 
leading from the exit valve to the receiver. 

The axle is driven by means of worm gearing contained in a 
casing, the receiver c being then arranged in the form of 
tubular chambers placed above and below the main axle, so that 
a low centre of gravity is obtained, or said receiver may be in 
the form of a coil or in other suitable forms. 

11,552. May 27th, 1896. Means for switching current, 
applicable for electric motor-cars operated by a mixed supply. 
Clemens Adam, 7, Tulpenstrasse, Hanover, Germany. 

This invention relates to a switch device for those electrio 
motor-cars wherein the current is supplied in sections from the 
outside and from an accumulator battery carried on the cars. 

The present invention affords an extremely simple method or 
means of switohing current, by means of which both useless 
consumption of energy and interruptions in the working caused 
by seizing wrong handles, short circuiting, and the like are 

The improved method of switching is based on the use of two 
switch drums coupled in a peculiar manner, one of which 
operates the switching on or off of the current during the 
starting or stopping of the car, the other the switching on of 
the batteries in parallel and in series, whilst a main switch 
assumes various fixed positions in order to allow of current 
being sent simultaneously either into the motor and the 
batteries, or into the batteries alone, or from the outside con- 
ductor to the motor, or finally from the batteries to the motor. 

In the drawing, the three switching devices are indicated by 
the letters A, B, and C. The two switch drums A and B are 
arranged on a common spindle D with which the drum A may 
revolve whilst the drum B is revoluble independently on said 

Both drums are also connected in a peculiar manner, as will 
be more particularly described hereinafter. 

The main switch C, which is. independent of the spindle D, 
comprises two switch arms Ic and I connected by a link and 
contacts c', <?, c', c*, also an arm m attached to the arm k with 
contacts m' and m' and concentrically arranged contacts c*, c 4 , e», C*. 
The arrangement is so contrived that the main switch can assume 
three different positions. In the position shown in the figure, 
the switch arm k rests on the contact c 1 and the switch arm I 
on C The contacts c 4 , c', and c', c* are simultaneously intercon- 
nected, whilst contacts c 1 , c', c», c* are out of contact with the 
contacts »»', m*. 

The connections of the separate contacts and brushes with the 
halves of the battery I and II with the outside conductor n, with 
the two drums A and B, the armature o, the field coils p, and 
resistances R 1 , R', R*, R», and with the lamps L : , L J , L* L', and 
L* are shown in the drawing and can easily be understood. 

Printed Copie* of the above Specification* Published may be 
obtained by forwarding \s. for cost of each copy and pottage 
to Messrs. Herbert Haddan and Co. Applications not yet 

Motor-car Passenger Insurance. — A new departure in 
accident insurance has been made by the Whitehall Review in 
conjunction with the Ocean Insurance Company. Our contem- 
porary has signalised the inception of the motor-car era by 
insuring its readers for £1,000 in case of fatal accident*. 

Digitized by 




November 16, 1896, and will CLOSE on or before 
WEDNESDAY, November 18, at twelve noon, for 
Town and Country. 

This Company will work under a sole license from the 
British Motor Syndicate, Limited, and will at once 
contract with the Great Horseless Carriage Company, 
Limited, for the manufacture of electric cabs, which 
will be- let out to ply for hire in the public streets. 




SHARE CAPITAL • £150,000. 


Payable — 5«. on application, 5*. on allotment, and the 

balance of 10s. two months after allotment. Of this 

issue £100,000 in cash or shares is for working 


H. R. PATERSON, Director of Carter, Paterson, and Co., Limited, 

The Hon. REGINALD BROUGHAM, Director of the London 

Electric Supply Corporation, Limited. 
H. H. MULLINER, Director of the Coupe and Dunlop Brougham 

Company, Limited, and Chairman of Mulliners, Limited. 
The Hon. EVELYN ELLIS, Director of the Great Horseless Carriage 

Company, Limited. 
J7 H. MACE, Director of the Daimler Motor Company, Limited, and 

of the Northampton Street Tramways Company. 


K1NCAID, WALLER, and MANVILLE, 29, Great George-street, 
Westminster, S.W. 


ASHURST, MORRIS, CRISP, and CO., 17, Throgmorton-aveimc, 


and all Branches. 


G. H. and A. M. JAY, 17, Old Broad-street, and Stock Exchange, 
London, E.C. 


MONKHOUSE, STONEHAM, and CO., 23 and 29, St. Swithin's- 
lane, B.C. 

MAURICE JENKS, A.C.A., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. 


This Company has been formed to place on the streets of London 
electrically-propelled cabs (British Motor Syndicate Patents), to 
supersede the present hansoms and four-wheeled cabs. 

There can be little doubt that electricity is about to become the 

motive power for cat) traffic in London, and the Act of Parliament 
passed hist session (coming into operation on the 14th instant) opens 
up great financial opportunities in this direction. 

The British Motor Syndicate, Limited,- by far' the most important 
corporation dealing with this industry, claiming to possess all the 
patents of value in connection with motor-carriages, will grant to 
this Company a sole license to work within the metropolitan area 
under such of their patents as this Company will require, at a royalty 
of £4 per cab per annum. 

The Great Horseless Carriage Company, Limited, concur in the 
license, and will enter into a contract to manufacture the cabs for 
this Company as and when required. 

Whilst petroleum may become the motive power in country districts, 
and steam will probably be used for very heavy vehicles, there is no doubt 
that electricity will be the most advantageous where the traffic can be 
located within a radius. There is no smell, no noise, no heat, no 
vibration, no possible danger, and it has been found that vehicles 
built on this Company's system do not frighten passing horses. 

Electrical cabs have great advantages over those at present in uso. 
They are far more under control than horse-driven vehicles ; they 
can be driven at any speed ; and no accidents can ariso from horses 
falling, shying, bolting, or moving when the vehicle is entered, &c. 

The drivers require no knowledge of electricity — in fact, the present 
cabmen will doubtless become the drivers. 


The cabs (the construction of which has been provisionally pro- 
tooted) will fulfil all the requirements of the new Act, and of the 
police regulations. 

They have been most carefully studied, and they will possess many 
more luxuries than those now in use, such as arrangements for 
opening windows and doors ; electric light inside and in the outside 
lamps; rubber tyres, improved upholstering, spring oushions, and 
other advantages. 

The necessity for keeping them np to a high standard of excellence 
has also been realised, and a larger amount than is usual lias been 
provided in the estimates for this purpose. 


The cabs will ply for hire in London in the same manner as the 
present hansoms, and at the same rates. 

Two sets of accumulators will be suplied to ovcry cab, eaoh set 
capable of propelling the vehicle forty miles with one charging. 
These accumulators can be changed in a few minutes. The same cab 
can thus be used continuously day and night. 

It is intended to open depots in different parts of London, so that 
the driver will be able to change accumulators without always having 
to return to liis own station. 

The electric supply companies have shown great willingness to 
co-operate with this scheme, a» their current can be taken when not 
required for lighting purposes. The London Electric Supply Cor- 
poration, Limited, arc prepared to make special arrangements for 
supplying the electricity at a very low price. 


The system under which this Company will work is that of Mr. 
W. C. Bersey, A.I.E.E., who has agreed to act as electrical manager, 
and who has devoted the last eight years to the subject of electrical 
motor-carriages, one of his carriages having already run several 
hundred miles. 

Mr. W. (J. Bersey has been able, owing to his large experience in 
building electrical motor-carriages, to obtain several valuable patents 
in connection with their construction. The sole right to manufacture 
under these patents for the Company's purposes is included in the 
license from the British Motor Syndicate, Limited. 

Tho electricity is carried in cells placed underneath the vehicle. 
These are of special patented design and suited to the variations of 
discharge, which are at times necessary, and are regulated by a single 
driving switch, giving the degrees of speed, and enabling the vehicle 
to run either backward or forward us required. 

In order to thoroughly satisfy themselves respecting the electrical 
system under which the Company propose to work, the whole scheme 
has been submitted to Messrs. Kincuid. Waller, and Manrille, the 
leading experts in this country in connection with electrical traction, 
whose opinion is as follows : — 

Digitized by 





" 29, Great George-street, Westminster, S.W.; 
" November 12, 1896. 
"The Directors of The London Electrical Cab Co. (Limited). 
" Gentlemen, — We have examined the electric motor-vehioles built 
on your system, and carefully considered their suitability for use as 
hackney carriages in London, and we are of opinion that they are 
thoroughly adapted to meet these requirements, being practically 
noiseless and vibrationless, and easy of control, also extremely 
economical in maintenance, as the following estimates we have 
prepared will show : — 


Each cab, including painting, upholstering, 
electric lights, door-opening apparatus, 
wheels with rubber tyres, brake, steering 
apparatus, together with motor and gear- 
ing, switches, and resistance, fixed com- 
plete £150 

Two complete sets of accumulators, each capable 
of propelling the vehicle 40 miles without 
recharging, at £50 each 100 

Total capital cost 



" We have estimated the cost of working, maintenance, or depre- 
ciation on the following liberal basis : — 

Repairing, painting, depreciation, &o., per cab 

per annum . . . . , . . , . . £42 
Maintenance of two accumulators, including 
all risks (other than street accidents), at 
10 per cent, per annum of costs, as quoted 
by manufacturers 10 


Maintenance as above, at £52 per annum, 
equals per day 

Electrical energy amply sufficient to run a oab 
50 miles— 22 B.O.T. units, at l$d., equals 
per day 


£0 2 101 

2 9 
£0 5 7i 

"The contract which the accumulator makers are prepared to 
make is an excellent safeguard of your interests on the only point 
that might be open to question, i.e., the maintenance of accumulators. 

" From our experience as engineers to many of the electrical 
tramway campanies, wo see no reason why electric traction for 
hackney carriages should not supersede horse traction. 


" Yours faithfully, 


The present reduced price paid by the cabmen for hire of a 
hansom, with use of two horses (under the Asquith award), averages 
12*. 2\d. per day, and assuming that this Company charges the same 
(though it is fair to suppose that they will be in a position to charge 
more) there will be 0*. Id. per cab per day available as profit. 

This is equivalent, on a basis of only 320 cabs (which, at £250 
each, as above, would cost £80,000) to an annual profit of 
£38,440 13*. id. 

From this would have to be deducted the sum of £1,280 to cover 
the royalty of £4 per cab, and the usual administration expense?, 
including rent, rates, taxes, and management charges. 

As there are over ten thousand licensed hansom and four-wheeled 
cabs in London, the scope for profit to be made by this Company is 
very great. 

Should further capital be required at, a future date for the 
construction of more cabs, it is intended to make nu is=ue of 

Preference shares at a fixed rate of interest only, or Debentures 
secured upon the Company's stock of vehicles, thereby increasing the 
profit divisible on the present issue of shares. % 


This Company will acquire for the price of 50,000 shares, or cash 
in lieu thereof, on the terms of the contract hereinafter mentioned, 
the licenso herein referred to from the British Motor Syndicate, 
Limited, subject also to the payment of a royalty of £4 per cab per 
annuiu. The said 'price has been fixed by The Traffic Syndicate, 
Limited (in which the last three-named directors of this Company 
are interested), who are the vendors to this Company, and will pay 
all expenses of and incidental to the promotion of this Company and 
issuing of this prospectus, excepting the cost of stamp duty on regis- 
tration and the legal expenses of this Company's solicitors. THe 
following contracts have been entered into (1) dated the 12th day of 
November, 1890, and made between The Traffic Syndicate, Limited, 
of the one part, and this Company, of the other part, whereby for the 
consideration above mentioned, and subject to the provisions of such 
contract, The Traffic Syndicate, Limited, agree to procure for this 
Company the license and agreements above referred to : and (2) dated 
the 12th day of November, 1896, and made between the Great Horse- 
less Carriage Company, Limited, of the one part, and this Company 
of the other part. 

Applications for shares should be made on the form accompanying 
the prospectus, and forwarded, with the amount due on application, 
to the Company's bankers. If the number of shares allotted is less 
than that applied for, the surplus application money will be credited 
to the amount due on allotment, and any balance will be returned to 
the applicant. 

Copies of the above-mentioned contracts, and of the memorandum 
and articles of association of the Company, with the original report, 
can be seen at the offices of the solicitors for the Company. 

Prospectuses and forms of application may be obtained from the 
registered offices of the Company. 

London, November 12th, 1896. 




To the Directors of the London Electrical Cab Company, Limited. 

Gentlemen, — Having paid to your bankers the sum of £ , 

being a deposit of 5*. per share on an application for shares of 

£1 each in the above-named Company, I request you to allot me that 
number of shares, and I agree to accept the same or any smaller 
number that may be allotted to me, subject to the memorandum and 
articles of association, and upon the terms of the prospectus dated 
the 12th day of November, 1896, which I have read ; and I authorise 
you to place my name on the register of members in respect of the 
shares so allotted me, and I agree to pay the further instalments 
upon such allotted shares when the same becomes due. 

Name (in full) 



Date 1890. 


All cheques to be made payable to the bankers. 


Digitized by 





is the "Facile" Petroleum Oil Motor, 

which requires 
No spirit or dangerous essence. 
No beating tube. 
No constant-burning lamp. 
No battery. 
All of these are causes of trouble. 





AS DRIVER. — Can lake charge of cars, &c.j fitter and erector; 
age 36. W. Robinson, 11, H Block, Peabodv-buildings, Bed- 
fordburjr, W.C. 

AS DRIVER or cWdTTCTOR -Capable of taking charge of 
J\. cars, &c. ; age 21. G. Suell, 11, Rodney-place, Islington. 

COMPETENT DRIVER— Knows London well; ago 45. A. Fox, 
' 2,, Eaton-place, S.W. 

* 8 DRIVER. — Electrician and machauic; thoroughly experienced. 
IX. Walter Woods. 23, Grove-place, Ealing, W. 

iS DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Capable of taking charge^jf 
Ix. motor. F. Lancaster. 12, Hall-street, City-road. 

\8 DRIVER. — Engineer and litter; thoroughly capable ; age 32. 
j-TL (i. Rowcll, 51, Lydford-road, Paddington. 

4 8 DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Licensed bus driver; good 
A references. F. F. J. Piper, 9, Upper-mall, Hammersmith: 

* SSISTANT DRIVER.— Cycle engineer; good references ; age 19. 
il William Hedrick, 8, Westmoreland-row, City-road. 


S DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Experienced ; giod references; 
age -16. Clias. Little, 362, Lillie-road, Fidham. 


No connection with other firms advertising 
under similar name. 






Auction Sales of Freehold and Leasehold Properties periodically, 
including Plant and Machinery, Steam and Marino Engines and 
Boilers, Automotors, Marine and River Launches and Yachts, 
Bicycles, Agricultural Implements, Pictures, Works of Art, 
Furniture, Jewellery, &c. 

Surveys and Valuations for Partnerships, Company Promoters, 
Probate and Administration, Land and Agricultural and Trade Valuers. 

Civil and Ecclesiastical Dilapidations Surveyed and Assetsed. 

Advances also made to any amount on Property intended for Sale. 

Estate Development and Sanitation a Speciality. 


— * — 

GENTLEMAN (33), having considerable practical experience of oil 
motors, desires engagement as representative, manager, or any 
position of responsibility ; highest references. Address, " Motor," 
care of Messrs. King and Co., Limited, 62, St. Martins-lane, W.C. 

AS DRIVER. — Capable of taking charge of dynamos, motors, and 
.Ix. electric fitting, &c. ; age 20. H. Mill man, 9, Leslie-street, 




I A Motor Carriage and Delivery Van can be seen 
in operation in London by Appointment. 



11, Queen Victoria St., London, E.G. 

Illustrated Catalogue with Copy of New Act, One Shilling. 


LUBRICANTS, which, through the superiority, have the largest sale in the 
world. Engine, Cylinder, and Machinery Oils, nfrd. ; Spindle. Oil, gjd. ; 
Loom Oil, iojd. ; Extra Special Cylinder Oil, is. 4d. ; Extra Special Engine 
Oil, is. <d. ; Gas Engine, Oynamo, and Motor Car Oils, is. fid. per gallon; 
Light Machine Oil. ioid. ; barrels free and carriage p*id. — RelianOe 
Lubricating Oil Co.. to and aa, Water Lane, Great Tower Street, 
London, E.G. Depots at Liverpool, Pristol, Hull, Cardiff, and Glasgow. 
Telegrams: "Subastral, London. 


^ FITTINGS. MODERN AND ANTIQUE. Antique Candelabra, &c, 
adaDted to Electric Light in such a manner as to faithfully represent candle*. 
Temporary lighting at Fetes, Balls, At Homes. Estimates and plans for complete 
Electric Light Plants. Motive Power : Steam Engine, Oil Engine, Gas Engine, 
or Turbine 


E. L. Brrry, Harrison & Co , Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

Office and Show Rooms— Lyric Chambers, Whit comb Street, London, W.C. 

Telegraphic Address—" Kathode, London." 


S DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Machinist ; long experience. 
J. Graham, 5, New-street-cottages, Vauxhall-bridge-road. 

CONDUCTOR or INSPECTOR, &c— Experienced. Henr.v Bassett, 
i'2, Newman-street, Oxford-street, AV. 

Digitized by 




59, MARK LAnI ^^LONDON™EjC. (east peST&m, rent.) 

These Carriages are now offered for sale in every variety 
and description, magnificently made and finished. Up to 
ist May, 1896, the firm of Benz & Co. have sold and delivered 
600 of these Motor Carriages, which are now running all over 
the world. " 

The Patent Oil Motors are quite silent and do not give 
off any heat or smell. 

Speed can be obtained from Ten to Fifteen Miles an hour, 
Hills of one in ten scaled with ease, and the Carriages and 
Wheels are strongly constructed. 

The Motive Power is Rectified Petroleum or Benzoline of 
the specific gravity of 070, which is easily obtained anywhere, 
at about gri. to 1 id. per gallon, and a two-seated vehicle costs 
less than a halfpenny per mile to run. The working is so 
simple that any novice can drive the Carriage, and with two 
gallons of benzoline 70 to 80 miles can be accomplished. 

The Oil Reservoir of the Carriages hold about 5 gallons. 
The Speed is controlled and regulated by the driver. The 
Carriages are fitted with new Patent Steering Apparatus, and 
can be stopped instantly. 

There is no light or flame inside the Motor, consequently 
absolutely no danger of the benzoline catching fire, or, in 

windy weather, of the lamps being Mown out, The power is produced simply by the gas from the benzoline exploding and the 
electric spark in the combustion chamber. 

In each Carriage there are two accumulators (2 volts), and each one will last for about 350 miles, so that when one is 
discharged, you switch on to the other, and get the discharged one re-charged at the first place where there is electric light. 

We guarantee our Carriages to be of good quality and workmanship, and we will make good any defects in material or 
workmanship within three months from delivery, with the exception of damage caused through carelessness or rough treatment. 


The "IDEAL" Tyre. 




This Over 

is no experiment, 36,000 pairs in use 

see opposite. in the United States. 

Ie compress the robber so that, if it is cut, it closes up and no material injury is inflicted, and consequently wears smooth. 

An examination of the Principle of our Tjre convinces yon of its superiority over all others. 

I tftf » T nnilUMIV 65 & 67, WHARFDALE ROAD, 


Digitized by 






Price 3d. eaota. 

Pronounced by 

Connoisseurs to be 

better than Havannahs 

MADRAS. Of exquisitely 
- Choice flavour and cicl'- ate aroma. 

w 13v far the lavfiesl sal. 1 o! any cljjar In the world. 
sward d Two Gold 11 dais- SoldeverywhcrcintlirccalKa. 
' No 1 Z* ■ No 2,ah.; nonquota, SK pe hundred.' arriacc pahV, 
' '■iarnMw 4 * 5 la.i-2 St -mpm Flor de Dlndljnl Clsarette^^ 
SL ill tobacco leaf. St V' '»' ,'"; el . vc .">' }*■ ^ 
BEWLAY & COMPANY (Limited).- 

\ r o ter«. *9 and 74 Strand. W.'J 

-rrrlliS. Clirr.'-wldc. EC. 

Estnhl.shed in 

th ' year. 


nvr ura 

Sold in Two Sizes- 
uiiidlgul Cigarettes 

-No. 1, 22B. ; No. 2, 20a. , Bouquets (Small and Mild) SU. .per lOO, .Carriage PM. 
tte«, 8». pe. 1 OO, Carriage Paid. Assortment of all the above in box complete, *■. OO., fost 

, 49 & 7*. STRAND, W.C., & 443, CHEAPSIDE, E.C " " 



Price 3d. eaclt. 

We are receiving most 
gratifying letters from 
Customers in praise of 
these Cigars. 


Iitabliihad '.y«r One Handled 

id r-var One 
Fifteen Tel 

and Fifteen Teara- 

F. KIM & C0, T Ltd., Publishers, Newspaper and General Advertising Contractors, 

established^.- 62, ST. MARTIN'S L ANE, CHARING CROSS, W.C. 


The Automotor ^Hors eless Ye micle Journal 

ADVERTISEMENTS also received for ail Newspapers and Periodicals throughout the United Kingdom and 

Abroad at Lowest Office Rates. 

Digitized b^ 

Go ogle 





Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Autocars, Cycles, etc., in the United Kingdom, the Colonies 

and the Continent. 

Vol I. No. 3. 

DECEMBER 16th, 1896. 

Price Sixpence, 


Recent Developments In Mechanical Road Carriages 

Public Addresses on Automotors 

Motor Finance 

Continental Notes 

Notes of the Month 

Law Reports _ 

Business Notes 

Motor-Car Regulations for Scotland 

Our Horsj Population „ 

Answers to Correspondents 

The British Motor Syndicate (Limited) 

Automotor Contests in 1897 ... 

" Engineering" and Motor-Carriages 

Wanted— a Word 

Pneumatic Tyres for Motor-Carriages 

A Motor-Carriage Wheel 

Tdxes on Motor-Carriages ... 

Edinburgh Coachmakera and Motor-Cars 

Peugeot Phaeton 

Sir David Salomons and the Self-Propclled Traffl : Association 
u The Engineer*' 1,100 Ouineas Road Carriage Competition 

rvings of Public Companies 

New Companies Registered 

The Daimler Motor 

" Automo:ire " Vehicles ... J ... „-. 

The Stanley and National Cycle Shows 

A Motor Run t > Liverpool 

Prop-jsed Motor-Carriage and Tramway Combination 

Electric Tramways on Heary Gradients 

An Electrical Street-Cleaning Cir 

Cycles and Motor Cars in Paris 

Tne Duryeu Motor— A *5,)00 Challenge 

Reviews of Books 

Correspondence ... , 

New Inventions 



126 -^ 


The following paper was read before the Society of Arts,* 
on Wednesday, the 25th ultimo, by Mr. Worby Beaumont, 
M.I.C.E. Sir Frederick Bramwell occupied the chair, and there 
was a full attendance. 

Mr. Worbt Beaumont said :— Since I last had the honour 
of addressing you on this subject in December last year, the 
most important development has been of public opinion, 
which has forced upon the Legislature the necessity for the 
removal of the restrictions which until now have effectually 
prevented the development of road traction, and of carriage 
by mechanical means on the common roads of the United 
Kingdom. British engineers were fined for running a motor 

* This paper— together with the illustrations— Is reproduced by permission of 
the Society of Ana and of the author, Mr. W. Worby Beaumont, M.I.C.E. 

tricycle for eiperimental purposes on oar roads at a speed 
of more than two miles per hour unless preceded by a man 
on foot to clear its way, until the I4th of November, 1896, 
the day on which the Locomotives or Highways Act of 1896 
came into force. The loDg existing and extremely absurd 
restrictions against travelling over the country by mechanical 
means must ever be regretted, not simply because of the 
deprivation of those who would have reaped the benefit of 
mechanical transport for trading purposes, but because of the 
prohibition of all experimental running, which prevented 
British engineers from developing the steam or other road 
carriages, the construction of which might by this time have 
formed a greater industry than it has already done in the 
hands of our unrestricted competitors abroad. The result is 
that everything towards the construction of light motor vehicles 
has now to be commenced, while for a foreign trade other 
countries are now two years ahead of us. 

All this is to be regretted, but it is past, and there now only 
remains a few restrictions which the lapse of a very few years 
will probably see removed from the Local Government Board 
list of regulations. These regulations have, in general, the 
assent of the motor carriage building and using public, but 
there are some which are of the nature of dictates to mechanical 
engineers, who, on such structural detail as reversing gear, 
brakes, and wheels, should lie left to provide that which they, 
by past or coming experience, know or will find is best. 

A year ago the modern mechanical road carriage, as dis- 
tinguished from the steam boiler and engine vehicles, with 
a few seats attached, made in England between 1858 and 1876, 
was almost entirely the French and German ordinary carriage 
driven by a Daimler or a Benz petroleum spirit motor. Several 
of these were, in their more develoi>ed forms, the product of 
the incentive in the form of prizes ottered by the French 
Petit Journal. For those prizes, it will be remembered, these 
vehicles ran from Paris to Bordeaux and back, several of the 
carriages doing some remarkably crtditable running. The most 
striking feature of the results of those trials was the defeat of 
the steam vehicles by those driven by petroleum spirit motors, 
although in previous shorter races the steam vehicles had given 
much promise. The speaker then proceeded to give a detailed 
description of the French and American contests, which has 
already appeared in our columns. 

Turning now to the lessons of the Paris-Marseilles race, Mr. 
Beaumont said : It will first be noticed that no steam vehicles 
were present ; all these loDg distance runs were made by 
benzoline-motors. The well-known Serpollet carriages were 
not even entered, although they had done so well in the Petit 
Journal competition in 1894 and 1895, and attracted much 
attention, when shown in the Hurlinguam grounds and iu the 
recent Crystal Palace exhibition. 

r 2 

Digitized by 



In these competitions there were other steam carriages by 
Scotte, and by De Dion and Bouton. In 1894 the second prize 
was awarded to the latter firm for their steam tractor or steam 
bogie, and the third prize wae awarded to M. le Blant for a 
steam carriage for nine persons, fitted with a Serpollet boiler. 
It is thus evident that that the Continental motor-carriage 
builders with their now very extensive experience in this matter, 
have found the construction of a steam motor- carriage a much 
more difficult problem than the construction of one operated by 
benzoline or petroleum spirit One of the first difficulties is the 
much greater weight of the steam carriage, almost all of which 
is due to the weight of the boiler and its connections, and also 
to the weight of the supply of fuel and water required for a 
journey of any distance. The steam motor itself may be very 
light indeed and yet sufficient for the purpose. The Serpollet 
instantaneous generation boiler seemed at one time to be likely 
to meet the requirements of this essential part of the equipment 
of a steam motor-carriage, and but for the weight of it and its 
case, and the coke fuel, there is no doubt it would, and it seems 
probable even yet that with certain modifications it may provide 
all that is required. The boiler, as is well known, is built of 
tubes having exceedingly small water capacity as compared with 
their thickness and weight, as is shown by the view on the 

Now, in connection with the use of steam under the circum- 
stances of very variable demand, as in the case of the motor- 
carriage, there is no doubt very distinct advantage accruing 
from the use of heavy thick tubes carried within a refractoi y 
case and heated by a powerful coke fire, because the mass of 
heated material constitutes a very effective heat accumulator 
capable of instantaneous conversion on demand. The frequent 
stoppages, the easy work on level roads, the complete absence of 
work in going down hill, all are conditions which make a heat 
accumulator steam generator with small water capacity desirable, 
and especially as such a generator will respond to the sudden 
call for a quantity of steam for starting or for climbing short 
hills largely in excess of its mean capacity. But there is 
nothing mysterious about the capacity or performance of such a 
boiler, and it has to be remembered that the steam required for 
mounting a long hill gives the measure of the boiler capacity 
required. When the accumulated heat in the mass of material 
forming the tubes has been used up during the mounting of a 
hill, then the Serpollet boiler, like any other, depends upon the 
quantity of its heating surface and upon the amount of fuel 
which can be effectively burned in heating it or, in other words, 
upon the grate surface and draught or fuel burning capacity. 
It is from this cause that the Serpollet as made in 1894 and 
1895 was heavy for ordinary easy road travelling though very 
efficient for the purpose when it was made with sufficient surface 
for long hill climbs. More than a year ago M. Serpollet ceased 
for a time to give his attention to his steam-carriage so as to 
enable him to develope the application of his system to 
mechanically propelled tranicars, with which he has attained 
considerable srccess. 

Whilst he ha» been so engaged very little progress has been 
made in France with steam for road traction. His old vehicle 
was not suited to everyday use. It could only carry a supply 
of coke for a run of from 40 to 50 kiloms., or from about 25 to 
30 miles. It attained high speeds on level roads or easy 
gradients, was handy to drive, and economical, but it was 
cumbrous and heavy, and coke was not a pleasant fuel to use. 
The steam tricycle constructed in 1889 aUo used coke. The 
generator weighed 350 kilos, with the fuel. 

The vehicle more lately constructed runs on three wheels, the 
rear wheels serving for propulsion, and the front bicycle wheel 
for steering. The generator is placed at the back of the carriage, 
and the two-cylinder motor, inclined at 90°, is under the seat, 
bolted to the steel tube underframe which curves up in front 
for the steering head. The crank-shaft carries a pinion which 
gears into a large wheel on the driving axle, so that the usual 
intermediate gearing is dispensed with. For fuel, petroleum is 
now used, a Longueniare burner being employed. The ordinary 
lamp petroleum is admitted at the bottom of the burner, and is 
for«.cd up through a spiral tube, where it volatilises under the 

heat of the flame, and descending to the bottom of the burner, 
passes through a form of metallic filter to relieve it of im- 
purities. It then enters a chamber, from which it passes 
through small holes into a second chamber containing eight 
jets, through which it issues as petroleum vapour and burns 
with an intense flame, spreading out to cover the whole area of 
the funnel formed by the spiral tubes and space above it 
containing the Serpollet steam generator. The burner is started 
in the ordinary way with a little methylated spirit, and in from 
eight to twelve minutes the machinery is said to be ready for 

The new three-wheeled carriage is merely an experimental 
one. It was not intended to do any serious work, and yet it 
has already, it is stated, run more than 1.000 kiloms. They 
say that they can run at higher speeds than have yet beeu 
attained. They can run easily at 35 kiloms. an hour, and even 
in going up the Surenes Hill, which is particularly long and 
steep, they can go at 25 kiloms. Everything is tested in Ranee 
by speed of travelling. The speed can, with steam, of coui-se 
be regulated with precision, and with the power this carriage 
appears to have there is no necessity for mechanism for changing 
speed. The speed mentioned is, however, unnecessary, and its 
possibility shows that the boiler and engine are larger than 
necessary. In the experimental vehicle a reserve of x2 litres 
of petroleum and 50 litres of water can be carried. With this 
supply of petroleum the carriage lias run from Paris to Rouen 
— about 140 kiloms., or 88 miles — without replenishing the oil. 
The time occupied in covering the distance was, the author is 
informed, six hours. The weight of the carriage without load 
is 700 to 800 kilos., or from 7 to 8£ cwt. 

M. Serpollet is building a new carriage with four wheels, in 
which he will make certain modifications. The steam generator, 
instead of having circular spiral vapourising tubes, will have 
them arranged in a square placed one above the other, so as to 
obtain a larger heating surface. It will also be fitted with a 
condenser underneath the carriage. With this he intends to 
condense the steam in the winter, and return it to the boiler, 
so as to suppress the exhaust, and make renewal of the water 
supply less frequently necessary. In the summer, ho says this 
is of no importance, as the steam, being sent away with the 
heated gases, will not then be visible. The gearing is light and 
compact, and will be enclosed in a gear case to protect it from 
dust and mud. 

The sam e system of boiler construction for oil fuel is to he 
applied to tramcars, the weight of the boiler being very much 
reduced by it. 

The De Dion and Bouton boiler is a much more delicately 
constructed boiler, consisting as it does of an exterior annular 
water case, connected to a central, similarly-constructed, annular 
water and steam space by a large number of upwardly inclined 
radial and steam tubes. 

One of these boilers, weighing about 530 lbs. empty, contains 
2275 square feet of heating surface, and has a grate area of 
186 square feet. It will, it is said, evaporate about 6 lbs. of 
water from average temperatures per lb. of coke, and yet it is 
said to be sufficient for an 18 horae-power motor. It thus has 
only about 1"26 square feet of heating surface per horse-power, 
and only 0'103 square feet of grate surface per horse-power. 
Assuming the little engine employed, which was a small com- 
pound engine, to be capable of giving a brake horse-power for 
30 lbs. of steam, then it will be seen that each square foot of 
surface would have to evaporate no less than 23 - 8 lbs. of water 
per square foot per hour, and, further, that no less than 52J lbs. 
of coke would have to be burned per square foot of grate 
surface per hour. 

Now, inasmuch as the Serpollet boiler is net credited with 
evaporating 6 lbs. of water per lb. of coke, it will be readily 
understood that both these boilers have been very much over- 
rated, and hence the difficulty of providing steam for full power 
for more than a very short time. The Serpollet mass of heated 
material will, of course, enable the user for a few seconds, or n 
minute or two, to obtain many fold the average power of the 
boiler on continuous load, but the store of heat is soon gone, and 
the boiler soon flooded if water is sent in at maximum rate. 

Digitized by 




This will be easily seen when it is remembered that the latent 
heat of evaporation of water from, say, 62 J is 1,116 units, 
and, therefore, no less than eight times the total heat of the 
iron tubes, even assuming them to be at a 1,009° in temperature 
when called upon to give up their store. If then, as appears to 
be the case, these two boilers are the best, or, at all events, the 
most favoured by those who have been working at this problem 
for years, it would appear obvious that the great advantages 
offered by the steam-engine have hitherto been unattainable 
because of the difficulty which besets the problem of constructing 
a sufficiently powerful boiler of sufficient lightness. 

It is owing then to the hitherto unattainable in steam- 
generators that the light oil-motor has, as in the recent Paris 
and Marseilles race, displaced the steam-engine, and it is not easy 
to see_ how with the low weights possible with the oil-motor 
anything yet known in the form of steam-generators, the steam- 
engine with everything else in its favour can compete. It is true 
that success is said to have attended the trials of the Blackburn 
dog-cart in which a comparatively small coiled tubular boiler, 
heated by a Bunson methylated spirit burner, was employed, but 
inasmuch as the trials of this dog-cart were made over very short 
distances, and the engine employed not of high efficiency, it does 
not appear to have been demonstrated that this boiler was capable 
of generating sufficient steam for meeting the demands of ordinary 
road travelling. Considerable advances have been made in the 
last few years in the construction of water-tube boilers, and 
some of these boilers will no doubt generate more steam per 
unit of their weight than was possible with most of the boilers 
used in steam -carriages between 1858 and 1878, or any of the 
boilers used in the modern light road locomotive, highly efficient 
as some of these are. They do not appear, however^ to offer 
any advantage not equally secured by the boilers of Dance, 
Gurney, Church, Hancock, and Macerone 60 years ago, and it is 
possible that some of these and the high pressure tubular boiler 
of Loftus Perkins may even yet, aided by the possible very high 
temperatures obtainable by the combustion of petroleum as fuel, 
yet enable us to employ Ihe steam-engine. 

It may be asked what, after "all, are the advantages which 
steam offers, and we may answer this question by saying, 
firstly, the steam-engine affords greater range and ease of 
manipulation within the limits of no power, and full power 
than any other motor ; secondly it may be stopped and started 
with more freedom, certainty, and smoothness than any other 
motor, with the exception of the electrical ; thirdly, it may be 
employed for travelling any distances with fuel everywhere 
available, is easily fitted with reversing gear, and is easily 

Now, as against these high qualifications there is the great 
disadvantage, as compared with the oil motor, of the necessity 
for manufacturing on the road the working fluid by means of 
a boiler. With the equivalent of this the oil motor is able 
to dispense, for even where a vapouriser is employed, or a 
carburettor, the weight of these parts is comparatively insig- 
nificant, and they require but little, if any, attention. Recent 
advances seem to show that even this niiy not in future be 
necessary, for, with a mixture of oils, or with a light oil or 
petroleum spirit, the carburettor may be dispensed with, and 
the vaporiser may be either rudimentary or non-existent. To 
this point return will be made hereafter. The chief disadvan- 
tages at present attending the use of the oil motor are, firstly, 
the necessity for keeping the motor running while the car is 
standing ; secondly, the vibration set up by the explosive 
impulse, which is very irregular, especially when the motor is 
running light, or nearly so ; and, thirdly, the necessary use of 
clutches and rather complicated gearing for putting the light 
running motor into gear, of changing the speed by means of 
gear. In spite of these difficulties, however, the oil motor 
vehicle has made such advances in details of its construction 
that the race from Paris to Marseilles and back was not only a 
possibility under adverse circumstances with vehicles of various 
types, but may be looked upon as a certainty for everyday 
purposes in the hands of people who are willing to bestow upon 
them their careful attention. 
All the carriages of the Paris-Marseilles- Paris race were fitted 

with gearing very much the same as that which was in, more or 
less, general use by the several leading makers more than a 
year ago, and it does not appear that anything more than slight 
additional strength and improved form of clutches — by means 
of which the motor can be put in and out of gear with 
smoothness — are necessary to enable vehicles to run any length 
of time, as far as this detail is concerned, with satisfaction. 

The c irriage which won the first prize in this contest was of 
the Panhard and Levassor construction, driven by a light oil or 
benzoline motor of the Daimler type. It drove gearing by the 
arrangement described by the author las', December, aud as 
shown by the view now thrown upon the screen. 

It cannot be said that any development can be particularly 
referred to in this carriage, its motor, or gearing, but great care 
has been bestowed on the design, construction, and workman- 
ship in particular of all the details. The second aud third 
prizes were also awarded to these makers for vehicles similarly 
operated, and the fourth and sixth prizes to M. Delahaye for 
vehicles similar to that, a view of which is now thrown upon 
the screen. This vehicle was exhibited in England last summer 
at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, aud is one of those in which 
the motion is transmitted from the engine shaft by belting, the 
motor being, as most makers now prefer, of the horizontal type. 
It is one of those which received a diploma for gold medal at 
the Crystal Palace Exhibition. The carriage with which the 
fifth prize was won by MM. Peugeot et Cie., was similar to that 
described last year, and was driven by a modified Daimler type 
motor. The seventh and eighth prizes were won by the 
Maison Parisieune, or the Benz Company, of France, with 
vehicles fitted with the Benz horizontal petroleum spirit motor, 
the ignition of the charge in which is effected electrically. The 
ninth prize was won by a vehicle by MM. Landry and Beyroux 
with a cabriolet, driven by a petroleum spirit horizontal motor. 
Both the tricycles which took prizes in the third-class were of 
the Dion and Bouton type, as shown by the view now thrown 
upon the screen. The motor used in these tricycles is not fed 
directly with the petroleum spirit, as in the case of the latest 
forms of Daimler motor, but receives a charge of carburetted 
air from a carburettor. Its arrangement is shown by the 
diagram on the wall. 

Another carriage of which notice should be taken is that of 
M. Triouleyre, made by the Compagnie Gen6rale des Auto- 
mobiles, of Paris, which did some excelleut running, and is 
operated by nisins of a horizontal benzoline motor, which 
drives a second motion shaft by means of leather belting, the 
driving wheels being actuated from this shaft by pitch chains. 
Two of these vehicles entered for the Paris-Marseilles race. A 
feature of M. Triouleyre's carriage is an arrangement of tubes 
and air blast for cooling the jacket water, the details of which 
are not, however, yet made public. 

It is worth notice that M. Roger, the French concessionaire 
of the Benz motor-carriages, refused to enter the Paris-Marseilles 
trials, because they were races rather than tests of useful 

The steam-van illustrated by a plan, section, aud elevation in 
Fig. 1 has been made this year by the Thornycroft Steam 
Carriage and Van Company, Chiswick. It one of those 
exhibited at the Crystal Palace Exhibition. It is a light van 
designed to carry 1 ton, with floor space available for goods of 
25 square feet. 

Its length over all is 11 feet, of which 4 feet 6 inches are 
devoted to the boiler aud machinery. It is fitted witli a 
Thornycroft water-tube launch boiler, having 50 square feet of 
heating surface and i\ square feet of grate, and water-tube 
tire-bars, as shown in the engraving. The engine is a little 
double compound, having cylinders 2-mch and 4-inch by 3-inch 
stroke, and arranged so that the steam can be admitted to the 
low-pressure cylinders direct for steep hill climbing. The 
engine is geared to the driving wheels at the ratio of to 1. 
The fuel used is mixed coal and coke, about 4 lbs. per average 
mile being consumed. A skew -toothed puiion of large size 
gears into the corresponding teeth of the rim of the wheel 
carrying the compensating gear, this wheel being carried by the 
two inner ends of the second motion shafts, which at their outer 

v :i 

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[Deoembbb, 189ft. 

ends carry the chain pinions by which motion is communicated 
to the driving wheels. An air condenser is fitted on the roof of 
the van. which is capable of condensing all the steam at ordinary 
rates of working, and weighs less than 2 cwt. Its construction 
will be gathered from the end and side elevation, and it contains 
about 130 feet of surface, the tubes being of thin copper, half 
inch diameter, connected in groups to short lengths of If -inch 
tubes held together by long bolts. The van complete weighs 
unladen about 30 cwt., of which 22 cwt. is on the driving 

The general arrangement of the van and its machinery is well 
shown \v the engravings. The bearings which carry the inter- 
mediate shaft are connected by radius bars to the main axle, to 
preserve the proper distance between the two sets of chain- 
wheels, and have free play of the springs by which the van is 
carried. The chain-wheels are fixed to the back of the driving- 

slight improvements in the steering arrangements might be 
made, and, if possible, the number of handles to be used should 
be lessened, and the exhaust should be capable of diversion into 
the chimney for hill climbing. All these are more or less easy 
of achievement, and the van meets the requirements of the 
Local Government Board under the new Act. The van recently 
ran from Chiswick to Windsor Castle, a distance of 20 miles by 
road, carrying over 4 ton of load, in 2J hours, with 90 lbs. of 
coal and coke mixed in equal bulk, the run to Chiswick and 
back being made without any stoppage for adjustment or other 
purposes, and the Castle Hill was climbed without difficulty. 
This steam van may be taken as representing a class for 
which it may be expected considerable demand will arise, 
namely, a van to carry a ton and upwards of goods. The 
example shown is of the smaller size or a type which, running 
at a maximum speed of about eight miles an hour, would perform 



wheel naves. The steering is effected by a hand-wheel on a 
verticle spindle, at the lower end of which is a worm gearing 
into a wheel of about 8 inches diameter, cast with which is a 
wheel which carries an ordinary link chain. This chain is led 
to a horizontal steering wheel on the locking-shaft steering 
wheels at the rear end of the van. The chain on this wheel is 
capable of adjustment for taking up slack. The brake is also 
put on by means of a hand- wheel and vertical spindle next the 
steering wheel. The steam connections between the engine and 
boiler are not shown in the illustrations, but they are of simple 
kind, a stop-valve being within easy reach of the driver, who 
can also reach the link motion lever. The van was shown 
running in the Crystal Palace grounds, over roads which are in 
some places small loose gravel, which is trying, especially for 
iron-tyred driving wheels. The van runs very satisfactorily 
and smoothly, and will meet the requirements of a great many 
who, as cirriers, are now waiting for such a vehicle. Some 

the work of country carriers and numerous classes of traders. 
In these the small extra weight of parts not admissible in the 
light passenger vehicles hitherto referred to, is a matter of 
smaller importance, and the maximum speed being low, they 
may be worked and steered with safety and certainty. The 
heavier class of vehicle, to carry and haul from three to seven, 
or more, tons, have jet to be made ; and while for the light, 
quick passenger vehicles the experience and practice of the 
carriage and the cycle makers will be invaluable, it is the 
experience of the light road locomotive and traction-engine 
builders which will be drawn upon to make a success of the 
heavy motor-vehicles. The author was recently called upon to 
express his views on motor- vehicles for the heavy traffic of the 
Liverpool traders, and surprise was shown when he stated that 
although for those who really required them, light vehicles of a 
useful character could be had at the present time, those suitable 
for heavy traffic had yet to be made. For this reason he advised 

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those whose expectations had been unduly raised with regard to 
such vehicle?, not to be in a hurry to part with their nones. 
This view he still holds ; but the realisation of the requirements 
of merchants, of places like Liverpool, or of some of thehi, is 
perhaps within a measurable distance. The problem to be 
solved is, however, anything but an easy one, and if it is to be 
solved by means of the steam-engine, it would appear that very 

by the efforts of Messrs. Uornsby and Sons. Much attention : 
has yet, however, to be paid to the transmission and stopping 
and starting gear to be employed. 

The Duryea carriage, to winch reference has already been 
made as being one of those present at the opening run from 
Loudon to Brighton, contains several feature! of interest,. one 
of which is that the motor has an oscillating cylinder ; that it 

Fig. 2.— Boots and Vexaulbs' Pbtkolepm Oil Cakbiauk. 



4 - — 



Fig. 3. — Boots and' Petroleum Oil Cakkiaue— Pla.v. 

high pressures, high-speed engiues, and high-class light boilers 
will have to be employed, rather than the very heavy boiler?, 
and comparatively low-speed engines at present used for light 
road locomotives. The development of the oil-eugine is, how- 
ever, sufficiently rapid to lead to the belief that this form of 
motor will ultimately take the place of the steam-engine for 
this class of work. Some indications of this are already afforded 

is supplied with giises the product of explosion of carburetted 
air under pressure from a separate explosion chamber. A lamp 
is used to effect evaporation, an electric arrangement being used 
for ignition of the charge. The motor transmits motion to a 
second shaft by means of bells for three speeds, and a cross- 
belt is used to obtain reverse motion at another speed. Jockey 
pulleys are used for giving either the oue or the other of the 

f 4 

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belts sufficient tightness to enable it to drive. Spur pinions on 
the end of the second motion shaft convey motion direct to a 
hollow axle surrounding the driving axle, and carrying a com- 
pensating gear in the centre. It carries benzoline sufficient in 
quantity for about 100 miles' run. 

The carriage, of which two views are shown in Figs. 2 and 3, is 
one which has been built by Messrs. Roots and Venables, and 
is fitted with a motor which works with the ordinary lamp 
petroleum. The arrangements are in several ways novel and 
interesting, and it is one of the first finished carriages yet 
constructed to use the heavy oils of high flashing point. The 
motor works on the Otto cycle, and the rotating valve shaft, 
which must run at half the speed of the crank shaft, is utilised 
as a means of obtaining the first speed reduction. This is a 
very considerable gain, and allows of convenient arrangement. 

In the engravings, a is the motor cylinder, b, the crank shaft 
geared to the wheel, c, by means of a Beinhold chain, this 
wheel being on the rotating valve shaft, which is made large 
enough to transmit the power either by the chain on the small 
pinion, d, or the larger one, c, either of which are thrown into 
gear by means of a clutch at l. The oil supply is seen at o, 
and the vaporiser, on Boot's system, is at v. J, is the foot lever 
for a brake, and a vertical lever enables the driver to throw the 
motor in or out of gear, or to give the carriage one or other 
speed. The frame is formed of a double set of tubes which act 
as water coolers for the jacket water which circulate? through 

The carriage shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7 is a petroleum 
motor-carriage made by Messrs. Petter, Hill, and Boll, of 

Fig. -t.— Pbtrolicm Motor Carriage by Messrs. Pettbb, 
Hill, and Boll. 

Yeovil, the motor being the design of Mr. Percival Petter, 
and the vaporisor used in connection with it is shown by 
Fig. 5 to be rudimentary only. Several carriages fitted with 
the arrangements of machinery shown in the figures 
have been made by this firm, and the author is informed 
that they are running with success. The motor is of the 
horizontal type, having two parallel cylinders, m m', coupled 
to one crank shaft, n n', upon which is a flywheel, w, and the 
pulleys a, b, and c, upon which are belts for driving either 
the high speed pulley, a', or the low speed pulley, b', or 
the reversing pulley, c'', through the medium of the rider 
pulley, c', the three pulleys, a', b', and c' are fixed upon the 
second motion shaft, h, in the centre of which is the usual 
compensating gear, o, and on the ends of which are the two chain 
pinions, J j', communicating motion to the driving wheels by 
means of pitch chains running on the wheels, k' k'. From the 
sectional elevation it will be seen that by means of the handle, 
b, at the right hand of the driver, the belts connecting the 
pulleys, a a', or b and b', are thrown alternately into gear by 
pressing either the jockey pulley, d or d', upon those belts. As 
shown in the engraving with the handle, e, in the position 3, the 
jockey pulley, D, is tightening the belt on the pulleys, b b', for 
driving the carriage at the slow speed. When the handle, e, is 
placed in the position 2, both sets of pulleys are out of gear and 
the belts free to slip ; but when the handle is in the position 1, 
the jockey pulley, d', conies into play, and the belt connecting 
the pulleys, a and a', is tightened upon them for driving at high 

speed. The handle, s, is on a shaft, f (Fig. 7), which carries 
levers from which depend links having on their ends the stud 
spindles of the jockey pulleys, d d', which are controlled in their 
movements by the radius rods, o' g". An ingeniously simple 
reversing motion is obtained by means of the belt connecting a 
pulley, c, and pulley, c', the latter being carried upon a stud 
spindle held by the arm, f', and under control of the foot by 
means of the pedal, I. When not in action, a spring at s keeps 
the pulley, c', and the belt upon it from contact with the 
driving pulley, c", but when it is desired to bring the reversing 
motion into gear, pressure upon the pedal, i, brings the pulley, 
c', with the lower part of the belt running over it intervening, 
upon the pulley, c", and thus a slow movement in the reverse 
direction to that given by the other pulleys is obtained. The 
pulley, c", acts also as the brake pulley by means of a band 
brake embracing about half its circumference, and brought into 
play by means of the pedal, l In Fig. 5, a is the compression 
space and combustion chamber ; b, oil inlet cock ; d, inlet 

Fig. 5. — Pbhib's Oil Motor Cylinder and Valves. 

passage to valve space ; f, air inlet to valve ; e and J, ignition 
tube, heated by burner, M. 

The views which are shown in Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate a motor 
quadricycle made by Mr. P. Crastin, of Holloway, and operated 
by an oil-motor using ordinary lamp petroleum. In the motor 
employed there are some details of interest, and, though not at 
liberty to describe some of these, some views and details are 
now given. From the general views it will be seen that the 
quadricycle with two seats is driven by a motor through the 
hind axle, and the first speed reduction is obtained from the 
rotating valve-driving spindle ; which, as in other Otto cycle- 
motors, runs at half the speed of the crank shaft. By means of 
the remaining gear, which is clearly seen, the speed of the 
motor, which runs at about 580 revolutions per minute, is 
reduced to the 130 revolutions per minute for a speed of 
12 miles per hour, of the driving wheels, which are 2 feet 
6 inches in diameter. 

The motor itself is double acting, that is to say, it has a 
double-ended cylinder in which the explosive impulse takes 
place alternately, so that one impulse is given for each revel u- 

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tion. A sketch diagram of one end of this cylinder is shown in 
Fig.8. a bIiowr the casting carrying the water jacket and 
the internal steel tube, t, which is fixed within it and protrudes 
into the cover, b. Wiihin the steel tube, t, which has a slot, a, 
in the middle of its length for the accommodation of the cross- 
head pin, p, is a second tube, t', carrying at the centre of its 

through a valve at r>, and an ignition tube is placed at K ; 
exbautt valves are fitted at r. The vapor'ser employed is 
shown in a case at the back of the vehicle, anil it consists of 
a small annular vertical vessel formed by an inner and an 
outer steel tube closed at both ends, the inner tube forming 
the chimney for a small vaporiser lamp. At the lower part 

FlQ. 6.— P*TTEB, Hill, AXD BOLL — PlAN, 

Fig. 7.— Petteb, Hill, axd Boll— Sectioual Elevatio.v. 

length the crosshead, c, and at each end the piston block, c'. 
In the lower part of the cylinder casting is fixed the tube, h, 
which provides for the circulation of the water through the 
jacket, o, from which it passes by a pipe at the cylinder top. 

The cylinder is fixed to the frame of the quadricyele by the 
clamp piece shown. Air and vapour enter the cylinder cover 

of the annular space a tube is inserted, into which oil, from 
a form of sight-feed lubricator, drops, ami is drawn into the 
vaporiser when a suction charge is made, but passes away into 
an overflow tank when a charge is not required. The double- 
ended piston of this motor is T70 inches in diameter, and lws a 
stroke of •} inches. 

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Figs. 10, 11, and 12 illustrate a steam -carriage under con- 
struction, largely from the designs of Mr. Percy Holt, and 
although not yet completed, a description of it will be of some 
interest as biing, as far as the author knows, one of the very 
few attempts to produce a steam carriage of considerable power 
and of light weight to carry four persons. From the three 
views it will be seen that there are two small steam-engines 
carried in two cases completely enclosing them, and driving, 
by gearing also enclosed, a pair of grooved driving pulleys 
acting directly on the peripheries of the pneumatic tyres to 
the driving wheels. The cases containing' the engines are so 
mounted that when steam is turned on to set the carriage jn 
motion the grooved pulleys are automatically brought into 
contact with the driving wheels. The boiler is of a novel 
type, and will be described hereafter. From the engines, 
either or both of which may be used, the exhaust steam passes 
into a condenser which is an air condenser acting partly on" 

steam is only admitted to one engine, but when gradients 
require it, it is automatically admitted to both engines by a 
movement corresponding to the loosening of the reins. When 
steam is shut off from the engines fjr stopping or for running 
downhill, a simple form of regulator cuts off the oil supply to 
the greater part of the oil burners by which the boiler is heated, 
the other burners being so situated that they are automatically 
relighted when steam is turned on by those which are not 
extinguished when steam is turned off. The boiler, which is 
shown in Fig. 10, consists of two main parts, namely, a water- 
heating part in which the water fills the entire capacity, and is 
maintained under a pressure of from about 500 lbs. per square 
inch and upwards. This- part is connected by a redncing-valve 
automatically controlled by th* consumption of steam by the 
second part in which steam at a low pressure of say 250 lbs. per 
square inch is generated. The iirst part or receptacle consists 
of the larger tubes, a, b, and B*, find the second part or recep- 

Fio. 8.-^Cbastin's Moios Quadbicycxb- 

On i End of Motor Cylinder and Piston. 

the principle of an evaporate condenser, the exhaust steam' 
itself actuating a fan which assists in the action of the air- 
cooling current. As far as is possible, the control of all the parts 
has been made automatic, dependent only on the action of the 
steering handle influenced as far as more or less steam, i.e., 
more or less speed, and as to the quantity of steam generated, 
and as to the amount of fuel used, and the application of the 
brake, all as far as possible controlled by a movement simulating 
the action of the driver of a horse who gives more or less rein 
to his horse for more or less speed, or pulls very hard on them 
if he wishes the horse to understand that he is direly in need of 
all his help for a sudden stop. When the carriage shown is 
standing the brake actuated by the steering levers is in action. 
When the driver is in his place the steering levers, with a sleeve 
on the rot! connecting them, are raised more or less, and this 
admits by the lever connections, shown in rather exaggerated 
dimensions, steam to one, or by further movement, steam to 
both of the engines. When running on a level and good road 

tacle consists of the interior smaller tube, c, within the water- 
tubes, a, b, b'. The feed-water is admitted at the top at a, and 
passes downward through the coil, a, to the junction piece at a'. 
Here it passes from A into the annular spaces within the coils, 
b, b', and outside the coils, c, in which it passes up to the 
reducing-valve and connection at R. When steam is required, 
some water is automatically admitted into the inner tubes, c, in 
which from its high temperature and pressure it partly flashes 
into steam, and is partly vapourised by the heat transmitted 
through the high temperature water to these inner tubes, the 
steam passing off to the engine at D. 

There are many makers in this country busy on the construc- 
tion or the design of motor-carriages, but few of them are at 
present prepared to show what they nave done. Some, including 
the makers of the Pennington motor-cycles and bicycles, are so 
well known as to need no reference here. 

There are several questions which arise in connection with 
the subject of this paper to which reference must be made. 

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One of these is the speed question, because with it is involved 
that of power. For the present, at least, it must be conceded 
that the maximum speed for which motors and gearing for any 
motor-carriages should be designed ought not to exceed the 
reasonable 12 miles an hour permitted by the Local Government 
Board regulations. This should not only be admitted on the 
grounds of public safety, but because of the lesser power which 
such a speed, as a maximum requires, as compared with thi 
speeds which are being attempted, but because of the smaller 
weight of the necessary motor. It may be further urged that 
all the purposes of the greater number of users of these vehicles 
will be best served by the power which is sufficient for this 
speed as a maximum on good roads, and a correspondingly lower 
speed on any ordinarily steep gradients which can be surmounted 
by the same power. There is nothing fine or particularly 
laudable in rushing up steep hills at high speed, any more than 
there is in doing so with horses, while there is, on the other 
hand, very considerable possible gain by adopting the slow 
speed for hills, which also 
secures greater power for 
starting and working over 
bits of bad road. This con- 
sideration shows that for 
most vehicles, and particu- 
larly for trading vehicles, 
even when driven by steam, 
an effective arrangement of 
s/>eed gearing, which can 
with smoothness be put into 
or out of gear, so as to pro- 
vide high-power by slow 
s|>eed for starting and hill 
climbing, is necessary. In 
this way the small boiler 
|>ower sufficient for maxi- 
mum speed on good roads 
will be sufficient for bad 
roads and hills. 

A diagram was then 
shown giving the power 
required for different speeds 
on different gradients for a 
vehicle and load of 2£ tons, 
and shows how very much 
the power increases with 
the higher speeds. 

The limit to speed for 
lighter vehicles is possibly a 
very high one, but for 
vehicles for the average user 
it must be determined by 
some reference to economic 
running, to cost of the 
vehicle, and to the average 
conditions imposed by the 
observance of legal restrictions, and ordinary traffic conveni- 
ence. In towns the limit and the maximum power required 
are in most places soon reached. 

With regard to the use of petroleum or petroleum spirit 
motors, the recent alteration of the conditions under which the 
latter may be used in this country has removed the necessity, 
from a legal point of view, for adhering to the use of oils 
having a flashing point of above 73°. There is no doubt that 
there are good reasons for wishing that the oils of high specific 
gravity should be used, but it must be admitted, on the other 
hand, that the employment of benzoline has been singularly 
free, both on the Continent and in America, from mishap iu 
connection with motor carriages. Some English firms, as 
already mentioned, have succeeded in making motor-carriages 
propelled by motors which will use ordinary petroleum lamp 
oil, and liaving done so much, there are reasons for expecting 
that development in this direction may take place. 

It cannot, however, be denied that the advantages from the 
I>oint of view of simplicity of the motor attending the ready 

Fig. 9. — Cbastin's Qpadricvci.e — End Vjbw 


vaporisation of the lighter oil in the motoi admission valves and 
passages, and ignition in the cylinder, are very great indeed, 
and that the objectionable smell of the exhaust gases is very- 
much less than from the heavier oil. The great variation in 
the power required from the motor of a mechanical carriage, 
namely, as between the maximum power for climbing a stiff 
hill and the no power required when descending hills, intro- 
duces variations as to vaporisation, quantity of oil to be dealt 
with, temperature of cylinder, and ignition, which, as far as at 
present can be seen, must occasionally cause the ejection of 
much partially-burnt oil with the exhaust, a difficulty which 
is much lessened by the use of petroleum spirit. The advances 
which have been made iu the last year in the construction of oil 
or spirit-motors are not of a striking order, and the ljest known 
and most used of all is the Daimler of the improved form, 
described by the author in the Cantor Lectures last December. 
The float-feed regulator of this is used by M. Bollee in his 
tandem tricycle, which has done such remarkable running, and 

the new horizontal motor 
by M. Peugeot is made on 
lines similar to the Daimler. 
The feed apparatus cannot 
very well be conceived to 
be much simpler, and the 
automatic spray making pre- 
paratory to vapouring is so 
introduced that it adds 
nothing to the parts to lie 
attended to. One at least 
of the makers seem to have 
courted disaster by using 
horizontal Otto cycle motors, 
the end of the cylinders of 
which were open >for the 
reception of any dust and 
dirt that could find its way 
there, and several of the 
makers use horizontal motors 
of moderate speed, and con- 
sequently large diameter of 
cylinder, as the stroke is not 
long. There seems to be no 
doubt that in the future 
exceedingly good design, 
workmanship, and material 
must be combined, and very 
high speeds for motors be 
observed. This makes pos- 
sible, not only small area 
of piston, but smaller im- 
pulse and less variation in 
the strength of the impulse. 
Vapobisek and Casino Some of the very small 
motors made by Mr. Pen- 
nington are said to be very 
good indications of the lines on which the motors for light 
vehicles will have to be made. 

In the use of the heavier oils some advances have been made, 
but as the author has not actually tested any of the motors said 
to work satisfactorily without vaporisers, even of the simpler 
forms, he is unable to say more than that he is informed these 
motors do work with the heavier oils of specific gravity 08, and 
flashing point of over 73°. 

In the construction of frames for motor-carriages, the 
experience and inventions of the cycle manufacturer will be 
of very great help. Not only may the systems of building-up 
be employed, but the tubular form may be usefully employed 
ah storage or cooling surface for jacket water. 

Iu some of the machines which took part in the Paris- 
Marseilles trials, it was found that under the excessively 
severe ordeal of a 1,000 miles race, often over excessivsly bad 
roads, the frames were severely tested, and brazed joints in 
several instances were found defective. On the other hand, 
mechanically connected frame members behaved well. When 

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motor- carriage construction has been sufficiently standardised, 
it will, no doubt, become common to connect members of the 
frames by castings and stampings, which are employed also as 
parte of the machinery. 

The only novelty in the method of building up frames which 
has been announced is that of Mr C. T. Crowden, according to 

purpose of the process, placed within strong, well-fitting, cast- 
iron clamped dies, or moulds, so that the water pressure does 
not burst either the thin pipe or the sockets. Some samples of 
frame joints made this way are here upon the table. 

There seems to be great probability that the light aluminium 
alloys having a specific gravity of from 29 to 2'35 appear to be 


FlO. 11. — Hot.T's STKAM C.IURIAGE. 

which the tubes are slipped into their connecting collars or other 
parts, such as the cycle head and crank bracket, and then sub- 
jected to an internal water pressure of about 2A tons to the 
square inch. The inside of the sockets, of whatever form, are 
first grooved, so that under the water pressure the thin tube is 
swelled into the grooves. The sockets and tubes being, for the 

well suited for making the castings for the frame and machinery 
connections, because excellent castings of any form can now be 
made with these alloys, and the strength for a given weight is 
not only ample for every purpose when the thickness is enough 
to secure stiffness, but it is considerably stronger than steel, 
weight for weight. Steel castings cannot be made v>ry light, 

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and when necessary stiffness is taken into consideration, an 
aluminium alloy of specific gravity 2 - 95, and tensile strength of 
from 12*5 to 15 tons per square inch offer very considerable 
advantages, especially as such alloys work well in the machine 
shop and with the fitter. 

"With regard to the tyres of wheels for light carriages aud the 
lighter omnibuses and vans, experience to the present time 
seems to confirm the opinion of those who strongly favour the 
use of indiarubber, and particularly of pneumatic tyres. 
Experience and invention are no doubt developing the air 
tyre, so that its advantages will ere long far outweigh the 
disadvantage of their high cost. Very high speeds are, however, 
especially with any considerable weight, very destructive both 
of solid and of pneumatic tyres. For the heavier vehicles now 
permitted under the recent Act and regulations there seems 
little doubt that wheels fitted with renewable wood treads may 
be very favourably mentioned, and it may be hoped that the 
Local Government" Board Rules will in this respect, and in one 
or two other matters on structural points, be modified in 
accordance with the experience which will soon, it may be 
expected, make modification necessary. 

Fio. 12.— Holt's Steam Cabriagk— 1'kokt View. 

With a consideration of the kind of tyres most suitable for 
motor vehicles, arises the subject of road improvement, and the 
opinion may be confidently expressed that if mechanical trans- 
port on the high roads is to acquire the importance and the 
universality that it« promised advantages make desirable, more 
attention than ever will have to be paid to the construction 
aud maintenance of roads, and more money than ever will be 
profitably emplojed on this work. 

Thus far no reference has been made to the development of 
electrically operated motor vehicles. This is because the 
development resolves itself almost entirely into a question of 
secondary battery construction. There can be no doubt that 
the electrical motor is, at present, the only one which offers a 
complete equivalent of the steam-engine with regard to range of 
power within the maximum, facility of starting and stopping, 
easy working, and freedom from vibration. It must, however, 
be left to those who have had recent personal experience in the 
use of secondary batteries for this purpose to state what the 
recent developments actually are, for the author's own experience 
in their construction cannot be quoted in connection with recent 

During the coming year great activity may be expected in 

connection with mechanical road carriages. British engineers 
are busy, and the prizes offered by the proprietors of The 
Engineer, to the value of 1,100 guineas, will, it may be expected, 
bring forward a great many vehicles, which will take part in 
the competitive trials to "be held at the end of May, or 
beginning of June next. The conditions of this competition 
were published in The Engineer of the 20th of that month 


The Chairman said this subject was now occupying public 
attention a great deal. It interested engineers at very nearly 
the beginning of the century, but now the public hail got hold 
of it, and probably there would be the usual story — a good many 
failures, a good many accidents, a great deal of dissatisfaction, 
and then it would fall into disrepute. After the pendulum had 
swung in that direction, it would probably come back, aud after 
a time the matter would be taken up in a proper and true spirit 
— that of engineering, not of company promoting. When that 
point was reached, it would be found that this mode of locomotion 
was really very valuable. He had so often spoken of his own 
experience, which went back, he was sorry to say, for 60 years, 
that he hardly liked to repeat it, beyond saying that, according 
to his judgment, nothing had been done recently which surpassed 
what was done then. There had certaiuly been a change from 
steam to oil motors, but he was glad to see that the reader of 
the paper appeared to be of opinion that the last word had not 
yet oeen said with regard to steam. Mr. Thornycroft's steam- 
vau, and Mr. Holt's steam-carriage were illustrations. He did 
not consider that the flashing of water into steam was a very 
nice way of doing the work. It did not follow because you used 
water that you need carry several hundredweight of it ; and, he 
might remark, that whether it were in a boiler or in a tank it 
weighed exactly the same. It was only the initial low-water 
level in the boiler which was extra, and the boiler need not be 
very heavy. With regard to reversing gear, Mr. Hancock, who 
was roost successful in the use of road locomotion 60 years ago, 
told him that he never would allow his carriage to be reversed 
in London by the driver. The driver would only get into a 
fluster and back into something, and they would have the pole 
of an omnibus going through the casing of the boiler or some- 
thing of the sort. All he allowed the driver to do was U> steer, 
or put on the brake with his foot, or stop, and that was found 
quite sufficient. If the Serpollet system used coke, he did not 
understand how the fire was damped down, or how they avoided 
getting too high a temperature when standiug. He could 
understand that with petroleum it would be easy to prevent 
that taking place. Many present were probably aware of the 
arrangement of Mr. Howard, of the King and Queen Iron 
Works, many years ago, in which the boilers had no water in 
them, but iust enough was injected to make one stroke of the 
engine, and that was repeated. There the reservoir to take up 
the heat of the fire was an amalgam of lead and mercury, and 
the water was injected on to a plate covered by this amalgam, 
the plate being indented so as to give more surface. There was 
another boiler, called the Parks boiler, very much like it. This 
system was used on a steamboat which ran from London to 
Ranisgate during the whole of one season ; it was applied to 
a ship of war, and for years it drove the engines for the rolling 
mill at the King and Queen Iron Works at Rotherhithe. He 
did not know what objection there was to coke as a fuel when 
properly burned. All fuel must give off carbonic acid if burned 
properly, or carbonic oxide if burned impel fectly, and he did 
not know that coke gave off anything else. They all knew the 
difficulties with coal, but he could not speak from experience ;us 
to the lighter oils. When he was putting up an engine for an 
electric plaut in a house he had in the country, he was deterred 
from using an oil-engine by an epigram. A friend said to him, 
" Do not use that thing ; it will stink like a cat, and bark like a 
dog." Not liking that prospect, he put up an ordinary steam- 
engine. He did not gather how the draught was obtained in 
cases where a tire was used ; as a rule it appeared to be produced 
merely by the ignition of the vapour in the cylinder ; nor did 

o 3 

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'J 8 


[Dbokkbeb, 1896. 

he gather how the noise of the exhaust was got rid of. Some 
years ago he was much interested in an endeavour to introduce 
in London tramcars worked by compressed air, as they had been 
worked now for 1!> years in France. They had to get rid of the 
noise of the exhaust air, and after trying many costly things, he 
at last thought of something very simple. He took an old 
hamper, doubled it up, and broke it, and put it in a case, and 
then turned the exhaust air into that, and the twigs of the 
hamper so bothered the compressed air, that they never heard 
any more of the noise. A similar kind of device was used with 
gas-engines. He did not quite understand one of the boilers 
which had been described as having a high-water pressure, and 
low-steam pressure. Perhaps Mr. Beaumont would explain it 

Mr. Beaumont said there was a reducing valve between 
two parts of the boiler. The part containing the water 
was constructed of tubes, and the water in those tubes was 
carried very much in the same way as it was in the Perkins 
hot-water heating apparatus, from that the water was taken 
through a reducing valve, and converted into steam. 

The Chairman said he was surprised to hear that pneumatic 
tyres would stand the wear incident to traction wheels. He 
remembered Mr. Hancock telling him that he had much less 
trouble with the wear of his engines and boilers than with 
the wear of his tyres. If pneumatic tyres by reason of their 
pneumaticity (so to say) were capable of getting over that 
trouble, it would be a very important matter. He often thought 
that if he were a man of wealth and leisure, he should like to 
make a servile copy of one of Hancock's steam-omnibuses, and 
put it to work, as the original did, between Paddiugtou and the 
Bank, and then ask the present generation of engineers to try 
and improve upon it. 

Mr. Walter Hancock said no one was more surprised and 
delighted that so much had been done with petroleum motors, 
but at tin same time the advantages of steam were so thoroughly 
worked into his whole thoughts, that he could uot but think 
that there was a good deal to be done yet by the steam-engine, 
when the attention of the engineers of the present day was 
directed to the problem of road locomotion. Going back to the 
time when his uncle first worked at steam -carriages, and com- 
paring the steam-engiue of those days with those of the present 
— considering the form of the slide-valve, which then had none 
of the advantages of lap and lead — which had produced such an 
economy in working, and thinking also of the change introduced 
by the link gear by which the expansion was now controlled, 
and, therefore, the consumption of steam according to the 
varying load, it might be safely said that the little van described 
by the author was one which pointed very strongly to the 
advantage to be gained by the use of steam. The engines in 
that van were little more than toys : the cylinders were only 
2 inches and 4 inches, in fact, he thought it carried economy of 
engine-power to exception. If the cylinders had been 2\ inches 
by 5 inches he thought it would have been a most economical 
machine for traction on roads. As it was it, it would carry 
something like a ton. He hoped the engineers of to-day would 
devote their skill and energy to this question, and adopt all the 
impre\ ements of the modern steam-engine to road motors, 
and then he believed steam would hold its own for both economy 
and comfort. 

Mr. A. K. Sennett, referring to the Chairman's remark that 
he regretted that his experience went back 60 years, said he 
was inclined to think that he would rather have lived 60 years 
ago, for that was evidently an engineering epoch. Then a man 
who wanted a machine went to an engineer, whereas now he 
went to a company promoter. He had had some experience of 
the Serpollet boiler, and that afternoon had run some 30 miles 
with a carriage constructed by that inventor. With regard to 
the damping down of the fires where coke was used, there was 
no precaution taken, except that the ashpit door was opened 
towards the front of the carriage only. The blast up through 
the bars due to the motion of the carriage was all that was 
required. He had slightly altered M. Serpollet's arrangement 
by putting a hopper in front at an angle of 30° from the 
horizontal downwards ; if anything, that acted rather too well, 
and all that afternoon they had rather too much steam. It now 

only required to be fitted with a butterfly- valve damper to be 
under perfect control He understood the author to intimate 
that the reserve of therma energy in the Serpollet tubes was a 
matter of seconds — that it was soon exhausted. He would wish 
to emphasise the fact that the draught upon this reserve was 
made concurrently with the normal steaming of the boiler. It 
was far more than a matter of seconds, and its utility was of the 
greatest importance. That afternoon he drove from Worthing 
to Horsham— not the most level of roads — but though the 
carriage was provided with a hill-climbing speed and a high 
speed, they never put on the hill-olimbing speed the wholn 
time, and never saw any visible steam, even on the longest hill. 
His experience was that by putting on the slow speed you made 
such a vast number more revolutions in climbing a hill, and 
before you got to the top of it, if it took more than (say) 
10 minutes, the superheating became ineffective, and you got 
visible steam, which was forbidden by the Act. It was curious 
in what a Blipshod way the French carriages were put together ; 
the syphou tubes outside the boiler were not protected in any 
way, and while the boiler tubes were at such a high temperature, 
immediately outside there was a rush of cold air. The same 
with the cylinders ; they were not lagged in any way, and 
were placed in such a position as to catch all the grit and dirt. 
It was really wonderful how well the carriages behaved, built 
in the way they were. Of course, Serpollet was not the first 
to invent a flashing boiler, nor even to apply it to a carriage, 
and he was inclined to think that the Serpollet system was 
really an English invention. It was Jacob Perkins who taught 
them to use a flashing boiler, and Mr. Loftus Perkins, who (lid 
so much 'in high-pressure steam, built a little tractor, much 
smaller than any that Dion and Bouton's built in Paris to-day. 
It ran about London for some time, but being exiled by Act of 
Parliament, went to Brussels, where it ran a considerable time ; 
then the boiler was taken out and copied and put into tramcars, 
and now the same system was carried, out by M. Serpollet in a 
manner which did him great credit. 

The Chairman said according to his recollection the Perkins' 
carriage, on which he had ridden, had a boiler containing water 
at high pressure — not a flashing boiler. 

Mr. Sennett said he believed it was a flashing boiler. It 
was a tractor with only one wheel, which was attached to a 
four-wheel van. The single driving wheel was covered with 
india-rubber. As the Chairman had said, a flashing boiler did 
not reduce the weight ; it was heavier if anything, but the 
extra weight was more than compensated for by its safety and 
flexibility. The Dion and Bouton boiler required a very large 
area or a very high rate of combustion, as a means of raising 
steam rapidly for hill climbing, and it was a most dangerous 
boiler to place in the hands of unskilled drivers. With a 
tubular flashing boiler all danger was eliminated. If you had 
to stop suddenly an ordinary boiler went on making steam, aud 
up went the safety valve and frightened the horses. With 
boilers of the Thornycroft or Yarrow type you had great power, 
but there ought to be some means of arresting the combustion 
or radiant heat when the carriage stopped. He should like to 
know how the oil-feed in the Serpollet carriage was regulated. 
In the historic Parkinson and Bateman tricycle there was a 
regulating arrangement similar to one recently introduced by 
Mr. Cross, consisting of a steam piston, held down by a strong 
spring, so that directly the steam rose above a certain pressure 
the spring compressed, and the different jets were automatically 
shut down. He found nothing at all objectionable in coke, 
wliich was a much cleaner fuel than petroleum. They never 
put any coke on the fire ; it was put in a hopper, and the 
shaking of the carriage shook it down. That afternoon they 
had rather less than one sack of coke put into the hopper at 
Worthing, and as a precaution about one quarter of a sack more 
was put on the front of the carriage. They ran the 25 miles 
iuto Horsliam with the use of about three parts of a sack. It 
was, of course, very unscientific to use petroleum or liquid fuel 
for a steam engine, because a steam-engine was a heat engiue 
of low efficiency ; whereas an internal combustion engiue was 
one of high efficiency ; but, nevertheless, the ease of manipula- 
tion, the simplicity, and the much-to-be-desired flexibility of 

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power was ho great iu the case of steam, that now English 
engineers had a. chance of working at it he thought they wouM 
put a different complexion on the matter. Iu reply to a 
question from Mr. Beaumont, he said he believed the carriage 
he had beeu describing weighed about 24 cwt, but he had not 
weighed it. 

Mr. S. H. Tbbuv said he was very glad to hear from so high 
an authority as the Chairman that steam was not dead yet, and 
he gathered that Mr. Beaumont also thought it had yet a future 
before it. He had brought with him some photographs, which 
perhaps might be thrown on the screen, of a once well-known 
steam carriage, called the "Fly-by -Night," built some years ago 
by Messrs. Carrett and Marshall for Sir Titus Salt, which 
afterwards became the property of Mr. Des Vigne, who was 
present, and, he hoped, would say something about it. It rau 
a great many thousand miles, bat, unfortunately, owing to 
difficulties raised by the local authorities, its career came to 
an end. 

The photographs having been shown, 

Mr. Dbs Vio-ne said the " Fly-by-Night " had many points 
of interest, even at the present day. When first constructed 
from the design of Mr. George Salt it was not by any means 
perfect. The steering gear was not first rate, and it did not go 
round corners well. It had, perhaps, the first example of the 
" Jack-in-the-Box " compensating gear of bevelled wheels and 
hollow shaft. Then they could not keep steam ; and after 
trying several sorts of feed water-heaters, they at last put some 
banging tubes in the smoke box of a peculiar construction, by 
which they got the water into the boiler rather above boiling 
point, and that acted very well. There was also an expansion 
gear, which saved a lot of water, and seemed to do almost as 
well as a compound- engine. They could not use it except on a 
fairly level road, for when going up-hill, or over rough stones, 
the consumption of water went up rapidly. It weighed about 
6 tons, and of course that wanted a lot of propelling ; still they 
went up Chatham Hill with it all right. Mr. Aveling, who was 
present, said it carried too much steam, and that the pressure 
(150 pounds) was too high. However, when they had the 
expansion gear on, they put on another 30 lbs., and* it stood it 
all right. When the Act was passed, the engine could no 
longer run ; the engines were put into a steamboat, and the 
wheels were sold, but he still had some of the parts. 

Mr. Terry then showed a photograph of another steam- 
carriage now being constructed at Teddington, by Messrs. Des 
Vignes and Co., with vertical tube boilers, the engines being 
entirely self-lubricatiug. He did not think any passenger 
would know there was an engine on board, which was not a 
common feature in motors. He did not want to disparage oil 
motors, for he thought the builders of them had taught them all 
some useful lessons, one of the principal being that they must 
keep down the weight. The " Fly-by-Night " was very heavy, 
but the one of which he had shown the photograph was not so 
heavy as it looked. The points required were strength and 
rigidity, with great elasticity l>etween the road and the pas- 
sengers, and even the engines, for yon did not want the engine 
to receive violent shocks from the road, so that he thought they 
must employ some form of india-rubber tyre. 

The Chaibman . having proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Beaumont, which was carried unanimously, 

Mr. Beaumont, in reply, said the recent development in these 
carriages were necessarily matters of detail, aud those who were 
engaged in perfecting them were not disposed to say much 
about them. In many cases, although he knew what was going 
on, he was not at liberty to publish the information. The 
value of the Serpollet flashing boiler lay in the fact that it was 
constructed of tubes, which were perfectly happy whether they 
had water in them or not. They were of considerable thickness, 
and being surrounded by cast-iron, might remain safely exposed 
to the heat of the furnace, much of the heat Wing accumulated 
iu the mass of metal. The advantage was that when steam was 
not required, it was not being made, and uo risk was being run 
of a sudden pop of the safety-valve. No doubt the tubes would 
gradually burn away, but that process would be very slow, and 
of little importance compared to the advantages secured, of 

generating steam only when required, and of having a l>oiler which 
anybody could use, and hardly know it was there. Iu reply to 
a question by the Chairman, he said he did not know what tem- 
perature the tubes reached, or whether the water in those very 
small tubas got at all into the spheroidal condition. The noise 
of the exhaust was prevented in some cases by passing it into 
the furnace, and out with the products of combustion. Pneu- 
matic tyres had been used for a long time for traction purposes, 
but not for the heavier work, and for that further experience 
was required. The Perkins tractor he had described in his 
lectures last December. It had a Perkins boiler — not a flashing 
boiler — aud was a single-wheeled engine attached to a four- 
wheel van. The Dion boiler was open to the objection that 
there was a certain quantity of water on which the lire still 
acted when the carriage stopped, and, therefore, steam was 
still generated. No one had a higher appreciation of the work 
done by Hancock, not only as regards actual achievement, but 
as indicating what might be done at the present time, and 
he wished that work was more studied. In the Time* of that 
day there was a paragraph calling attention to the successful 
working of a coach built by Ogle and Summers, which rau 
from Oxford to Birmingham about 64 years ago. If they 
could do that with a steam-engine, and if Hancock did it 
continuously, as we know he did 60 years ago, surely those 
going into the question now would do well to study their work, 
and not throw away the advantage of the experience then 

tained. In those days the coaches or vehicles were much 
eavier than now, and the weight of the l>oiler and engine 
was, therefore, less in proportion to the total weight than in 
the small light vehicles now aimed at, aud of course this 
introduced new conditions which had to be met. Still there 
was too much inclination to go to work without taking account 
of former experience. The carriage described by Mr. De 
Vigne was really only an engine and boiler on wheels, with 
a seat or two put upon it. It would not do now to build a 
vehicle weighing 2J tons to carry four jieople. 


Mr. Shrapnell Smith at Liverpool. 

In connection with the series of Corporation Free Lectures at 
the Picton Hall, an interesting paper was delivered on the 
17th ult. by Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith, hon. local secretary of the 
Self-Propelled Traffic Association, upon the subject of "Horseless 
Carriages : their Past, Present, and Future." Mr. Isaac Turner 

E resided over a crowdtd audience. After reviewing the early 
istory and development of horseless carriages, the lecturer 

I pioceeded to describe the latest machines, and introduced his 
audience,' by means of the limelight, to the various French 
motor-cars, to the Serpollet car (weight, 3 J cwts. ; cost, £lii(i), 
the Beeston-H umber mo tor- tricycle (weight, 120 lbs. ; price, 
£50), the Peunington niotor>bicyc!e (50 lbs. ; price, A'50), and 
other machines. Discussing the suitability of steam, oil, and 
electricity as motive power, lie said that steam had the advantage 
of having no smell or vibration and great flexibility— that is, 
high maximum horse-power iu order to admit of the negotiation 
of hills ; that oil-motors were noisy, gave consideiable smell, 
always vibrattd when going slowly, and were troublesome to 
manage ; and that electricity was the cleanest and easiest to 
manage but most expensive. Comparing the cost of winking, a 
steam motor-car of the Serpollet type would run NO miles in 
111 hours at a cost of 2*. (id., an oil-motor for :!.». 4/., and an 

1 electric- car for 4.i. Hj., taking the cost of electricity at I. 1 .'/. |>< •■■ 

! Board of Trade unit. The initial cost was heavy, lint he liiokid 
for a gieat i eduction in the near futuie, and was confident thai 
English engineers would do for motor-cars what they had done 
for bicycles and railway-engines. He anticipated great popularity 

1 for the motor-cars for touring purposes, and mentioned that four 

is 1 

• > 


Digitized by 




friends might tour to Llandudno at a cost for travelling of 3*. 
The use of mechanical power would lessen the cost of repairing 
roads, as 60 per cent, of the wear and tear is caused by the 
horses' hoofs. A demonstration would be held in Liverpool in 
about two mouths' time, when it was hoped that specimens of 
the most practical machines at present made would be seen. 


A paper on " The Mechiiuical Propulsion of Tramway Cars " 
was read on the 18th nit to the members of the Glasgow 
Philosophical Society by Professor W. H. Watkinson, of the 
(Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. Dr. Eben. 
Duncan, President of the Society, occupied the chair, and 
there was a large attendance, which included several members 
of the Corporation and a number of civic officials. 

Professor Watkinson said he had made a special study of the 
subject during the past 12 years. There had teen until recently 
no pronounced demand in this country for rapid street transit, and 
on this account comparatively few of their engineers had devoted 
much attention to this department of engineering, which, owing 
to recent legisUtion, promised to become in the near future one 
of our greatest industries. The great benefits to be derived 
from rapid street transit were now recognised, and the loss to a 
city like Glasgow through the lack of it, being* seen to be 
enormous, the public would not long tolerate our present slow 
and cruel system of horse traction. After reviewing from an 
engineering standpoint the merits and prospects of the more 
common systems of rapid street transit— steam engines, com- 
pressed air motors, gas engines, oil engines, underground cable, 
and electric motors — the lecturer showed that recent develop- 
ments in the knowledge of the principles underlying the design 
and construction of light engines and boilers had rendered it 
possible for any of these motors to be successfully and efficiently 
applied to the propulsion of tramway cars. He gave the 
preference to gas and oil engines as being the most likely to 
satisfy all the requirements of a large city. The cable system 
was the most economical of all when the traffic was very heavy, 
and he suggested a method of surmounting the principal 
difficulty in connection with this system — the extension of it to 
other districts after the plant had been laid down. For com- 
paratively light traffic distribute! over a large area, the 
electrical overhead trolley system was at present by far the 
most successful. In Glasgow it was abs>lutely necessary either 
to spend a large sum on increased stable accommodation and 
other matters, or to adopt at once mechanical propulsion, and it 
would probably be best to adopt the electrical method, although 
it was almost certaiu that the present overhead system and the 
present type of motors would be obsolete and so have to be 
replaced within' a very few years. It would also bs well to 
equip, say, the Whiteinch and Dalmarnock sections with cars 
propelled by gas engines. The outlay involved in the adoption 
of this would be comparatively small, and cars of this type were 
working very successfully at Blackpool and other places. The 
lecture was illustrated with lantern views. 

Urge cities were noise and dirt, and the modification, if not the 
entire removal, of these nuisances, largely due to the horse, was 
a strong argument for the introduction of motor-carriages. 
After discussing the arguments for and against steam, oil, and 
electricity — the latter the perfect motive power for self-propel- 
ling vehicles, except with regard to cost —he urged the claims 
of the hot-air engine, which possessed all the conditions of 
success, and all the advantages of both steam and oil and some of 
those of electricity. He was strongly of opinion that ';he hot- 
air system offered a good field for inventors in the perfecting of 
effective and ecr.^nncal motors. The lecture was illustrated by 
a number of limelight views. 

Mb. G. P. TiIompsox at Liverpool. 

"Self-propelling Vehicles" was the title of a lecture delivered 
on the 23rd ult. by Mr. G. F. Thoni[>son, at the Royal Institution, 
before the Liverpool Polytechnic Society. After tracing the 
development of the self-propelling vehicle, the lecturer referred 
to the absence from the market of motor-cars of English design 
and. make— a deficiency which, he thought, would soon be filled. 
Ctuupaiiug the advantages and deficiencies of the horse and the 
motor, he said the horse adapted itself to greatly varying con- 
ditions without much guidance or assistance from its driver, 
while the mechanical carriage depended upon its manoeuvring 
facilities and the skill and presence of mind of the driver. The 
motor had the advantage of having no vitality to tire or ailments 
to ontract, while its initial cost was no more than that of a, and its keep less. The most objectiouable features of 


— -* — 

Ukdkr this heading our contemporary, The Statist, oi the 21st 
ult., in the course of au analytical article on the subject, states 
that the registrations as public companies of concerns tor dealing 
with this new industry have not so far this year been very 
numerous, and those where the capital runs into six figures are 
ten in number, some of them having not yet appealed to the 
public for capital. The list is as below : — 

1896. £ 

3. in. 17. Daimler Motor Company •• . . •• 100,000 

(Prospectus. February) 

Miroh 24. Britannia Motor Carriage Company . . 100,000 

(Prospectus, June) 

A pril 21. Motor Carriage and Cycle Patents .. .. 5,000 

May 6. British Horsjloss Carriage and Motor Cycle 

Company .. .. .. .. .. 10 

Mty 18. London Electric Onnibus Cjmpany .. 250,000 

(Prospectus, May) 

May 14. Grtat Horseless Carriage Company . . .. 760,000 

(Prospectus, May) 
May 14. Pennington Motor (Foreign Patents) Syndi- 
cate 100,000 

Juue 5. British Motor Carriage and Cycle Company 200,000 

(Prospectus, June) 

July 25. Tavenner Safety Motor Syndicate .. .. 3,000 

July 25. Anglo-French Motor Carriage Company .. 300,000 

(Prospectus, August) 

July 31. Motor Carriage Syndicate of Australia .. 6,000 

July 81. Motors 6,000 

Aug. 7. Davies Motor Company . . . . . • 160,000 

Aug. 13. Central London Omnibus Company . . . . 1,000 
Aug. 28. Millet's Patent Motor Wheel and Cycle 

Company 100,000 

Sept. 29. Esson Motor Company 20,000 

Oct. 5. Coventry Motor Company . . . . . . 10,000 

Oct. 22. Selections 2,000 

Nov. 2. Armstrong-Dove Motor Syndicate , . .. 6,000 

Nov. 4. Traffic Syndicate 10,000 

Nov. 6. Yeovil Motor Car and Cycle Company . . 1,000 

Nov. 6. London Motor Car Works 10,000 

Nov. 11. Pioneer Motor Car Syndicate .. .. 10,000 

(Prospectus, November) 

Nov. 12. London Electrical Cab Compiny .. .. 150,000 

(Prospectus, November) 

We now deal with some of the above companies in their 
chronological order : — 

Daimler Motor Syndicate.— This Company was formed in May, 
1893, with a capital of £6,000. It acquired the goodwill of the 
engineering business of P. E. Simms, aud contracts, including 
the agency for selling patent rights in England of the Daimler 
Motoveu Gesellschaft. The purchase consideration was £3,000 
in shares, and £562 10*. 2rf. in cash. On. January 14th, 1895, all 
the capital was issued, aud held by 20 shareholders. In April 
following the capital was increased by £2,000 to £8,000, aud at 
a meeting held December 5th, 1895, confirmed January 2nd, 
1896, voluntary winding-up was determined upon. By an 
agreement of October 24th, 1 895, H. J. I,awsoii acquired for 
£'35,000 the busiuess of the Daimler Motor Syndicate, the 
Syndicate having previously entered into a contract to purchase 

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the patent rights of Daimler Motoven Gesellschaft's right for 
United Kingdom and Colonies (except Canada) for £18,750. 

This motor, for the patent rights of which £18,750 was paid, 
seems to be the main basis of the group of companies now dealt 

British Motor Syndicate, Limited. — This concern was registered 
November, 1895, with a capital of £150,000, which was increased 
in May, 1896, to £1,000,000 in £1 shares. In the return filed 
at Somerset House showing the position at April 30th, 1896, 
there were, of the then £150,000 capital in £1 shares, seven 
shares issued to seven subscribers £7 paid, and 135,000 shares 
issued to H. J. Lawson and others " considered as paid." Many 
transfers had been effected prior to the filing of this return. 
There were at April 30th, 1896, in all 33 shareholders, and 
amongst the principal holdings were : — 

At April 30. h, Previously 

1896. disposed of. 

H. J. Lawson 99,801 15,200 

M. T). Ruckcr 5,000 25,000 

Company Registration Synthetic .. 15,000 

Somers Vine .. .. .. .. 1,000 — 

K. T. Hoolev ]\il 81,500 

B. B. Tan Prnagh Nil 2,500 

T. Robinson 1,000 — 

The last three persons named appear as having acted as directors 
nf the Syndicate. Two, it will be seen, did not hold shares in 
April last. Various contracts at different dates had been filed 
as between H. J. Lawson, as vendor, and the Syndicate. 
Reference to the Daimler Motor Syndicate particulars above 
mentioned shows what bad been acquired by such Syndicate, 
including £18,750 paid for the Daimler patents for the United 
Kingdom and Colonies (Canada excepted), and that Mr. Lawson 
ljought up the business that had been conducted by the Daimler 

It would seem that what was represented by 135,000 shares 
fully paid was as follows : — 

La wson's payment to Daimler Motor Syndicate .. 35,000 
Lawson 's payment to Baincs for rights— Katies 
Pennington Motor — for patents for mixing and 
volatilising gases for United Kingdom and West 
Australia .. .. .. .. .. .. 35,000 

Lawson's purchase of electric motor car patent . . 500 

Lawson's payment for letters patent . . . . 2,000 


Having got to this stage of what represents £135,000 "con- 
xidered as paid," we have the feature that in July a contract was 
entered into by which the British Motor Syndicate acquired 
from Lawson, for 12,993 shares, rights of application for two 
patents. To carry this out, in the following month the capital 
of the Syndicate was raised to £1,000,000; but a resolution to 
change the name Syndicate to Company was ignored by the 
Somerset House authorities. Other contracts for the acquisition 
of rights in consideration of fully-paid shares seem to have 
since been made, as an advertisement this week refers to 
£250,000 having altogether been paid for patents. The adver- 
tisement referred to gives some fine illustrations of works 
erected or to be erected, the owners of which have secured 
licenses from the British Motor Syndicate. 

Daimler Motor Company, Limited. — This undertaking was 
formed to manufacture and sell the Daimler Motor in this 
country. It was offered for public subscription in February, 
1S96, with a capital of £100,000 in £10 shares, paying the 
British Motor Syndicate for license to use patents in the 
United Kingdom £40,000 in shares considered as fully paid, or 
cash in lieu thereof. The return of shareholders on June 2nd, 
1896, shows that apparently this Company was rushed for, 
there being some 700 shareholders, and* no shares being 
mentioned as having been allotted as fully paid. 

O'rcat Horseless Carriage Comjuiny. — This Company was 
formed in May last, with £750,000 capital, to manufacture 
horseless carriages, vans, &c, but not to make motors. A con- 

tract was entered into for license to use patent rights belonging 

to the British Motor Syudicate. The consideration, according 

; to the prospectus, was £500,000 in cash or shares, at the option 

i of the vendors. Eventually, as to £250,000 the consideration 

' was in fully-paid shares. So huge a sum to start a carriage- 

, building business and right to pay for motors did not deter a 

large section of the public from applying for shares, when the 

I prospectus was issued in May last. A contract with the 

Daimler Motor Company, the motor manufacturing concern, 

gave the Great Horseless Carriage Company the concession of 

purchasing Daimler motors at 10 per cent, less cost than any 

ordinary customer. The lease of a block of 12 acres, with mill, 

weaving shed, &c, at Coventry was acquired from the British 

Motor Syndicate. The return filed at Somerset House in 

respect of the Great Horseless Carriage Company's capital of 

£750,000 shows 61,502 £10 shares issued, with 25,000 shares 

" considered as paid." The Company has, approximately, 

3,000 shareholders. In the return as at September 25th there 

is a curious feature, that only 3,116 £10 shares (say £31,160) 

stood in the name of the British Motor Syndicate. Among 

other large shareholders were : — 

J. H. Stunner (director) 13.980 

II. J. Lawson (director) 109,920 

Company Registration Syndicate .. .. .. 15,670 

T. Robinson 4,870 

M. D. Rucker 5,500 

B. B. ran Praagh 2,600 

F. Siinm 3,870 

Company Registration Syndicate, Limited. — This Company, 
registered in April, 1894, with a capital of £6,000 and powers 
to promote companies, figures as a large shareholder in both 
the British Motor Syndicate and the Great Horseless Carriage 
Company. The Company Registration Syndicate at the end of 
1895 had a paid-up capital of £210 15*. in respect of 1,637 
shares of £1 issued, 2*. 6rf. called up on 1,630, and seven shares 
fully paid. Among the shareholders figured the following : — 

T. Robinson (director of British Motor Syndicate, 

Limited) 280 

C. Osborn 100 

H.J. Lawson 100 

London Mortgage Banking Company .. .. 1,000 

Traffic Syndicate, Limited, registered November 4th, 1896, 
with a capital of £10,000 in £1 shares, has a contract with 
London Electrical Cab Company. Some of the same seven 
subscribers as of the Traffic Syndicate have figured in like 
capacity, or otherwise, in what we may term the Lawson 

London Electrical Cab Company, Limited. — This concern 
issued its prospectus last week. It is formed, with a capital 
of £150,000, to acquire the sole license to work, within the 
metropolitan area, patents secured from the British Motor 
Syndicate, the Traffic Syndicate, Limited, receiving for such 
rights 50,000 shares, or cash in lieu thereof. 

Is the judgment of the House of Lords delivered on Monday, 
the action of the Aberdeen District Tramway Company in 
clearing away the snow from their lines so as to cause an 
obstruction is a public nuisance and must be interdicted. 

Perhaps the best evidence, after all, of the reality and 
importance of the new movement in favour of horseless vehicles 
is the substantial air of The Automotor, the new monthly 
organ of automatic locomotion. The second number, published 
by Messrs. F. King and Co. (Limited), St. Martin's Lane, 
is a solid publication of 84 pages, full of articles on topics 
directly and indirectly connected with the subject at home and 
abroad, together with a large number of pictures of typical 
vehicles described in detail iu the number. We need hardly 
say that the number also includes an authoritative account of 
the proceedings on Emanci|)ation Day, together with a report of 
the dinner and speeches at the Hotel Mutrnpole. — Daily AW*. 


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Motor Omnibuses for Paris. 

The Geueral Omnibus Company of Paris has published the 
following' programme of a competition for designs for an auto- 
mobile omnibus to replace those drawn by horses now in use. 
An illustration will be forwarded by the Company to intending 
'competitors as a guide to the general requirements, the omnibus 
shown being' that now in use, the form of which is by preference 
"to be adhered to as much as possible. 

Part I. — Motor and Mechanism. 

t }. t)aia. — (1) The weight of the vehicle fully loaded may be 
about 6,000 kilogs. (6 tons). (2) It must be able to travel up 
a slope of 65 per cent. (1 in 15) at a minimum speed of (J kiloms. 
(3$ miles) per hour. (3) The dynamometric trials made by the 
Company have shown that, the starting effort may be 120 kilogs. 
per ton, and the average tractive force 20 kilogs. per ton. The 
power of the motor and the adhesion of the driving wheels 
to be adapted to these values. 

2. Character of the Motor. — The motor, with its generator or 
accumulator of energy, may be of any kind, provided that it 
does not give off 3iuoke, steam, or objectionable odours when at 
work. It must work as silently as possible. The transmission 
mechanism must as completely as possible be submerged in a 
permanent oil bath. 

; 3. Arrangement of the Motor. — The motor, while placed so as 
to be easily accessible, must be enclosed in a sheet metal case 
to protect it from mud and dust. 

4. Length of Run and Duration of Stoppages. — The run 
may be assumed at 6 kiloms. (3| miles) and the period of 
stopping at the ends of the line at six minutes each. If 
accumulators are proposed, two intermediate stoppages may 
be allowed for changing them, but not exceeding three minutes 

5. The present programme may be modified by competitors 
in a,uy way that they think necessary, if the reasons for the 
changes are explained. 

6. The items to be submitted in competition are : — (a) 
Drawing of the generator or motor ; (6) descriptive account ; 
(<•) prices and conditions of construction aud delivery. The 
above programme is independent of the frame of the carriage, 
which forms the subject of the second, although it is desirable 
that they should be considered conjointly. 

Part II.— Framb wira Accessories. 

1. Frame.— The framing should be of such a character as to 
enable the present thirty-seat omnibus to be utilised. The total 
weight should not exceed 4,000 kilogs. in running order without 
passengers, distributed as follows :— (1) Body of the omnibus, 
for carrying thirty passeugers, 1,000 kilogs. ; (2) allowed for 
motor or generator, 1,800 kilogs. ; (3) leaving for the frame, 
properly so called, 1,500 kilogs. ; total, 4,000 kilogs. 

2. II heels.— In principle, driving shall be done by the hind 
wheels, and steering by the front ones, although making both 
axles motors would be preferable. Constructors are therefore 
at liberty to adopt any system of driving, providing that the 
mobility of the forward axle and facility of steering is not 


3. Steering.— Special steering gear must be provided, allowing 
the driver to guide the vehicle easily, which must be able to 
turn in curves of 6 metres— 19^ feet— radius. 

4. limkeM. — Sufficient brake power must be provided to 
enable the omnibus to be slopped, when running 7$ miles an 
hour, iu V metres -23 feet -on a slope of 1 in 15. Each truck 
must have a brake, utilising, if possible, the motive power 
in addition to. one applied by hand. Sand boxes to be 

attached to driving wheels front and back, and clearing guards 
to the front wheels. 

5. Driver's Platform.— A platform rounded in front with a 
screen overhead for sheltering the driver, to be placed in front, 
with the steering wheel, brake, starting, and reversing handles, 
conveniently arranged for use. 

6. Bofert.— The vehicle shall be supplied with elastic buffers. 

7. Suspension. — Particular care must be taken iu the suspen- 
sion arrangements. 

8. Modifications— Builders are at liberty to make any altera- 
tions iu the present programme that they may think useful, 
subject to the same being explained in their specification. 
As a preliminary, it is desirable that their attention should 
be confined to the omnibus carrying thirty passengers — inside 
and out. 

9. Items to be Submitted — Competitors are desired to submit 
(a) a drawing of the carriage ; (6) a descriptive explanatory 
memoir; (<:) propositions for construction, including price, 
conditions, and time of delivery, &c. 

The following dimensions are given in Le Genie Civil: — 
Diameter of axle arms, front, 55 mm. ; back, 64 mm. ; length 
of axle arms, 24 cm. ; inclination, 1 in 10 ; number of plates 
in the springs over front axle, 8 ; cross spring in the front, 10 ; 
over hind axle, 10 ; cross spring at back, 10 leaves ; total 
length of body, 5'52 m. ; surface occupied by omnibus, 12'58 
square metres ; total length over all, 7 - 54 m. ; width of body, 
1-48 m. to 1'56 m. ; length of seat per passenger, inside, 0'48 m. ; 
outside, 046 m. ; weight, empty, 1,970 kilos. ; full, 4,050 kilos. 

The French Automobile Club Contest for 1897. 

As briefly stated in our last issue, quite an original competition 
has been decided on by the Committee of the Automobile Club 
de France, and it will be invested with particular interest to 
manufacturers in this country, as it is international. It is to be 
decided on July 1st, 1897, and the five following days, within a 
certain radius of a town situated in the neighbourhood of Paris. 
Only large and heavy motor-cars will be eligible. The vehicles 
entered must be able to carry at least ten persona besides the 
drivers, or to convey goods weighing one ton as minimum. 
They will compete as if they were on the special services for 
which they have been constructed, each being provided with a 
timekeeper approved by the committee. The number of the 
motor-cars taking part in the contest will not be limited, but 
each manufacturer can only enter one vehicle of the same type 
and size, though he may send a dozen of different models and 
dimensions, and try his luck with all. The entrance fee for each 
car will be 200 francs up to June 1st, and double that sum after- 
wards up to the 25th, inclusive, when the list will be closed. 
Photographs of the vehicles entered, together with the sale price 
of each, must also be forwarded before the latter date. The 
total amount of ground to be got over in the six days will be 
300 kilometres, divided into three series, the first consisting of 
40 kilometres, with a stoppage at the end of every kilometre, 
the second of 50 kilometres, with a halt at the termination of 

1 every five, and the third of 60, with a stoppage at the close of 
every 10. Each series will be gone over twice by every vehicle. 
In the town selected as the centre of the operations a place will 
be set apart for the reception of the motor-cars, and any repairs 

■ that may be necessary will be effected in the presence of 
members of the committee, who will also carefully -watch and 
take note of the qualities of the various vehicles. Medals and 
diplomas will be given to those which are found to be best 
adapted to the purposes for which they have been constructed, 
and an exhaustive report will be drawn tip for publication. 

, In fact, this is to be a thoroughly practical competition of the 
utilitarian order, under the auspices of the Automobile Club, 
which is anxious to demonstrate the advantages of motor-cars, 
not only for promenades, amusement, and journeys, but also for 
solid and substantial work in the carriage of a number of 
passengers and goods. 

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•Ti"ST as we are going to press we hear that Mr. McKim, 
of the Duryea Wagon Company, lias purchased the 
rights in Messrs. Roots and Venables' patents. 

At a meeting of the East Ashford Rural District 
Council, Mr. Amos called attention to the fact that no 
stipulation was made in the regulations laid down for the 
traffic of motor-cars, compelling the drivers of such cars 
to assist a restive horse past. It was resolved to write to 
'he Local Government Board stating that the Council 
thought it necessary that such a stipulation should be 

Mr. J. M. Andrew, C.C., who was one of the 
occupants of the motor-cairiage which led on the return 
journey from Brighton to London, writes : — " It was a 
most thrilling and novel ride ; and when the course was 
clear in the country roads the first and second cars 
travelled at a very high speed. They ascended and 
descended hills with facility, and the skill with which 
thej were steered through the towns and villages, 
instantly slowing or stopping, or quickening directly the 
road was clear, showed that they were under perfect 
control, and conclusively proved that these mechanical 
marvels can be driven with safety. They caused no 
inconvenience to anyono on the road, and ro accident 
occurred. It was a record ride not to be forgotten, and 
made memorable in the infancy of this new industry. It 
may be mentioned that the cars travelled at the rate of 
30 to 32 miles an hour, when the road was good and the 
course clear. It was most exhilarating travelling against 
the wind at 30 miles an hour, though it made breathiug 
rather difficult, the sensation being similar to that 
experienced when riding on a switchback railway car.'' 

would bo small compared with the material reduction in 
the mileage cost. As for the effect on the electricity 
works a charge of \\d. per unit would yield a profit of 
^d. per unit, or an income of £277 Is. 8<7. on a sale of 
133,000 units in the year, which would be gained without 
further expenditure on the works. 

We learn from Ireland that Mr. Walsh, proprietor of 
the mail cars running between Sligo and Ballina, is 
making inquiries with the view of placing a motor-car 
on the road. We have also reason to believe that the 
new mode of locomotion, thanks to the enterprise of Mr. 
Manghan, may not unlikely be availed of for the busy 
traffic between Ballina and Ennismore next season. 

Mr. A. H. Gibbings, the electrical engineer to the 
Bradford Corporation, has presented an elaborate report 
recommending the adoption of electricity for the tram 
system in that city. The total cost of working a 15 
minutes' service on the Horton route is estimated at 
9'43<f. per mile per car, and for a 10 minutes' service at 
8 - 25d. The total capital cost for the Horton section is 
placed at £18,660, of which £2,000 is for sheds and 
offices, £1,600 for four cars at £400 each, and £15,060 for 
rails, cables, paving, &c. The length of the Bolton section 
being considerably less, the cost per mile per car is 
calculated to come out at 25 per cent, more than on the 
Horton section. If the two sections were worked 
conjointly, the cost would probably be reduced to Sil. per 
mile per car. The additional capital required for a 
10 minutes' service, as against a 15 minutes' service, 

The directors of Messrs. Campbells (Limited), Aberdeen, 
1 have under consideration the abolition of the large 
1 number of horses employed by them, and propose to 
substitute automotors in their stead. 

The Joint Committee of the county and burghs of 
Dumfries contemplate the purchase of an automotor for 
the use of their sanitary and weight inspector. 

Now that everybody is talking about motor-cars, and a 
wonderful vista of development is presenting itself to 
the eye of the sanguine, it will interest many to learn 

I that half a century back a motor-car used to run for. 

J evening pleasure trips on the turnpike road from Neath 
Abbey. The car was built at the then celebrated Neath 
Abbey Ironworks. It was driven by steam, which was 

I generated in a small vertical boiler, and carried from four 

| to six passengers. 


A oasomne inspection car for railways has been intro- 

: duced in' America. It runs along the rails at a speed 

of 15 miles an hour, and is very convenient. The car 

j was built by the Daimler Motor Company, of the United 

I States. 

The motor-car as an ad/ertising medium does not find 
favour with the Leeds Corporation -Carriages Committee. 
At a meeting of this body a letter was read from a large 
firm of cocoa manufacturers, asking to be allowed to 
continue to run a motor-car along the streets of the city 
as an advertising vehicle. Temporary permission to do 
this had been previously granted, but the committee, 
however, fearing that if such a method of advertising 
were permanently allowed they would be deluged with 
applications from other traders, deemed it advisable to 
pass a resolution prohibiting advertising of this kind. 
They have no objection, however, to the firm using the 
motor-car for carrying on ordinary trade purposes. 

The necessary steps preparatory to bringing the scheme 
for providing the township of Bray with a system of 
electric tramways connecting the main street with Bray 
Head before the Privv Council have been taken. 

At a recent meeting of the Sedgley District Council 
the general manager of the Dudley, Sedglcy, and 
Wolverhampton Tramways Company, Mr. Hatch, 
attended the meeting, and gave an explanation respecting 
the proposed scheme for the adoption of electric tram- 
ways in South Staffordshire district, and also asked the 
Council to support it. He explained that an electrical 
engineer would visit the district. ■ The Council expressed 
their willingness to confer with him with respect to tlio 
proposal to adopt the electric mode of traction. 

II 2 

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The Liverpool Tramways Company arc taking the 
necessary stops to obtBia powers which will enable them 
to provide tho public of Liverpool with expeditious 
mechanical traction on all their tramway routes. The 
Parliamentary notice seems to point more especially to 
electrical traction by means of overhead wires in the less 
densely-populated parts of the town, and by means of 
underground wires in the central districts. 

At a special meeting of the Coseley District Council on 
the 18th ultimo, an engineer of the British Electrical 
Tractions Company attended, and stated that the Company 
were entering into negotiations for revolutionising the 
tramways in South Staffordshire by obtaining power to 
adopt overhead electric traction in lieu of steam. It was 
proposed to spend a million of money in reconstructing 
and extending the tramway, and it is believed the under- 
taking will prove remunerative, as by means of electricity 
a 10 minutes' service can be guaranteed. 

General Frost will bn one of the best allies of tho 
motor-car. When during his skirmishing advance the 
London streets are strewn with fallen horses, when 
rervous people dare not drive, and the hearts of the 
sympathetic aro wrung by the painful sights they 
witness, many will gladly surrender to the motor-car, 
which cannot stumble and cut its knees, or fall and have 
to be shot. 

TnE directors of tho Dublin and Kingstown Railway 
have determined to apply for powers to use electricity 
instead of stoking coal on their lino in future. Their 
traffic is large and heavy, but they consider electricity 
would bo cheaper for their purpose, and it seems that 
trains can be more easily stopped on tho electric principle 
than by the system at present in use. If (his Company 
succeeds in the venture, no doubt others will l-apidly 
follow in their steps, but, of cours?, in the first instance 
it must be more or less experimental. 

According to statistics just issued concerning the 
development of electric tramways in Europe during the 
past year, Germany possesses the greatest mileage of 
lines ; France comes second, and England a bad third. 
Of the 111 lines now in operation, it is noteworthy that 
no less than 91 are worked on the trolley system — that is, 
with overhead wires. 

The Links and Parks Committee of the Aberdeen Town 
Council have, without a dissentient, declared in favour of 
electrical cars, and an effort is to be made to introdnce 
them at an early date. 


The Blackpool Town Council have at length approved 
their big scheme for improving the Promenade. The 
proposal is the result of a tour of the watering places in 
England recently made by several members of the 
Council. It provides fur a 15-feet footpath on the 
easterly side, a roadway 5.3 feet wile, a iO-feet island 
footway, a double line of electric tramways, and a 
Promenade 42 feet wide on the outer or westerly side, the 
whole width being not less than 140 feet. The estimated 
cost is £300,0'. 0. 

At a ratepayers' mect'ng it was, on tho 24th ult., unani- 
mously resolved to adopt electric power for the Bristol 
tramways. A keaa fight, however, took place over a 
proposal to compel the Company which works tho lines 
to obtain its current from the municipality. After a 
prolonged discussion this was defeated, the supporters of 
free trade in the matter gaining a decisive victory. 

The Stockton Rural District Council has had before it 
an application from the Middlesbrough Imperial Tram- 
ways Company for permission to reconstruct the tram 
lines in the Council's district (extending from Stockton 
borough boundary to Norton village), and to work the 
cars on the electric trolley system. The whole scheme is 
to amalgamate the Middlesbrough and Stockton com- 
panies, to carry the line from the terminus at Newport, 
Middlesbrough, to the terminus at Thornaby, thus 
making a continuous line from the Royal Exchange at 
Middlesbrough to Norton Green, via Thornaby and 
Stockton, and extending over a distance of about seven 
miles. The Council referred the matter to a committea 
for consideration. 

Mr. Herkomek's great vivacity and determination to 
be of artistic assistance to everybody has made him turn 
his attention to the motor-car. Of course, Mr. Herkomer, 
in common with nviny other people, thinks that the form 
of the car is all wrong, and that the designers have failed 
to grasp the fact that a horse would not finish off the 
extremity of the vehicle. The master of Bushy's sugges- 
tions point to a form of vehicle which would approximate 
more nearly to the outline of a boat than anything else. 
He would allow craftsmen to exercise their skill on the 
motor-car, and secure for it a decorative appearance that 
will tend to mnke the streets picturesque. 

The Financial News is responsible for the statement: 
thit the profits of t!ie Dunlop Company for this year 
will rot only reach the £600,000 which the prospectus 
stated to be probable, but that, from the orders in hand, 
profits amounting to £1,250,000 are certain. Our con- 
temporary adds: "It is simply stupendous." In this we 
agree — but is the forecait an accurate one ? 

Mr. Charles Allan, the proprietor of the omnibuses 
plying between Aberdeen and Cluny, is inquiring for 
motor-cars to replace his present omnibuses. The kind 
of vehicle Mr. Allan requires is one that would carry 
about thirty-five passengers and a reasonable weight of 
luggage, and (he difficulty, if it could be called adifficulty, 
would be to get a motor of sufficient power. At present 
the Aberdeen and Cluny 'buses, which are of the capacity 
indicated, are drawn by four horses, and Mr. Allan 
calculates that the motor would require to be of 8-horse 
power. Petroleum would be used for fuel. There are 
some rather stiff inclines on the route, particularly in the 
first five miles from Aberdeen, but it is not considered 
that these would be any impediment to the traffic. 

The Ealing District Council have resolved to oppose 
the application of the London United Tramways Company 
for power to run their lines through Ealing. 

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Mr. John Richardson, M.I.C.B., one of the managing 
directors of the firm of Robey and Co., the famous 
engineers of Lincoln, has been interviewed on the question 
of automotors. After passing in review the past history 
of the subject, and detailing some of the early experiences 
of his firm in the matter, he appeared to be somewhat 
dubious of rapid developments being made. His views 
may be best judged by the following expression of 
opinion: — "I think they would serve admirably for 
distributing light goods. They could be used by com- 
mercial travellers with samples, and possibly would be 
useful for the conveyance of passengers in some districts 
where there ara no railways. But Lord Winchilsea's 
idea is absurd that automotors would answer tho 
purposes of light railways for the conveyance of farm 
produce. It is very unlikely that, as an article of luxury, 
they will ever be used in the place of a carriage and 
pair. Either petroleum or steam engines require more 
attention and care than ordinary users would ever 


— ♦• — 

Sir Wm. Erbol, M.P., the well-known engineer, in 
addressing his constituents at South Ayrshire, said " He 
looked to tho development of road locomotives or motors 
to do a great deal in the way of assisting the farmer. By 
their use he would be bronght into closer contact with 
consuming centres, and in more remote districts with 
railway stations." (A voice: "What about the horao 
dealers ? ") " Well, the horse dealers could do as the rest 
did. When the railways were constructed there was a 
great outcry about horses being done away with altogether. 
The result had been, however, that more horses had boen 
used in connection with railways than had been used 
before them. He thought that a similar experience would 
follow the introduction of the motor-carriage." 

The Edinburgh Town Council are considering the 
advisability of adopting someof the more recent mechanical 
motors, in view of the tramway extension to Portobello. 

The Rathmines Tramway Scheme — described in a 
recent issue — has been rejected by the ratepayers, aud 
consequently falls through for this year. 

At a meeting of the Aston Urban Council, held on the 
1st inst., the Clerk announced that he had received a 
communication from the City of Birmingham Tramway 
Company, notifying their intention of applying to Parlia- 
ment for powers to construct a tramway along Summer 
Lane, up Alma Street, across High Street, Aston New- 
town, down the Witton Road to Bevington Road. Mr. 
Sidney Fisher asked what the motor power was to be. 
The Clerk said he was not in a position to say. Mr. 
Fisher : I only wanted to know, as I shall certainly oppose 
tho adoption of s'-.eam. The matter was referred to the 
Highway Committee. 

» — - 

As the local authorities object to tramways being laid 
in Llandudno, the neighbouring lines intend to fill up the 
gap by supplying a service of motor-carriages. The 
promoters estimate that six or seven vehicles will be 
sufficient at present ; but in the summer these will have 
to be increased to about 40 or 50. 

At a recent meeting of the Valley Bridge Sab-Com- 
mittee of the Scarborough Town Council, the Committee 
having considered tho question of motor-cars or light 
locomotives, and other light vehicles passing over the 
bridge, and tho tolls that should be taken for the same 
respectively, it was resolved to recommend that appli- 
cation be made to the Local Government Board by pro- 
visional order to alter or amend Sections 41, 44, and 45, 
and Schedule A of the Scarborough Valley Bridgo Com- 

prny's Act, 1864. 

— ■♦ — 

Thkkk does not at. first s-igbt seem to bo any very clear 
connection between horseless carriages and sparrows. 
Our contemporary, Lightning, however, discussing auto- 
motors, asks, " What will become of the London sparrow r" 
When the nosebag has depnrted from the cab-rank and 
tho ordure of the streets exists no more, his precarious 
livelihood will be lost. Ho will peak ai.d pine and slowly 
starve, till, faint and emaciated, be will fnl', a disap- 
pointing morsel, into the claws of the London cat." 'Tis 
a sorry picture, but, we hope, a too dismal on?. Tho 
sparrow may he able to adapt himself to circumstances, 
and cultivate some new tastes. 

K. S. Ranjitsixhji is tempting Nemesis. To top the 
cricket record, to have at least three pet names with the 
publis, to have a clause all to himself in a New South 
Wales Act of Parliament, and now to possess a motor-car, 
which he has riddtn with a firm and graceful seat all the 
way to Cambridge — these things are too much for one 
young man in one year. 

Thk Dublin Cycle and Motor-Car Exhibition is filling 
up with rapid strides. The latest exhibit has been soenred 
through t'uo energy of Lord Mayo, that is tho Groat 
Horseless Carriage Company. They have signified their 
intention of showing their latest motor-cycles, carriages, 
aud the famous car that won the great motor-car race 
between Paris and Brussels. Mr. R. Wilson, of Dublin, 
the secretary, has been working the exhibition in London 
for the past ten days, and iu every case he has met with 
great courtesy and support among tho English roauu. 



Plans, &c, of an electric tramway for Dundalk and 
Blackrock have been lodged with the local authority in 
compliance with the Act of Parliament. Tho Tourist 
Development Syndicate are seeking for a Provisional 
Order to enable them to carry out the projected work in 
conjunction with which they hope to establish a system, 
of public and private electric lighting for Dundalk. 

Is the course of an interview which a Daily Telegraph 
correspondent recently had with Mr. Edison, the following 
paragraph occurs: — " We began with the subject of the 
propulsion of motor-cars. For these, at present, he con- 
siders that the Lest form of motor lies between steam 
and the ga; engine. Tho advantage might at any 
moment chango to electricity, but such an occurrence 
depended wholly upon tho discovery of some more 
efficient and stablo system of storage batteries. Exces- 
sive weight, euuibrousness, and other drawbacks stand 
in the way of stored electricity as a ni"tive power." 

H ;i 

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In our last issue we fully described the motor vehicle 
run to Brighton, and have now only to briefly record the 
fact that most of them returned on the day we published, 
viz., the 17th ultimo. Taking advantage of some rather 
wild statements which were made, the London evening 
papers described in vigorous descriptive matter a wild 
race which ensued on the way to the metropolis — the 
carriages careering along at a mad speed of from 30 to 
32 miles an hour. We understand, from one who took 
part in the journey, that although a few high speeds were 
undoubtedly reached for short stretches of level and 
down hill roads in unfrequented places, the mean speed 
was not excessive. The risk is too great, however, for 
anyone to again tempt the authorities — or rather, we 

should hope it is. 


Mk. J. A. Wheelek, of Natal, is sending out to Mafeking 
some motors on trial in order to test whether they can 
be utilised for service in dealing with the transport of 
food amon°r the natives of Rhodesia. 


Whip-makers have been deploring the advent of the 
motor-carriage, on the assumption that with its arrival 
their trade would come to au untimely end. It appears, 
however, that the stroet-boys of London have found out 
that as there is no danger of 4< whip behind " in the new 
vehicles, they can enjoy unlimited free rides without 
danger. A judicious application of a few electrical 
shocks when they can bo conveniently applied will soon 
dissipate confidence on the part of the cockney gamius. 

It is stated that at present there are in use in America 
from 150 to 200 miles of strest tramway lines, the joints 
of which have been all welded, either by the electrical or 
tho " cast- welding " system, so that tlio rails are' actually 
continuous. As to the success of this system, the 
testimony is rather conflicting ; but it is obvious that tho 
difficulties to be encountered are serious. 

At the closo of the Aberdeen Town Council business on 
the 7th iost., the members of tho Links and Parka Com- 
mittee met, and appointed Councillor Wilkie (convener) 
and Councillor Gray as a deputation to visit London and 
report on the motor-car's in operation there. 


A fkivate company has been formed in Falkirk with 
the object of acquiring two motor- cars, to bo used in con- 
veying passengers from the Cross of Falkirk round by 
Cumelon, Larbert, Stenhousemuir, Grahamslon, and tin- 
versa. The shares, which tiro of £10 each, have all baen 
taken up privately. The secretary of tho company has 
been in communication with London to ascertain what 
kind of carriages would be best adapted for the local 
roads. Each is to hold from 25 to 30 people. Should 
the company prove a success a third car will be purchased. 

The management of the Grand Colosseum Warehouse' Com- 
pany of Glasgow have put on the streets of that city a motor- 
car for business purposes. It is the first of its kind to run in 
Glasgow, and, so far as is known, the only one in Scotland. 
The car is of French manufacture, and is driven by a Daimler 

Mr. H umber and the British Motor Syndicate. 

Is the Chancery Division, on the 2nd inst., before Mr. Justice 
Stirling, Mr. Graham Hastings, Q.C., moved, in an action 
Huraber and Co., Limited, v. Thomas Humber and the British 
Motor Syndicate, Limited, that Thomas Humber be restrained 
by injunction, until trial or further order, from acting as a 
director or other officer or servant of the defendant Syndicate, 
and from being conuected with or advising or assisting in the 
manufacture or sale of cycles or cycle accessories or any husiuess 
cognate thereto, except on behalf of the plaintiff Company, in 
breach of an agreement of January 28th, 1892, between 
plaintiffs and the defendant Thomas Humber ; and that the 
Syndicate be restrained from employing the defendant Humber 
as a director or other officer, and from representing by adver- 
tisement or otherwise, that he was a director. There being no 
appearance for the defendants, his lordship granted the injunc- 
tion over Friday ; but, soon after, Mr. Butcher appeared for the 
Syndicate, aud asked and obtained leave to re-open the matter 
later in the day. 

Just before four o'clock, Mr. Butcher again mentioned the 
case. He said his clients had not been able to communicate 
with Mr. Humber, who was, he believed, at Nottingham. He 
was, therefore, not in a position to argue why the injunction 
should not be made ; but he understood there were negotiations 
between the plaintiffs and defendants as to bringing the matter 
to a conclusion. Unless some such settlement could be arrived 
at, he took it that his lordship would continue the injunction ; 
but he would ask that it should only be until Thursday, by 
which time he hoped to have instructions from Mr. Humber. 

Mr. Hastings said that the only injunction he had obtained 
was to restrain the defendant from acting as a director of the 
defendant C mipany till over Friday ; and if Mr. Humber was 
at Nottingham the injunction over Friday would not incon- 
venience him much. 

Mr. Butcher said that there might be a board meeting on 
Thursday, which he might desire to attend. 

His lordship said that the motion had been brought on upon 
short notice. 

Mr. Hastings' clients at this stage entered the court, aud it 
was ascertained that au arrangement had been come to between 
the parties, that nothing should be done till over Friday, the 
defendant Company undertaking to pay the solicitors aud clients' 
costs of yesterday's proceedings. 

On this undertaking, the matter stood over until the following 
Friday, without any injunction. On that day, when the matter 
came on, Mr. Graham Hastings, Q.C., for the plaintiffs, stated 
that the parties had come to terms ; and Mr. Butcher, f'.r the 
defendants, said that the passing difficulties had been arranged 
to the entire satisfaction of all parties. In these circumstances, 
his lordship, by consent, made an order staying a'l further 
proceedings in the action. 

Alleged Infringement of a Patent. 

The Pneumatic Tyre Company (Limited) v. the E;ist London 
Rubber Company was an action for au injunction and an inquiry 
for damages in respect of an alleged infringement by the 
defendants of the plaintiffs' patent (No. 14,503 of the year 
181)0), the invention of Mr. Charles Kingston Welch, for im- 
provements in rubber tyres and metal rims or felloes of wheels 
for cvcles ami other light vehicles. Tho hearing of the case 
occupied the Court for several days, and at the conclusion his 
Lordship reserved judgment. 

Mr. Moulton, QC, Mr. Roger Wallace, Q.C., Mr. J. C. 
Graham, aud Mr. A. J. Walter appeared for the plaintiffs ; 
Mr. Boustield, (j.C, Mr. Terrell, Q.C., Mr. C. E. Jenkins, and 
Mr. Munus for the defendants ; and Mr. Micklem and Mr. W. E. 
Hume Williams held watching briefs for the defendants in other 





Mr. Justice Romer, in giving judgment on the 8th iust, said 
that he had come to the conclusion that the patent was valid ; 
but as the case was one of considerable importance, he would 
give his reasons for arriving at this conclusion at length. 
He went in detail through the points of disconformity between 
the provisional and the complete specification, and decided that 
there was no such difference between them as to invalidate 
the patent. This matter of disconformity between the two 
specifications had been the principal thing contended for by 
the defendants. The patentees, in drawing up the complete 
>[<eci<ieation, had not gone beyond the limits allowed to the 
|atentees under the circumstances. His Lordship having dis- 
posed of other points which had beeu raised on the part of 
the defendants, said that his holding was that infringements 
having baen proved the plaintiffs were entitled to the usual 
relief, and he granted an injunction against the defendants, an 
inquiry as to damages, aud an order to pay costs ; but on the 
application of the defendants he stayed execution conditionally 
upon an appeal being forthwith entered. 

Judgment for the appellants. 

Damages against Motor-Carriage Owners. 

Before Judge Shand and a jury, at Liverpool County Court, 
on the 7th inst., John M. Sutherland, hay and straw dealer, 
claimed damages from the North of England Horseless Carriage 
C'jaijMiiy, for injury caused to his pony and trap in consequence 
of the former hiving been frightened by a motor-car belonging 
to defendants. The plaintiff stated that the motor-car made a 
loud noise resembling the sound produced by a threshing 
machine, and it so frightened his pony that it bolted and 
ollided with a van. The jury found for the plaintiff, and 
a vanled him £12 10.*. The owner of the van also brought an 
action against the Company, aud he was awarded £5. 


Tub Drake Motor. — The Drake patent motor, which will 
shortly be put on the market, is suitable for carriages, omnibuses, 
and vaus of every description. A carriage may be seeu at work 
in the course of a few weeks at Mr. W. Drake's private resi- 
dence, South Road House, South Road, Clapham Park. The 
works, pro tern , are situate at 64, Westbourne Grove, W. of the first charging stations put down in England for the 
direct purposed of charging accumulators for electric motor-cars 
lias just been completed at the White Hart Hotel, Reigate, by 
Mr. W. R. Wakley, the chief engineer of Maple and Co., the 
well-known Tottenham Court Road firm The dynamo is by 
John Turner and Sons, Denton, and the whole of the plant is of 
a high class. 


Motor Awards of Merit. — The following notice was, with 
many others, crowded out of our last issue : — In connection with 
the exhibition of motor carriages at the Crystal Palace awards 
have been made as under : Diploma for gold medal— C. C. 
Bm Tell and Sons, for light compound traction-engine ; Emile 
Delahaye, for benzoliue-carriage ; Mons. Scipollet, for steam- 
carriage ; the Steam Carriage and Wagon Company, for steain- 
vau. Diploma for silver medal — Socicte Franco-Beige, for 
steam-brake ; L'Hollier, Gascoigue, and Co., for benzoliue- 
carriages. ■ Diploma for bronze medal — Arnold's Motor Carriage 
('oinpany, for lienzoline-carriage. The report by the jurors is 
signed by W. Worby Beaumont, M.T.C.E., Walter Hancock, 
M.I.E.E., H. A. O. Mackenzie, .C.E., and Alf. R. Senuett, 
A.M.I.C.E, Hon. Executive Commissioner. "Although none 
of the vehicles exhibited approached that degree of perfection 
which would place them beyond adverse criticism, ' the jurors 
consider the prospects of benzoliue motor-carts hopeful, and of 
steam motor-carts more hopeful. As to electric- carts, "the 
jurors considered it matter for regret that no electrically- 
propelled vehicle had been submitted for trial." 

Southampton and Motor-Carriage Building. — Acting in 
conjunction with a patentee who lives at a distance, but whose 
special type of steam launches is well known in Southampton 
Water, Messrs. Andrews, Brothers, of the Above Bar Carriage 
Manufactory, have now in hand the construction of a motor-car, 
which, whilst designed in strict accordance with the regulation* 
of the Board of Trade, presents many features distinguishing it. 
from any such conveyance yet built. It is intended for the 
carriage of goods, and will be fitted with a powerful motor. Oil 
will supply the motive power, but it is claimed that the method 
of its application in this instance will be free from the disad- 
vantages observable in other eases, whilst the car will be capable 
of propulsion either backwards or forwards. The large capacity 
of the car will, it is thought, render it of great service for com* 
mercial purposes. 




M r. Cyril D. Wake, of Kimberlry, bus arranged jointly with 
Mr. Julius Harvey, of 11, (Jueen Victoria Street, Loudon, a 
motor-carriage agency for South Africa. 

Lord Balfour, Secretary for Scotland, has issued regulations; 
applicable to Scotland, under the Locomotives on Highways 
Act, 189(5, with respect to the use of light locomotives on high- 
ways and their construction, and the conditions under which 
they may be used. 

Article 4 of the regulations states that a person driving or 
in charge of a light locomotive when used on the highway, 
"shall not, under any circumstances, drive the light locomotive 
at a greater 8]>eed than ten miles an hour. If the weight 
unladen of the light locomotive is one ton and a half, and does 
not exceed two tons, he shall not drive the same at a greater 
speed than eight miles an hour, or if such weight exceeds two 
tons at a greater speed than five miles an hour. Provided that 
whatever may be the weight of the light locomotive, if it is 
used on any highway to draw any vehicle he shall not, under 
any circumstances, drive it at a greater speed than six miles an 
hour. Provided also, that this regulation shall only have effect 
during six months from the date hereof, and hereafter until the 
Secretary for Scotland otherwise directs." 


— ♦ — 

Tue inauguration of the new era in locomotion leuds special 
interest to the live stock statistics contained in the latest returns 
issued by the Board of Agriculture. Farmers have betn 
encouraged to devote a share of their attention and capital to 
horse-rearing, and the money which used to be wasted on 
Queen's Piatt s is now in fact as well as in name expended in 
promoting the improvement of the breed of horses. The change, 
however, does not seem to have been productive of any markxl 
result. In 1805 there were in the United Kingdom 2,112,207 
agricultural horses of one kind or another, including unbroken 
animals and brood mares. In 1806 the total was 2,Uf>,. r >17, or 
only 3,330 in exct ss of the previous year. A growth in the stuck 
of brood mares, however, seems to indicate that an extension of 
the horse-breeding industry was in progress. The figures for 
the four countries com|>osing the union are as follows: 
England, 1,100,038 horses of all descriptions, against 1,18-1,717 
last year; Wales. 15 ">,!'''•>, against 153,1.">8; Scotland, 2i't;.">.'>), 
against 207,323; Ileland, :>53,320, against .".7,130. Scotland 
and Ireland, it will be seen, show decreases. It is in England 
and Wales that the development in horse-breeding has taken 

II 1 

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Contributions and arti.les likely to prove of interest to our readers 
trill receive due attention, but in all cases the name and address of the 
writer must be given, not necessarily for publication. 

All matter intended for publication should reach us not later than 
the 10th of each month. Stamped envelope must be sent if the minu 
script is required to be returned. 

All Advertisements should be sent to the Advertising Department, 
V. Kiho and Co., Limited, 02, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C., 
where A dver tiling Rates may be had on application. 

The Annual Subscription is 7s., including prepaid postage to any 
part of the world. 

Cheques and Post Office Orders should be mide payable to F. Kino 
AMD Co., Limited, and crossed London aid County Bank; otherwise 
no responsibi'ily will be accepted. 

Tick Actomotou and Horseless Vehicle Jodbxal can be 
obtained through Messes. W. H. Smith and Son, and at Wuliso 
AND Co.'s bookstalls. 

When any difficulty is experienced in procuring the Journal from 
local mewsvendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
fpam the Publishing Office, by filling up and forwarding, with 
remittance, the Subscription Form accompanying the Paper. 

The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

DECEMBER 16th, 1896. 


J. E. P. (Wolverhampton). — In all cases where applications are 
withdrawn before allotment the directors are bound to 
refund the money sent. After allotment a contract exists 
between the Company and the applicants, which, speaking 
generally, can only be dissolved by an action at law, when 
substantial misrepresentation must be proved. 

S. A. (Toronto). — We will send the specification as you are so 
exceptionally situated. 

I. Zin'oari (Leeds). — Impossible ; it is highly imflammable and 
dangerous, even at ordinary temperatures. Its use is pro- 
hibited in this couttry, except under almost impossible 

Kemvale (Manchester).— (1) No. (2) We have inquired at 
the address given, but without any satisfactory result. 

J. W. (Ebberston Lodge, York). — Thanks for your suggestion; 
which shall be carried out in an early issue. 

Moore (Camberwell). — The publisher will attend to your 

J. Djuqlas (Liverpool).— Write to Mr. Shrapnell Smith, Royal 
Exchange, Liverpool. He will give you every information. 

Butcher's Cart (Darlington).— Our advice is to wait a little. 
Prices will be fixed shortly. You will find the addresses 
of agents in our advertisement columns. 

Jambs G. (Bedford). —The local authorities have only the 
power to make recommendations — the regulations are, 
thank goodness, only issued by the Central Board. 

P. G. (Fa vers ham). — We cannot reply to such communications 
by post. The matter is one for a patent agent ; the infor- 
mation sent is too meagre to enabls us to advise off-hand, 
and you cau hardly expect us to finish vour vaporiser for 
you, and then experiment. We have returned it to your 

Htdro-Carbon (Portsea). —Write to Mr. Dugald Clerk, 
Chancery Lane, London, He can— and may— givo vou the 

J. Johnson (Cardiff). — Always glad to consider any communi- 
cation on special subjects, but cannot make any more 
permanent additions at present. 

Peter M. (Fulham).— We have sent you the photos for use at 
your meeting. Return when done with. 

Fair" Maid of Kent. — Why not have the common courage to 
sign your name and give your address when writing a 
scurrilous attack upon one of your neighbours ? The 
anonymous libeller is beneath contempt, and your letter 
— carefully type-written to avoid ri*k— hits gone into the 
waste-paper basket. 

EnNEST S. (Wolverhampton). — Do not pay the premium. Mush- 
room establishments for the sole purpose of obtainiug 
apprentices to the new industry are growing up in several 
directions. The advertiser is a fraud. 

Antiquity (Belfast). — Thanks; but we are looking foiward, 
and prefer to leave all but the most interesting of the old 
types buried in the ancient volumes you possess. 

Patentee (London). — The statement is obviously incorrect. 

Motok (Brixton).— As it is an old Company there would not 
be any stat itory meeting ; that was held long ago. 

W. Wvnstanley (Plymouth). — You would find it difficult to 
get on without a properly -drawn partnership deed. Printed 
forms are cheap but nasty ; consult a respectable local 
solicitor. ' The costs will not be great, and you will save 
both worry and exjwnse in the end. 

Alter Ego (Devon).— Respect the rights of the other man- 
while maintaining your own. 

W. Giffard (Salfonl).— Your best course would be to write to 
one or other of the agencies advertised in our column.!. 

H. J. Stevens (Salisbury). -The time occupied would be about 
three-quarters of an hour (rather less in your district) ; 
weight about 15 cwt. For other particulars you had— r 
only for the sake of comparison — better write to some of 
our advertisers. We could ouly give you an approximate 
idea of the cost. 

*k* Although this issue is mainly printed in comparatively 
small type, extreme pressure on our s/nice causes us to omit or red-urn 
many ittmt which hare been sent for publication. Several letters 
from correspondents, reports of meetings, and interesting articles 
hare had in consequence to be either condensed, held over, or — where 
the matter was only of current importance — hopelessly crowJtd 
out. We are taking slept which will, we hope, obviate this necessity 
1 in the immediate future. 


A Discreditable Prospectus. 

__♦ — . 

The promoters of public companies often — in fact, despit 3 
the unsavoury disclosures which at times take place as 
to their doings, we think we may replaco the word 
•' often " by "mostly" — do good service by bringing 
investments before the public in such a shape that the 
large mass of unemployed capital in this country may bj 
beneficially used in developing some new industry or 
discovery to the general benefit of the community. No 
one has a right to complain that promoters occasionally 
make largo profits, for they always run considerably 
risks. Again, too, if they make mistakes, and the 
reports of experts are not fulfilled, all but the investors 
in the particular company which has been unsuccessful 
are, as a rule, charitable enough to condone the failure 
with the remark that " those who seek for high dividends, 
must be prepared to risk the losses." 

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Dbcembeb, -1893.] 



All this — and even more — we are prepared to advance 
in the promoter's favour; bat when a prospectus is issued 
teeming with mis-statements, bolstered up with asser- 
tions which arc only ma'de tenable for the moment by 
a deliberate suppression of facts — and when, too, the sums 
sought to be extracted from the pockets of investors 
amount to no less than three millions sterling, the mildest 
term which can be applied to those who have concocted 
such a document is that they have been guilty of dis- 
creditable conduct. 

The British Motor Syndicate (Limited) was registered 
about 12 months ago with a capital of £150,000 — out of 
■which no less than 135,000 shares were issued as fully 
paid. This capital was afterwards — as shown in another 
column — raised, by the simple expedient of a resolution, 
to a nominal capital of £1,000,000. As we have not 
seen the memorandum of association of this Syndicate, 
we cannot speak positively of its objects ; but we know 
from the public actions aud expressions of those connected 
with it, that they made a show of purchasing a monopoly 
of all the patents connected with motor-carriage work, 
and of exploiting the new Act of Parliament for their 
own advantage. They undoubtedly acquired many 
patents — the approximate value of which we will 
presently deal with — and with the assistance of the 
splendidly-boomed trip to Brighton, they centred uni- 
versal attention upon the industry in which we are 

For their energy a ad enterprise the shareholders in the 
British Motor Syndicate are entitled to all the profits they 
can legitimately make. One of the first statements 
made in the prospsctus is that the shares are freely dealt 
in at £3, and that— to quote from another page — " THE 
EXCITEMENT (sic) in the share market, the immense 
premiums now being realised, and enormous dividends 
paid in kindred industries, sufficiently indicate what the 
immediate future of the Company is likely to become." 
This is a deliberate mis-statement ; the shares in motor- 
carriage companies are almost unsaleable on the Stock 
Exchange, and a member of the Committee advises us 
that he doe? not know a single jobber who makes a " book " 
in them. Let that bo as it may. We would ask one 
pertinent question, viz., does any sane man imagine that 
if the shares of the Syndicate were being freely dealt in 
at £3 — or. in fact, at any reasonable sum — those con- 
nected with it would spend tans of thousands of pounds 
in advertising a prospectus to sail thorn at that price, 
when they could dispose of them on the Stock Exchange 
by merely paying brokerage to a member. 

We next come to a line setting out " SUCCESS 
of some half-dozen of the most noted advertising drapery 
houses are set out as having orderod vans. We know 
why. Not because they are convinced that the Syndi- 
cate's carriages are the best, but because they naturally 
desire publicity for their wares. They buy " living 
pictures" with the same objects. This argument, as 

an inducement to invest nny part of the £3,000,0)0 asked 
for, may be disraissad with the contempt it deserves. 
In the next place wo are favoured with aa abbreviated 
list of patentees, and the chief names which would weigh 
with an investor in this country are those of our con- 
temporary the Engineer and the well-known firm of 
Crossley Brothers, of Manchester, ostentatiously set out 
as the makers of the '' Otto " Gas Engine. Necd'ess to 
state, both of th23e, in a prompt and contemptuous 
manner, repudiated the slightest oonnoction with such 
a misleading document. 

With the directorate we have little to do. We may 
take it that, as a rule, they have their own 
private ends to serve. We regret, however, to see on 
the front of the document the name of Prince Ranjitsinhji. 
His popularity with the great body of Englishmen has 
evidently been the attraction for the promoter, but his 
knowledge of automotors is an unknown quantity. As 
all-round sportsmen and cricketers, we heartily wish him 
out of the tight place he is in now that he has started to 
play at a game he does not in any way understand. At 
Lord's, the Oval, or Hove, he is — next to " W. G." — our 
idol, but in the region of Holborn Viaduct he will find 
that Mr. Promoter is trickier than George Lohmann, and 
that his pace is faster — if his delivery is not quite as 
fair — as Tom Richardson at his best. 

We next pass to the dividends whioh have — as stated 
— been paid by the Syndicate. These are set out as 
follows : — 

" May — 10 per cent., or at the rato of 30 per cent, p.r 

" July — 30 per cent., or at the rate of 60 per cent, per 

4i September — 100 per cent, bonus in shares of licensed 

companies, which, if taken at market prices, 

equals a total of over 100 per cent, per annum on 

the issued capital." 

These figures, which are evidently intended to attract the 
unsuspecting public, are allowed to stand as stated. No 
certificate is given ; the verification of the figures by an 
auditor is evidently considered as an unnecessary detail ; 
while, whether these alleged dividends were paid on a 
capital of £3,000 or £3,000,000 is considered a matter of 
such an immaterial purport that the figures are not given. 
Again, whether the actual amounts were in cash or in 
shares in allied companies is not indicated. We could go 
on in this way through every page of oar issue— the 
scheme sketched out is all in the air. " Immense 
Prospects," set out in big black type, is the keynote 
which pervades the whole document. Subsidiary com- 
panies have been formed; these, with their moro or less 
paper capital, offer to pay huge premiums for tho use of 
the Syndicate's patents, and on this slender basis we are 
to put up our £3,000,000— out of which £2,700,000 is to 
go to tfce vendors. 

Two million seven hundred thousand pounds is a good 

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l'ound figure— even in this era of monthly millionaires. 
Let us endeavour to see what the shareholders are to 
obtain for the money. The only real asset which they 
acquire is certaiu patent rights, the date3 and titlos of 
some of the specifications being set out in the pro3poctus. 
We should have expected that under theie circumstaucos 
some expert opiuions would have been obtained as to the 
possible validity of the letters patent. Just as a certifi- 
cate from a leading firm of auditors would have been 
advisable as to the profits which have been earned, surely 
an opinion from an expert pitent authority might have 
been expected as to the value of tho specifications. But, 
no. The list is in the prospectus, the Syndicate have 
bouglft tho patents: the public must take it on their 
authority — their ipse dixit is sufficient. 

It has seemed to us a pity that, for the sake of a little 
trouble and expense, this defect should remain; we have, 
therefore, obtained all the patents set out which cau be 
procured, and, in addition to examining them carefully 
ourselves, have submitted them to the highest authorities 
at our disposal. 

The opinion we have obtained is unanimous in its 
purport. The Syndicate stato that they possess all the 
master patents in connection with motor carriages, and 
that they will resist all attempts at infringement. If 
they go into Court wo will not directly attempt to 
anticipate the judicial decision, but counsel and patent 
agents are at one in the statement that master patents 
they have not — every oil-engine they work or lease 
on royalty has for its basis the well-known Otto 
engine, aud can only, at the best, hold good for improve- 
ments in respect of details specifically as set out and 

Practically the only point in reference to the oil-engine 
of to-day in which a master patent could be obtained 
would relate to a novel method of vaporisation, which 
would ensure the complete combustion of all the com- 
ponents of the heavy and safe hydrocarbons. It is certain 
that such a patent is not in tho possession of the British 
Motor Syndicate. It is, however, very probable, from 
information which has been placed at our disposal, that 
ouc of the many private firms experimenting on this 
important point has been very nearly successful, and 
may reap a good reward for their pains. The Syndicate 
possesses many useful designs for various parts of motors 
aud carriages, which have bsen patented. Whether they 
woul 1 bo sustained in a Court of Law, however, is much 
more than doubtful in more than a moiety of those 
examined; but they would form an admirable nucleus 
with which to start a factory to build carriages on the 
Continental lines of to-day. 

But is this uncertain asset worth £2,7(10,000? The 
promoters can answer the question for themselves. The 
Great Horseless Carnage Company (Limited), one of their 
own bantlings, is the owner of one half of the rights in 
these patents. In spite of the "furore on the Stock 
Exchange in favour of these ventures," the £10 shares 

in this Company can be bought for less than £3, so 
that as it was capitalised originally at £750,000, the 
market value is now reduced to some £225,000. Why 
should the public be asked • to give £2,700,000 for 
exactly the same property as they could, at the date of 
the issne, obtain for one-twelfth of that sum? On that 
valuation the £3 shares offered would have been worth 
exactly 5*. each — and in our opinion would have beeu 
distinctly dear at that. 

There is one important feature, ho.vover, which, 
boyoud any question as to patents or figures as to paper 
profits, those concerned in this issue have either care- 
lessly or wilfully omitted to consider — we refer to tho 
extensive steps which are being taken by scores of 
the leiding engineers in this country to graft this new 
industry on to their old-established businesses and re- 
putations. While having this object in view, they have 
no intention of buying the Continental patents, or of 
slavishly following existing models either of motors or 
vehicles. We have recently had the privilege of seeing 
the strides which many celebrated firms are making in 
this matter, and must confess to baing astonished at the 
enormous progress already achieved. 

By simply utilising all the technical skill at the'r 
disposal and working in accordance with the ordinary 
routine of any well-organised engineering or electrical 
establishment, they have evolved new designs, often in 
conjunction with leading coach builders, and these aro 
now beiug executed in workshops equipped with the best 
of modern appliances, operatod by the most skilful of 
workmen. Some time must necessarily elapse before the 
full results of their efforts -will bo seen, because until full 
tests have been made and tho manufacturing placed ou 
a basis for effectivo output such firms will not publicly 
exhibit, but their motors when finished will be worthy of 
their reputations, and hold the field against any but their 
nativo competitors. On this point it must not be forgotten 
that to the present generation of English engineers this 
trade has been a sealed letter. What they will ultimately 
achieve is certain to be worthy of the birthplace of 
modern locomotion. 

It is but little use pursuing the matter of this unfor- 
tunate prospectus further. We could dilate at length on 
its crudities, mis-statoments, and bad taste — but enough 
has been done. It was so outrageously bad that the 
entire Press of tho country — with a few notorious 
exceptions which might have been expected — unani- 
mously exposed its hollowno3.s, and by their timely 
comments must have prevented very many from being 
entangled in the toils, who might otherwise have beeu 
caught. If the promoters of tho issue wish to give an 
earnest of their repentance for the wrong which they 
must be conscious of having attempted to commit they 
will voluntarily return the money which they havo 
received. If they do not, their last state may be worse 
than the first — as a Court of Law may compel them to 
make the sacrifice. 

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\W announce in our columns the conditions of three ; 
sets of valuable prizes which are offered to be contended 
for in the coming year by automotor vehicles. The first , 
of these in priority of offer, and perhaps of importance, is . 
the one for 1,100 guineas offered by the proprietors of 
The Engineer — which it was originally iutended should 
cake place during the present year. Owing, however, to 
the legal restrictions, since removed by statute, a sufficient ' 
number of entries could not be obtained, and a postpone- 
ment was made until May, 1897 — which still errs rather 
on the near side if a representative list of the English 
engineers who have just commenced to manufacture is to 
be obtained. 

The revised conditions, which are eminently practical, 
as might be expected from tlio source from which they 
emanate, are fully set out on page 118, but we may briefly 
state that the total sum is to be divided up into five 
prizc3. The chief is of. 850 guineas, and will be awarded 
to " the best mechanically propelled vehicle constructed 
to carry — including the driver — four or more persons, 
the total weight, when fully loaded, not to exceed two 
tons." The next is to be of 250 guineas, for the best to 
carry one, two, or three persons, the total weight, when 
loaded, not exceoding one ton. Another 250 guineas will 
be given for the best to carry, in addition to the driver, 
not more than one ton of goods, the total weight fully 
loaded not exceeding two tons. A sum of 150 guineas 
will be given for a vehicle carrying five cwt. of goods, the 
fully loaded weight not exceeding one ton. Any method 
of mechanical propulsion may be used, but if oil be 
adopted for supplying motive power, either for the pro- 
duction of an explosive mixture or for fuel, it shall not 
have a lower specific gravity than 0'8, or a lower flashing 
point than 73° Fahr., Abel's test. 

The remaining pri/.o, of 100 guineas, will be devoted to 
" the vehicle, whether for passengers or goods, propelled 
solely by a motor actuated by the vapour of oil or spirit 
having a lower specific gravity than 0"8, or a flashing 
point lower than 73° Fahr., Abel's test, and constructed 
to satisfy the requirements of any Act of Parliament and 
the rules to be made therounder for the time being 
respectively in force." 

It will be noted that all the chief prizes go, as they 
should, to motors using safe explosives or fuel, while only 
a comparatively small stun is devoted to the class using 
the more volatile, or dangerous, oil or spirits. The speed 
trials are also to be carried out in a reasonable manner, a 
run of 100 miles oat and home, in which the minimum 
mean speed to qualify is five miles an hour, while no 
greater speed than 10 miles an hour is to count will be 
sufficient for all purposes, and will remove the contest 
from any suspicion of being a race — in which the prize 
goes to the vehicle engined in the most powerful manner, 
without any reference to its other qualifications or draw- 

backs for road traffic. The judges are Sir Frederick 
Bramwell, Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall, and Dr. Johu Hopkiuson, 
and it is certain that the vehicles selected by them for the 
premier awards will be the best of those entered. Our 
contemporary is to be congratulated on its enterprise, and 
for the business-like way in which it is proposed to carry 
it out. 

The next contest in order is that arranged for by the 
Automobile Club of France, the official conditions to 
govern which are given in another page. We warmly 
approve of the new position taken up by the leading 
Continental club. It has— at any rate, on this occa- 
sion — decided to abandon mero racing, and submit all 
vehicles to tests which will try the many other qualities 
besides speed which are necessary in a motor-carriage 
which is to meet the exigencies of tvery-day use and 
traffic. The competition is to be an international one, 
and it is proposed that it shall commence on July 1st 
of next year. 

The vehicles are restricted to those carrying one ton or 
over, and the judges are briefly t> take into consideration 
the cost of running the motors, the ratio of weight- 
carrying capacity to the weight and power of the vehicles, 
and several other points, such as the utility of the 
brakes used and the ease of steering, which, as we have 
stated in refereneo to the previous contest, are often of 
infinitely greater importance than mere spccJ. Of 
course, that factor cannot hi neglected, but in the past it 
has been made to assume such inordinate proportions in 
judging the merits of a motor-carriage that in this article 
we intentionally seek to minimise it. However; as the 
competition will last for some days, during which tho 
vehicles will have to run a distinct) of tone 18l5£ miles 
— -running twice over distances of approximately 25 miles, 
31 miles, and 37 miles respectively, one journey on each 
dav, stopping at every kilometre ('0214 of a mile), five 
kilometres (31 miles), and tin kilometres (0"2 miles), to 
test the brakes and auxiliary gear, tli3ir road efficiency 
will be fully tested. We heartily wish the Automobile 
Club [every success, and trust that some at least of the 
entries will come from this side of the Channel. 

The third competition emanates from the Motor-Car 
CIub ; and the leading cinra'-'tjristics of it may be found 
i:i Mr. C. Harrington Moore's letter, which appears in 
another column. The Club intends to offer £2,000 for 
a contest to take place in May next, but we greatly regret 
to find that the principal point which will bo taken into 
consideration is speed, which tho Club is "of opinion 
affords the most satisfactory test as to the excellence 
: of construction of a mechanical vehicle." With this 
view we emphatically differ. The Clnb asks owners of 
suburban racecourses to communicate with its officials, as 
the place of trial must bo near L radon, and the course 
should be a level straight mile. From the more or less 
officially inspired interviews which have appeared in 
the Press we learn that a special prize will be reserved 
for the motor vehicle which first succeeds in accom- 

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plishing a mile in one minute, and that the Clnb intends 
to institute a Motor Derby. 

If this is to be simply an experiment undertaken with 
the object of providing a new form of sport we can only 
prophesy that the public will hai'dly be weaned from 
horse-racing by the spectacle of more or less cumbrous 
motor-carriages making the best of their way over a 
length of ground. To compare it with chariot-racing is 
to leave out all the virile interest which made such 
contests popular. The sight of plunging, living horses 
straining every nerve, gnided by the skill of man to 
defeat all antagonists, is something to appeal to and 
excite mankind ; but when the result of any race is to 
bo determined mainly by one point, viz., which vehicle 
in propelled by' the motor developing the largest amount 
of horso power, the public, at any rate after the first 
essay, will severely let such contests alone. 

If, however, the officials of the Motor-Car Club striously 
consider that such a contest can in any way beneficially 
assist in making motor-carriages popular, we would ask 
them to reconsider their position. Tho Club, with its 
resources, has tho power of doing great good or barm — 
nnd wo are ceritin that only the littor can result from 
tho encouragement of speed* at any sacrifice — speeds, 
too, which can never bo allowed, even if possible, on any 
road in tho United Kingdom ; while, if they devoted 
£2,000, or even a quarter of that sum, to a competition 
to be carried oat on scientific lines they would accomplish 
moro real good than by holding fifty M >tjr Derbies. 


Ouu contemporary — Eujlneerinj-Au the course of a wull- 
reisoned a-ticle wnich appearc.l in its issue of the 27ih 
ult., deils with the objections of those who hold the 
opinion that the Edi;or of that journal was by no means 
favourably disponed towards the new industry. Referring 
to the remarks which appeared in our last issu: on tho 
subject, tho Editor states : — 

"Among the more gentle of our critics is Tire Auto- 
motor axo Hokselkss Vehicle Jourxal, which thinks we 
have 'altogether failed to grasp the position taken up by those 
who are seeking to introduce the new industry into the 
country.' We trust not ; but what we do fail to graip is the 
utility of those who are seeking to trade on the credulity of the 
public, and extract money from the pockets of the ignorant 
under the pretence of establishing ' the new industry.' Every 
penny thus misdirected is a loss to ' the new iudustry,' and robs 
those who wish well of the motor-car of the sinews of war. It 
will take a very large sum yet to evolve a practical motorcar, 
and there is no maxim which the average investor acts more 
strictly upon than 'once bit twice shy.' 

"The company promoters— amongst whom we must not 
include our contemporary, to judge by his moderate and 
courteous language— are the chief enemy of ' the new iudustry,' 
but there is another serious foe, the reckless amateur or 
' mechanical crank.' ' No one,' continues The Automotor and 
Horseless Vehicle Journal, ' wishes to place vehicles of from 
one to three tons in charge of incompetent men to drive 
through crowded streets at the rate of some 14 miles «n hour. 
. . The keynote of the advice given by all concerned in 

automotor work is to go slowly at first.' How has this advice 
been followed ? On the Brighton race, which was to have been 
the very first legal appearance of the new vehicles on the 
Queen's highway, the speed reached as high a rate as 30 miles 
an hour ; and, again, we have complaints that motor-cars are 
restricted to the speed of the bicycle. ' What,' says one 
ingenious reasoner, ' is the use of going to all the expense of 
machinery when one is not allowed to travel at a greater speed 
than can be attained by the bicycle without machinery ? Why 
should we be restricted any more than the bicycle I ' The 
reason is obvious. The bicycle is a light machine. In a 
collision with a pedestrian the rider is in a more dangerous 
position than the person struck, whilst against other vehicles it 
is all but powerless to do damage. With the motor-car the 
opposite conditions prevail. 

"The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle Journal con- 
cludes its courteously expressed article with an appeal to us. 
' In all friendliness,' it says, ' we would ask Engineering to look a 
little more kindly towards the new iudustry.' In all friendliness 
we would assure our contemporary that we will look very 
kindly towards the new iudustry — when it arrives. Our 
friendliness is such that we are ready to do battle on behalf of 
the embryo industry against its arch enemies, the company- 
monger and the mechanical crank." 

We have quoted this much from the article in order to 
take an opportunity of emphasising two sets of views 
which wo have never failel to express. The first is that, 
like Enjinsariiig, we are prepared to denounce in the 
strongest terms any attempts which may be made to 
bring oat companies with indite 1 capita's. The pro- 
moter is entitled to « fair profit, but his demands must 
be reasonable, while his statements should, before all 
things, be kept within the bounds of truth. Tho second 
postulate in which we concur is as to the paramount 
necessity which exists for all interested iu the progress 
of roid motors to rigorously keep within the limits of tho 
law. Then; are enough natural difficulties in tho way 
without creating fresh ones by a wilful infraction of 
regulations. If anyone infringes, there should be no 
hesitation in suing for and enforcing the penalties in- 
curred. It is only fair, however, to add that those 
referred to in the article were doubtless fascinate 1 by 
their new-found liberty, and indulged in spurts on clear 
roads which they are not likely to repeat. 



Under this title we, in the last issue, discuvsed the 
various phrases which have been used to describe mot >r- 
carriages, and invited correspondence fram thoso wli) 
were of opinion that tbey could coin a better word than 
any generally in use. Letters have, in consequence, corno 
to hand in largo numbers — in fact, we regret that we 
have not, in consequence of the quantity, space to 
print them. Wo have summarised below the words sub- 
mitted, but cannot express an unqualified approval for 
any of them, while some are extremely objectionable. 
They are as under (of course, many have been submitted 
by several correspondents) : — 

Autokinons. Automotives. Go cars. 

Automobiles. Horseless. Motes. 

Moto. Molms. Self - Propelled. 

Movers. Autos. Jin's, 

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^OR^LCis CA*£»a<;£ *£ Ou. €0 **> Aero- M O V6/<^ 

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Ax extremely interesting lecture on pneumatic tyres was 
delivered on Monday evening, the 1st instant, by Professor H. 
S. Hele-Shaw, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., &c, before the members of 
the Liverpool branch of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association. 
Mr. Alfred Holt, M.I.C.E., one of the vice-presidents, was in 
the chair, and there was a good attendance. 

The Professor's paper, of which we give an abbreviated report, 
was exceedingly interesting, and we regret that pressure en our 
space prevents us from doing it full justice by illustrating it with 
the appropriate diagrams which were used. After exhaustively 
setting out the history of the wheel and explaining in full its 
mechanical action and theory, he said : No one would dispute 
that to walk upon a yielding surface, such as mud or sand, 
requires an appreciable effort, which is greater the softer the 
material, so that heavy snow may be toilsome beyond endurance. 
The same cause is at work in the ca9e of the wheel rolling upon 
a soft road and (here, I imagine, I may again excite some 
possible disbelief) of a soft wheel rolling upon a hard road. To 
understand this we must study the actual motion of the parts 
of the wheel as they approach the ground, and we will first 
consider that of the spokes themselves. Let us follow the 
behaviour of a particular spoke, and we shall see that until it 
nearly reaches the ground it approaches it at an oblique angle. 
If it does not find an obstacle it will come down upon the 
ground and rest there. If it meets any yielding substance, 
which is raised above the point of support, it will not only 
.compress it underneath, but push it before it, as shown in the 
diagram, and will therefore cause a corresponding effect back- 
wards, which is greater the deeper the rut which it is making. 
This is seeu to be true both for a soft wheel and hard road, as 
well as a hard wheel and soft road. This seems obvious where 
a permanent compression and distortion is taking place, as, for 
instance, in a rut in the road, but it does not appear so evident 
when the material is of an elastic nature, and returns to its 
original shape again after the compression has taken place. 
When the tyre is elastic the same thing occurs. If the elastic 
material is of a nature that requires a distortion at every point, 
it is clear that the work which is being done continuously to 
distort this material is an absolute loss of power and a cause of 
resistance to the motion of the vehicle. In considering the best 
form of tyre, it is clear that if the only resistance was rolling, a 
hard wheel would be better than a soft one. The reason of the 
success of the introduction of the railway is due to the principles 
I have now made clear. Hence those who only consider rolling, 
were very naturally sceptical of the earlier attempts to make 
soft tyres serve for any other purjxwe than to merely protect 
the road, for although the theory of rolling which I have ex- 
plained has not been generally understood, still the mechanical 
intuition of many men would tell them the facts to be what thev 
are without their understanding/ perhaps, the true cause. 
Again I may remark that crowds of inventors in connection 
with the soft tyre of vehicles, particularly for bicycles, have 
often gone entirely on a wrong track, with the natural result 
of failure. We come now to the real cause of the benefit of the 
pneumatic tyre which requires preliminaryexplanation. Suppose 
a body to be in motion, as this pair of wheels and axle, and it 
meets any obstacle over which it has to rise and loses a portion 
of its energy. Suppose it meets the same obstacle but is not 
compelled to rise to the same extent, the loss of energy is not so 
great. This is exactly what happens in the case of a soft, yield- 
ing tyre. It meets an object which it may cause to sink into it, 
hence the body as a whole is not checked in its onward course. 
This behaviour on the part of the tyre is made obvious by some 
photographs which I have recently taken of the tyre in the 
various positions which I now show, and also some photographs 
of the tyre given by M. Michelin in a recent paper, and this 
effect he has shown by a series of curves which indicate the 
deflection in meeting obstacles under various conditions and 
circumstances. If the reasoning which I have given is true, 

then the remarkable fact will come out, that*t very low speeds 
the resistance to soft tyres is actually greater than that to hard 
tyres, and this benefit is only apparent as speed is increased, the 
greater the speed the greater will be the benefit of uoft-tyred 
vehicles. I made a series of experiments myself which must be 
regarded as supplementary to the experiments of M. Michelin 
in the paper I have already mentioned, and they were made by 
my assistant without any previous idea of what might be 
expected, so that his inclination was, if anything, to obtain a 
better result with the pneumatic tyre. Instead of this, the 
experiments came out exactly as theory would lead us to expect, 
and at first, I must confess, surprised me. The experiments were 
conducted at the works of Messrs. Lawton and Co., who kindly 
placed three broughams at my disposal with — (1) steel tyres, 
(2) rubber tyres, and (3) pneumatic tyres. These were drawn 
over the floor, and over a series of obstructions, drawings of 
which I have already shown. The following is a statement of 
the results : — 

Three similar vehicles — whose exact weight was not known. 
The tests were made in the show room of Messrs. Lawton and 
Co.'s works, Hardman Street, and in each case the pull required 
to start the vehicle was measured by a spring balance. The 
mean effort required was estimated by the average reading of the 
balance, whilst the vehicle was pulled at a uniform speed over 
a track about 6 feet long. The results were as follows : — 

The first track was across the floor, the second, with obstruc- 
tions, 1 inch apart, the third, with an interval of 2 inches, and 
the fourth with 3 inches between the blocks. 












! Effort, 




Starting | Mean 
Effort, j Pull. 


30 25 22 

37 4 


; 274 


29 0. 22 25 

43 H 


| 36 8 

19 8 

30 -75 23 25 



36 8 

20 2 

40 5 j 25 5 

It is extremely interesting to study the various views on the 
subject by those who have been interested in the adoption of 
the pneumatic tyre. Thus Mr. Dunlop, of Belfast, who is a 
comparatively recent patentee of pneumatic tyres, writes as 
follows : — 

" My improvements are devised with- a vie w to afford increased 
facilities for the passage of wheeled vehicles — chiefly of the 
lighter class, such, for instance, as velocipedes, invalid chairs, 
ambulances — over roadways and paths, especially when these 
latter are of a rough or uneven character, as also to avoid 
sinking of the wheels of vehicles into the ground wheu 
travelling over boggy soil or land, and likewise for the tyring 
of wheeled vehicles generally, in all cases where elasticity is 
requisite and immunity from vibration is desired to be secured, 
and at the same time ensuring increased speed in travelling 
owing to the resilient properties of wheel tyres according to my 

From these words it cannot be seen that Mr. Dunlop appre- 
ciates the direct connection betweeu the saving of power and 
the pneumatic tyre, as he only talks about increased speed 
owing to the resilient properties of his wheel tyres. We must 
go back a good many years, when the pneumatic tyre was first 
invented by Mr. R. W. Thomson, who seems to be nearer the 
mark, and who says :- - 

" The nature of my invention consists in the application of 
elastic bearings round the tyres of the wheels of carriages, for 
the purpose of lessening the power to draw the carriages, 
rendering their motion easier, and diminishing the noise they 

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r.iake when in motion. I prefer employing for tlie purpose a 
hollow belt composed of some air and water-tight material, 
such as caoutchouc or gutta-percha, and inflating it with air, 
whereby the wheels will in every part of their revolution 
present a cushion of air to the ground or rail or track on which 
they run." 

This invention was actually carried into operation, and led to 
a good deal of correspondence and interest at the time, a 
brougham fitted with pneumatic tyres by this inventor attracting 
considerable attention in the London Parks exactly 50 years 
ago. The views which were then held are well expressed in 
an article in the Mechanic^ Magazine, which is as follows :— ■ 

" The most obvious advantage — indeed, the only one which at 
first sight would seem likely to result from the substitution of 
an elastic for a non-elastic tyre— is a diminution of noise, and 
hence it was that we were led, in oi:r former notice of these 
wheels, to characterise them as 'silent,' rather than as being 
distinguished for any other property. It has been so long 
regarded as a settled thing that friction is least with hard 
substances and greatest with soft, that by a natural though not 
perhaps strictly logical course of induction, we inferred that, 
though in this case the noise might be less, the friction, and 
consequently the tractive power required, would be greater. 
We must candidly own that we little expected to find the very 
reverse of this to be the fact. Yet so it is. Experiments very 
carefully conducted, and which we have ourselves repeated and 
verified, prove ineontestably that the friction and draught are 
diminished to a very great extent by the use of these elastic 

This led to a letter by a Mr. Heather correcting the Editor in 
talking of the reduction of friction, and making a mis-statement 
himself, as follows : — 

"Sir, — The importance of disseminating by means of your 
journal correct mechanical principles induces me to suggest to 
you that the traction of a carriage is independent of the friction 
of the tyre and the road, aud is due to the friction between the 
wheel and the axle, and to what may be called the resistance to 
rolling at the circumference of the wheel, which resistance is in 
no way analogous to friction." 

All these facts show that the matter is not an easy one to 
understand at first sight, and I will briefly sum up the matter 
by saying that soft tyres do involve more friction than hard 
ones, but that the loss of power on an ordinary hard road is due 
in a much greater degree to the loss from concussion than to 
actual friction, that the order in which the loss of power takes 
place in the cases respectively of the pneumatic, rubber, and 
iron tyres, is directly in the order of the hardness of the tyre. 

Having studied the theory of the subject as fully as time 
permits, we now pass on to certain practical consi Jeratiots in the 
construction of the pneumatic tyre. The pictures which I now 
throw upon the screen are those which were running in the 
year 1845, and the further views which are now shown you 
will, |>erhaps, be surprised to hear are those of the tyie 
mentioned in the specification of Mr. Thomson of the same 
date. It is interesting also to note that Mr. Thomson's patent 
included the inner tube o& well as the outer protecting case, the 
inner tube being indiarubber, strengthened with folds of canvas, 
and the outer covering itself being of leather either riveted or 
sewn, so as to make it strong and durable. Mr. Thomson 
advocates the use of pneumatic tyres to the traction engines 
and autocar in the following words : — 

"The comparatively small amount of power required to propel 
carriages, the wheels of which are fitted with these belts, the 
steadiness of their motion, the absence of all jolting and con- 
sequent security of the machinery from injury, the small damage 
the carriages will do to roads, the absence of nearly all noise. 
the high speed that may safely be attained, and the great gentle- 
ness of the motion will, I think, enable steam carriages to be run 
on common roads with great advantage both for carrying 
passengers and goods." We must all regret that Mr. Thomson's 
genius did not, as far as I ascertain, meet with a fitting reward 
which seems to have been in reserve, judging from the present 
scale of company promotion, for more fortunate individuals, who 
at any rate cannot claim more originality of mechanical insi«ht 

than the original inventor. Other slides were then shown 
describing the modern development in the mechanical details of 
the pneumatic tyre. Improvements in the arrangement for 
inflation, and particularly devices for getting at the inner tube 
in case of repairs being required. 

This portion was discussed under the following heads : — 

(1) Attachment. — (a) The early system ; (b) the early Dunlop ; 
(c) other forms of attachment ; (d) Welsh wire rim ; («) Fleuss 
tyres; (/) vehicles- -points of difference between vehicle tyres 
and bicycle tyres. 

(2) II car. — (a) Ordinary wear, material, tread ; (b) puncture, 
repairs ; (c) dirt and wet. 

(3) Inflation. — Pressure used, valves. 

I cannot conclude without saying how much pleasure the 
preparation of this lecture has given me, for I regard it as a 
slight acknowledgment of the enjoyment I have experienced in 
the use of the modern bicycle. But the services of the pneumatic 
tyre are not limited to cyclists, and we raay safely look forward 
to its increasing introduction to vehicles of every kind, both for 
light and heavy traffic ; aud lastly, not to leave the impression 
that I have forgotten the object of the Association before which 
I have lectured to-night, I venture to assert that if the auto- 
car, which 50 years ago was running by scores over the country, 
and were afterwards discarded, are to become universal in their 
adoption, and are to attain any reasonable rates of speed, this 
development will depend upon, and be almost entirely owing to, 
the invention and perfection of the pneumatic tyre. 

An animated discussion followed the paper, and iu this 
Messrs. A. Bromley Holmes, John A. Brodie, E. Shrapnell 
Smith, and Mr. James took part. On the motion of the Chair- 
man a hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Professor Hele- 
Shaw, who, after acknowledging it, replied to several questions 
which had been raised. Messrs. Dunlop and J. A. Lawton and 
Co. kindly lent materials for several of the experiments which 
were made. 

An interesting syllabus iu connection with the first session of 
the Liverpool and District centre of the Association has been 
issued. The programme drawn out is a most comprehensive 
one, extending from December 1st up to March 30th. Papers 
will be read by Mr. G. F. Thompson, Mr. W. W. Beaumont, 
Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, Mr. Rhys Jenkins, Mr. Dugald Clerk, 
aud Mr. Legros. A meeting took place last evening when 
a paper was read by Mr. Win. B. Cook and Mr. Fred. 
Willoughby, on "A New Method of utilising Canals for Traffic — 
with Special Reference to the Canals of Lancashire and York- 
shire." The authors are the joint patentees of the scheme 
discussed, which is one of great interest to the shipping interest 
of Liverpool. The next paper will be read on January 5th, 
1897, by Mr. (J. F. Thompson, consulting engineer, on "The 
Motor Wagon Scientifically Considered." 

All who are interested in motor traffic and reside in the neigh- 
bourhood of Liverpool should write to Mr. Shrapnell Smith, the 
Hon. Secretary, for the full prospectus of the Association, and 
join the enterprising local centre. 


A very satisfactory test was made last week with one of the 
carriage trucks of the London Electric Omnibus Company's 
new omnibuses, which are soon to be placed on the streets of 
London. The streets on which the trial was made were specially 
selected on account of their severe gradients. The carriage ran 
up Trafalgar Square op]X)site Morley's Hotel, and through 
Craven Street, with ease. Stoppages were made on the inclines 
for the purpose of testing the re-starting capacity of the motors, 
aud in each instance the restarts were made without apparent 
effort, though less than half -the available power was used. The 
steering was also managed with ease. 

Om De maatte reflectere ovenstaaende Avertissement, behag 
da ta novne "Tub Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

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The 0oup6. Company, carriage builders and wheel makers, of 
Britannia Road, Fulhani Road. London, are the sole manu- 
facturers of Harrington's patent steel carriage wheel. We 
venture to predict that these wheels will be very largely 
employed in automotor work -for which, in consequence of 
their strength, lightness, and elegant appearance, they are pre- 
eminently suited. From the illustrations which accompany 
this article it will be seen that, although somewhat similar in 
appearance to the familiar bicycle wheel, they differ from it 
radically in one important point, viz., that it is practically 
impossible to buckle them. By securing each couple of adjacent 
spokes together by a band of steel riveted over them, at a point 
near the periphery of 
the wheel, great 
strength is secured, 
while the elasticity 
inherent in this form 
of wheel is at the same 
time retained. The 
wheels have been sub- 
jected to rigorous and 
practical tests through- 
out a very long period, 
as the Coupe Company 
as a matter of economy 
have fitted them to all 
the varied forms of 
carriages which are 
turned out from their 
extensive establish- 
ments. Theyhavefound 
them as cheap to make 
in the first instance as 
good wooden wheels, 
while presenting a 
much more artistic 
appearance, and at the 
same time lasting for 
a considerably longer 
period, without any in- 
cidental outlays being 
required for repairs. 
We liave examined 
very many of these 
wheels, which have for 
years past been sub- 
jected to the rough 
wear and tear of the 
London streets without 
renewal, and in no case 
could the slightest 
shake be observed in 
any of the spokes. In 
many cases the condi- 
tion of the paint on the wheels showed that they had been in 
collision sideways with heavy vehicles, but that their elasticity 
had readily enabled them to resume and keep their original 
form unimpaired. The estimation in which the wheels are 
held by the carriage trade proper may be judged by the many 
repeat orders which are received from builders not only in 
this country but from the Colonies and India. Any form of 
tyre — pneumatic or solid — can be fitted to the wheels, and 
examples of all types in every-day use may be inspected at the 
works. To sum up, we may state that the wheels are stronger, 
more durable, and more sightly than others, while they weigh 
considerably iess, and are subject to a minimum of windage 
and vibration. We may add that the managing director of this 
Company — Mr. Courtauld Thomson— is a sou of the Mr. Thomson 
who, as fully described in the first issue of Tub Automotor and 
Horseless Vehicle Journal, invented and used the pneumatic 
tyre fifty years ago, and who was one of the most practical 

exponents of the utility of motor carriages of his day. It is 
only fitting that a descendant of his should be numbered 
amongst the pioneers of the revived industry. 


TnE regulations for the taxation of motor-cars have been issued. 
AH weighing less than one ton will have to pay one guinea or 
l">j. annually, according as they are used for private purposes 
or as public conveyances. The same rule will apply to motor- 
' cars over three tons in weight, but those l>etween one and three 
' tons will be charged heavily. All with four or more wheels, 

and weighing between 
one and two tons, .ivill 
have to pay four 
guineas yearly unless 
they are used as hack- 
ney carriages or omni- 
buses, in which case 
the amount for each 
one will be £i 17*., 
while for those over 
two and under three 
tons the amounts will 
be five guineas and 
£3 18'. res]>eetively. 
For ears of this class 
with less than four 
wheels and between 
one anil two tons in 
weight the annual 
licence will rost£2 17s., 
whether used as private 
or public conveyances, 
and if they weigh over 
two and under three 
tons the amount will 
be £3 18*. The motor 
cabman of the future 
will have little to com- 
plain of if these charges 
are maintained. He 
will continue to pay 
15s. so long as his cab 
is under one ton, while 
his rival, the omnibus 
proprietor, instead of, 
asnow, paying thesanie 
amount for each self- 
propelling vehicle, will 
pay at least £2 17*. 
The proceeds of these 
licences will, as in the 
caie of other carriages, 
be passed over to the local authorities. The new rules do not come 
into force until January 1st, when licences for the year ending 
December 31st will be issued. It is provided that in the case of 
a car not being used for the first time until October 1st in any 
year a reduction of a guinea if for private and of 7<. Gd. if for 
public use will be made. It will be understood that no charge 
of any kind is to be made for the expiring year. The regula- 
tions are vague as to the licence duty on private vehicles with 
four or more wheels and under one ton weight. They say 
they will be subject to the ordinary provisions as to carnage 
licence duty. The ordinary provisions aie that the owner of a 
four-wheeled carriage, which is fitted to be drawn by one horse, 
pays one guinea, and if it is fitted to be diawn by two horses 
two guineas annually. The amount of duty, therefore, depends 
upon the "fittings/' If a carriage has a socket in which a bar 
is or can be inserted for a second horse it is charged for at the 
two-guinea rate. How this rule can be applied to a motor-car 

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is uot obvious. Probably it is intended that only one guinea 
shall be charged. The self-propelled cycle will be subject to a 
duty regulated by the number of wheels, though this question 
also has not been grappled with. 


quarter horse-power. The wheels run very lightly, the spokes 
are of steel, and the rims are fitted with rubber tyres. The 
vehicle can run 15 miles an hour comfortably. Owing to 
inadvertence in starting from Cambridge, the Hon. C. S. Holls 
did not arrive at the Hotel Metropole in time to start. 

The annual soir6e and concert of the Edinburgh coachmakers 
was held on the 27th ult. in the Oddfellows' Hall, Forrest 
Road, when there was an attendance of over 700 people. 
Mr. Norman G. Croall occupied the chair, aud amongst those 
present were Messrs. Stordy and J. Drew. In the course of 
(he evening the latter, who is lecturer on carriage building in 
the Heriot-Watt College, gave au address on '' Moto-Cars." 
He said that now that an Act had been passed permitting their 
use on the highways, under certain restrictions, they might 
confidently look forward 
to large aud interest- 
ing developments before 
long. What was wanted, 
especially in their large 
cities, was not great 
speed, such as had Deeu 
attained, but quick- 
stopping, turning, &c. 
The best claim for the 
electric motor was that 
it was noiseless. Elec- 
tric omnibuses and 
carriages were excel- 
lently adapted for city 
use, and it was interest- 
ing to note that an elec- 
tric cab company had 
recently been formed in 
London. He had had 
an opportunity of trying 
several oil-driven motors 
in London that season, 
and it was anything but 
pleasant. In time, no 
doubt, improvements 
would be carried out. 
With a motor-car the 
expense incidental to 
horses was avoided. 
There could be no rear- 
ing or kicking or running 
away. This new and great and important industry he looked 
upon not as enemy to their trade, but as an associate. (Hear, 
hear.) The cycle industry ought to have been in their hands. 
(Hear, hear, and applause.) By this time some of them might 
have been millionaires, instead of looking forward to spending 
their declining years within the cool portals of the workhouse. 
(Laughter.) It was both their interest "and duty to keep in 
touch with a movement like that, so that if their services were 
required they would be able to use them most effectively. 




The phaeton illustrated ou this page is one which its owner, the 
Hon. C. S. Rolls, had arranged to travel down to Brighton with on 
the 14th ult We reproduce it for the purpose of illustrating our 
article describing the ride, but, along with a great deal of other 
matter, it was crowded out. The phaeton is a very comfortable 
vehicle for four persons, built by M. Peugeot, and fitted with 
an inverted Daimler motor developing about three and three- 

Is view of recent motor-carriage company developments, the 
secretary of the above Association has issued a statement setting 
ont Sir David's connection with the matter. After giving 
particulars as to the Exhibition at Tunbridge Wells, he relates 
the history of the formation of the Self-Propelled Traffic 
Association, and in reference to it states : — 

An attempt was made by many gentlemen to be placed upon 
the Council, to whom Sir David objected, on the ground that it 

was their wish to make 
the Association little 
more or less than a 
company-promoting con- 
cern. As he had no 
interest financially in 
the movement, nor any 
desire to take such a 
part in the future, Sir 
David resented such 
tactics, and the result 
was a division in the 
camp, the company- 
promotion section sepa- 
rating themselves from 
those who wore anxious 
solely to forward the 
movement for the good 
of their countrymen and 
of English industry. 

The Association was 
eventually. formed with 
a very strong Council, 
consisting of gentlemen 
well-known in public life, 
science, and engineering. 
Sir David Salomons 
was elected president, 
and such a strong sup- 
port gave him great 
power to push the move- 
ment to a conclusion. 
Then came the deputation to Mr. Chaplin, and to Sir David's 
astonishment, although the former gentleman had written to 
him previously, sympathising with the movement, it was the 
first occasion that Mr. Chaplin had stated publicly it was his 
intention to introduce a Bill. 

Throughout this period Sir David Salomons travelled to and 
fro to Paris, and obtained information from all parts of the 
globe in order to be well posted in the new movement and 
further its objects, towards which he published various 
pamphlets and articles to show the advantages to be derived, 
and to meet various arguments which had been raised on the 

There was the difficulty also that, if the Bill became law, the 
Petroleum Acts would prevent benzine being carried when 
required for fuel. 

In one of the pamphlets issued Sir David suggested the 
form of the Act of Parliament, which was eventually adopted 
to all intents and purposes. At an interview with Lord Harris 
the difficulty as to carriages to be drawn was raised, and he was 
present at the second reading of the Bill in the House of Lords, 
when great stress was laid on the wisdom of not permitting this 
point. Sir David did hin best to get this reversed by showing 

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that the danger alleged existed only in the minds of non- 
technical peraona, and that heavy loads combined with great 
speeds were impossible under the limit of the weight of engine 
mentioned in the Bill. lie also assisted to secure the raising 
of the two-ton limit to four tons, to meet the question of electric 
traction. This was supported by resolutions of the Self-Pro- 
pelled Traffic Association, and the Loudon and many other 
Chambers of Commerce. 

In dealing with these questions Sir David had the advantage 
of having the results of a number of experiments which he had 
made many years ago on the subject, when he first took an 
interest in the improved means of locomotion on highways. 

The Bill was amended in a few details in the House of Lords, 
which set up the control of many authorities, which would have 
been unworkable. No doubt when the amendments were 
accepted this point was not sufficiently considered. 

Sir David Salomons then attended the second reading in the 
House of Commons, and was able to gauge the nature of any 
opposition from the discussion which took place. This enabled 
him to draw up a very careful Memorandum showing the various 
effects which would arise if certain proposals were adopted, and 
pointed out where modifications could be made with advautage 
to the Bill, and at the same time offering concessions to the 
opposite force. This Memorandum was sent into the Local 
Government Board and the Home Office (the two departments 
which have a voice in the matter under the Bill), and Sir 
David was requested to attend personally, which he did, aud 
made a number of suggestions which he had the satisfaction of 
seeing adopted as amendments in Committee. 

The point which there was the greatest difficulty in securing 
was that an unladen vehicle might be defined iu the Bill as one 
without water, fuel, petroleum, or accumulators, as it was 
thought the words " unladen vehicle " met the point. Sir 
David's contention was that no Judge would hold that an 
unladen vehicle was otherwise than one ready to start to pick 
up its load. On this point he had not the slightest doubt. Sir 
David, therefore, suggested on his part, as a concession, to. 
reduce the four ton maximum to three tons weight, providing 
an unladen vehicle was defined as one without fuel, water, or 
accumulators. Another point was the width of wheels, which 
so many members thought desirable to deal with in the Bill. 
Sir David preferred that all questions of construction be left 
lo the Local Government Board, and this was eventually 

He also obtained the concession to add to the words " no 
visible steam or smoke" the words "except from an exceptional 
or temporary cause." He obtained the further concession that 
if local authorities should stop any roads or bridges for this 
class of traffic, an appeal might be made to the Local Govern- 
ment Board. 

Sir David sent a long Memorandum on the petroleum 
question, as it affects this class of traffic, to the Home Office, 
and was called to give evidence before the Petroleum Committee 
of the House of Commons, of which Mr. Muudella is the 
Chairman. The evidence appeared to lie favourably received ;is 
far as he was able to judge, and he has reason to believe that 
the Hides which will be issued shortly will practically be based 
on the evidence given by him on that occasion. 

No less than 50,000 letters have been written on the subject 
since last October, and possibly not less than 500 interviews, 
apart from meetings. A large number of articles and other 
publications to the Press and in other quarters have been sent 
out, which gives some idea of the labour expended by Sir David 
Salomons, to say nothing of an expenditure reaching many 
thousands of pounds. 

The sum total of all this work has been, that there has hardly 
been an Act passed containing more liberal clauses, and with 
more unity of action, which is so desirable where the roads are 
continuous and local authorities so numerous. 

The Act will secure complete control from a central point, 
the Local Government Board for rules and regulations as 
regards construction and use, while the Home Office controls all 
questions dealing with petroleum of low flash point, regardless 
vf any Acts of Parliament which may exist. 

No bridge can be closed without reasonable cause. The 
weight of three tous without fuel, water, petroleum, or accumu- 
lators renders it possible to construct a better class of carriage, 
and, above all things, it renders electrical traction on the roads 
an actual possibility. The exemption of the production of 
steam or smoke due to temporary and occasional causes will 
obviate vexatious prosecutions, and the regulations to be 
expected in regard to mineral spirits will be as liberal as is 
]>ossible from the nature of the liquids. 

The main object to be attained, by using every endeavour 
to transfer powers for regulating this class of traffic from 
Parliament to Government departments, was to enable amend- 
ments to be easily made to meet practical requirements, without 
the cumberoua o|>eration of appeiliug to Parliament. The 
system has worked well iu the case of the electric light 
industry, aud there is no reason why it should not prove as 
successful in the case of self-propelled traffic 

Sir David has sacrificed a considerable amount of time iu 
assisting by every" means in his power in framing the Local 
Government Board regulations 

Sir David has already pointed out that it only remains for 
users of horseless traffic to do nothing on their part t<j destroy 
the confidence which the Legislature lias placed in them, by 
committing auy act likely to be of annoyance to others. 

Throughout all the negotiations and communications between 
members of the Government and the officials of Government 
departments, Sir David Salomons bears witness to the fact that 
he was treated with every courtesy aud consideration, which 
was, no doubt, due in a large measure to the circumstance that 
it was within their knowledge that the company promotion 
business had been completely separated from bis side, and that 
the Self-Propelled Traffic Association was recognised by the 
Government as the official representative of the movement, so 
that it was felt that all he said was not in any way influenced 
by the slightest personal consideration or intention of extracting 
money from the pockets of the public. 



The proprietors of The Engineer have agreed with the Crystal 
Palace Company, who have offered facilities at the Crystal Palace 
for showing the carriages in work there, and for holding the 
subsidiary trials hereafter referred to. 

The following are the names of the judges : — 
Sir Frederick Bram well, Bart., F.R.S., M.InstC.E. 
Mr. John Audley F. Aspinall, M.Inst. C.E., Chief Mechanical 

Engineer to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 
Dr. John Hopkinson, F.K.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

The competition is to be international. 


The vehicles will be divided into four classes, and one 
supplemental class, iu each of which a prize will be given, as 
follows : — 

(a) For the best mechanically propelled vehicle constructed 
to carry, including the driver, four or more persons, the total 
weight, when fully loaded, not exceeding two tons, a prize of 
.'550 guineas will be given. 

(/<) For the best mechanically propelled vehicle constructed to 
cany either one or two or three persons, the total weight, when 
fully loaded, not exceeding one ton, a prize of 250 guineas will 
be given. 

(c) For the best mechanically propelled vehicle constructed to 
carrv, in addition to the driver, not more than one ton of goods 
or parcels, the total weight, when fully loaded, not exceeding 
two tous, a prize of 250 guineas wil! be given. 

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y _GoogIe 




(d) For the best mechanically propelled vehicle constructed to 
carry, in addition to the driver, five hundredweight of goods or 
parcels, the weight, when fully loaded, not exceeding one ton, a 
prize of 150 guineas will be given. 

Supplemental. — For the vehicle, whether passengers or goods, 
propelled s>lely by a motor actuated by the vapour of oil or 
spirit, having a lower specific gravity than - 8, or a flashing 
point lower than 73° Fah., Abel's test, aud constructed to satisfy 
the requirements of any Act of Parliament, aud the rules to be 
made thereunder for the time beiug respectively in force, which, 
in the opinion of the judges, best satisfies the purpose for which 
it is built, a prize of 100 guineas will be given. 

The judges are to have the power to divide any prize in case 
of vehicles proving of equal merit. At least two vehicles in a 
class must complete the whole journey, or no prize for that class 
will be given. 

Propelling Power. 

Any method of propulsion other than muscular power may 
be employed, provided it be contained in the vehicle. 

Quality of Oil for Power Purposes. 

Except in the supplemental class, no oil or other liquid used 
in any engine, whether for the production of an explosive 
mixture, vapour, or foe fuel, shall liave a lower specific gravity 
than - 8, or a lower flashing point than 73° Fah., Abel's test. 


Entries are to be made on printed forms — to be obtained at 
the offices of The Engineer — at any time prior to 6 p.m. on the 
last day of March, 1897, being forwarded by registered letter, 
addressed to the Editor of The Engineer, 33, Norfolk Street, 
Strand, W.C, and accompanied by a deposit of £1 for each 
entry, this deposit to be forfeited if the vehicle entered is not 
submitted for competition. 

Delivery. —Description and Descriptive Drawings. 

The competing vehicles must be delivered at the Crystal 
Palace, Sydenham, between the hours of 10 a>in. and 6 p.m. on 
some day in the week prior the 24th of May next. Prior to the 
delivery of each of the vehicles, there must be forwarded to the 
Editor of The Engineer, 33, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C, a 
docket showing the weight of the unloaded vehicle, in complete 
running order, with its store of fuel and water — if these are to 
be used— this docket being furnished by a weigh-master of some 
niblic weghing machine. At the same time there must be 
orwarded six, at least, type-written or printed descriptions of 
the machines, setting out, as briefly as possible, any peculiarities 
of construction or of working to which the competitors desire to 
draw the attention of the judges, aud also six sets of clear blue- 
print drawings or sketch tracings, to a scale of not less than 
li inch to the foot, illustrating the construction. These docu- 
ments will not be returned, but on their receipt, a printed Form 
of Request to the Crystal Palace Company, to accept delivery of 
the vehicle, will be forwarded to each competitor by the Editor 
of The Engineer, and this Form of Request will have to be 
produced to the authorities at Sydenham when the vehicle is 

Opening-up of Machines. 

After delivery aud before the practical working run, herein- 
after referred to, each vehicle is to be opened up by a skilled 
attendant representing the competitor in the presence of one or 
more of the judges, or their representative, for their information. 

PreHminury Huns. 

Preliminary runs in the grounds of the Crystal Palace will be 
mad} with each of the vehicles in succession by the competitor.-? 
in the presence of the judges or of someone representing them. 

Practical Working Hun. 

This will consist of a run on the public roads of not less than 
100 miles out and 100 miles home, or a total of not less than 
200 miles, over a course to be announced three days prior to 
that fixed for the run. It is impossible at present to ti>c the 

exact date for this run, but it will probably be arranged for 
Monday, the 31st day of May next. On starting for this run 
from the Crystal Palace, each vehicle is to be fully loaded aud U 
to have its full store of fuel and water, if these are used, aud is 
also to carry the number of adult passengers for the class ia 
which it is entered, one of whom is to be a representative of the 
judges, who will be counted as part of the load. 

Route Map. 
There will be provided for each competitor, on making 
application at the office of Tin Engineer, three days before the 
practical working run commences, a route map indicating the 
course which it is suggested the vehicles should take ; but the 
competitors will be free to take any road they think proper 
between the Crystal Palace and their destination and back. 

Order of Starting. 
Lots will be drawn to determine the order in which the 
vehicles are to start It is intended that the first shall leave at 
or about 10 a.m., and the remainder at intervals of 10 minutes. 
During the run the representative of the judges shall keep, on a 
printed form which he will have with him, a " log" of the run. 

Change of Drivers. 
Any competitor may change his driver at auy place en rou'.e, 
if he should think proper. 

Inspection of Vehicles on Return. 
After the return of the vehicles to the Crystal Palace, it shall 
again be opened up by the competitor and submitted to the 
inspection of the judges, or their representatives, aud this prior 
to anything being (lone to the vehicle in the way of repair or 
renewal, except such as may have been effected during the run. 

Further Huns. 
Should the judges so determiue, further runs are to be made 
on subsequent d rys by all or auy of the vehicles in the premises 
of the Crystal Palace Company or on the public roads. 


The judges reserve to themselves the right of absolutely 
disqualifying any vehicle or competitor from the competition for 
any infraction of these rules or for any cause whatsoever, and 
without in any way being bound to state the reason or reasons 
for which such disqualification is made. 

Number of Vehicles to be Exhibited by each Competitor. 
No competitor, either directly or by any agent or otherwise, 
is to enter for competition two similar vehicles in any one of the 
classes above referred to, aud each vehicle is to be entered by 
not more than one person, that is to say, in the name of one 
individual or firm. 


While obeying in all respects the instructions of the judges, it 
is u> be fully understood and agreed by every competitor that 
no responsibility, legal or otherwise, is to attach either to the 
judges, to the proprietors of The Engineer, or to the Crystal 
Palace Company in respect of anything or for any damage or 
injury caused to any person or thing, but all responsibility of 
every sort and kind, whether pecuniary or otherwise, is to attach 
to the competitor and is to be borne by h'uu. 

Length of Practical Working Hun. 
Auy velrcle which docs not complete the " practical working 
run" at a minimum average speed of live miles an hour, U> 
include all stoppages, shall be disqualified. The distance upon 
which such time allowance will be computed will be fixed by the 
judges aud slated on the route map. 

Notb. — As the attainment of high is not one of the 
objects sought, it has been determined that, nothing in spi-cd 
over 10 miles an hour will be placed to the credit of any 
competitor, but, subject to this condition, and to any law or 
regulation made by any local or other competent authority, 

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the competitors may go as they please, at any speed they 
think proper, running continuously day and night, or 
stopping as they think best. If at the date hereafter to be 
fixed for the trials the state of the law or of any local regu- 
lations should make it impossible, in the judgment of the 
proprietors of The Engineer, to hold the competition as at 
present contemplated, no blame or responsibility shall attach 
to them, or the judges, or to the Crystal Palace Company. 

The following are the points which will be taken into con- 
sideration by the judges in awarding the prizes : — 

(a) Distance run without taking or receiving supplies of fuel, 
oil, gas, electrical or chemical materials or electrical current, or 
of any agent employed for actuating the motor. Freedom from 
stoppages for repairs, adjustment, or for oiling, or any other 
purpose or cause. 

(6) Suitability of design and excellence of workmanship, not 
only of the actuating machinery but of the carriage. 

(c) Safety. 

(d) Simplicity, durability, accessibility, and facilities for 
repairs, absence of offensive smells, and of excessive vibration. 

(e) Time occupied in getting to work and ease of starting. 
(/) Speed — up to ten miles per hour — and hill climbing. 

(p) Completeness of control by, and certainty and decision of, 
steering and steering gear, and efficiency and durability of 
brakes and brake gear. 

(h) Weight of carriage and motor machinery and appliances. 

(t) First cost and— to a limited extent — the cost of working. 

(j) General efficiency. 

Note. — The quantity of fuel, oil, gas, or power-giving 
material or electricity used during the long duration ruu 
will not be specially taken into account, although obser- 
vations will be made by the judges on this subject, but 
trials of short duration of the vehicles selected for further 
te9ts will be made if deemed necessary for the purpose of 
ascertaining the cost of working of the vehicles. 

Judges' Decision to be Final. 

The decision of the judges expressed in writing on any point 
shall be final and binding on all parties, and from such decision 
there shall be no appeal. 

Copy of Rule* to be Furnished to each Competitor, and Signed by 


Three printed copies of these rules will be supplied to each 
competitor or his accredited representative, and no competitor 
will be allowed to deliver his vehicle at the Crystal Palace until 
he has signed one of these copies, and it has been banded in to 
the Editor of The Engineer and formally acknowledged and 
accepted by him. In signing and forwarding this copy of these 
rules, the competitor shall accept all the conditions herein 
imposed upon him, and shall agree to be bound in all respects 
by them. 

Official Number and Stamp on Vehicles. 

Prior to the start for the long-distance competition, there will 
be attached to each vehicle, in some convenient place, a card 
stamped with the judges' seal and bearing upon it the number 
assigned to that particular vehicle for the purposes of the com- 
petition. The seal must not be broken, otherwise the vehicle 
will be disqualified. 

Paragraph to be Signed by Competitors. 

I agree to abide, and be bound, by the above rules and con- 
ditions, or any modifications of them which the judges may 
think desirable or necessary. 


Signed ... 

Competitor in class 

New Beeston Cycle Co. (Limited). 

The Future of the Motor-Cycle. 

The first ordinary general meeting of the shareholders of the 
New Beeston Cycle Company (Limited) was held on the 18th 
idt. at the Institute of Chartered Accountaute, Moorgate Place, 
E.C., under the presidency of Mr. Harry J. Lawsou (the chairman 
of the Company). 

The Chairman having explained that this was only the 
statutory meeting, stated that the amount subscribed by the 
public was about £180,000, out of which some £80,000 or 
£90,000 would form the nucleus of working capital. As they 
knew, the share capital was £1,000,000, and if at any future 
time further issues were made half of what would be raised 
would go to increase the working capital. After dealing with 
the ordinary cycle trade, with which we are not specially 
concerned, he said : — I am happy to be able to tell you that in 
that famous ride on Saturday, which will form one of the 
historic pages in the history of England (applause), we showed 
the world that we can go by ourselves unassisted, with self- 
acting carriages and cycles, from London to Brighton or anywhere 
we please. I am pleased to tell you that on that ride one of our 
motor-cycles was the ouly one of its class that got through. 
(Applause.) It was ridden by, I might almost say, a boy, and I 
believe he had never ridden in a race, and I do not believe he 
had had any experience whatever of a long journey. We saw 
him on the machine ; we saw him get along without working, 
and he went up and down the hills with the greatest facility, 
beating all the trotting mares which were out to join in the 
procession. He arrived in Brighton, notwithstanding the 
thickness of the mud, a dead head wind, and a pelting rain, 
in a little over four hours, and the British Motor-Car Club 
awarded him a gold medal for his exploit. (Applause.) I go 
out before breakfast every morning when the weather is tine on 
one of these Beeston motor-cycles, and I can assure you it works 
wonderfully well. Now, in the matter of the sale of these 
machines we want you to assist us, and in connection with this 
there is one man who wants to be worried— I pity him more 
than anybody else — and that is our much respected manager. 
1 am sure that if you had experience of them there is not one of 
you gentlemen who has £50 or £60 to spare who would not 
obtain one of these Beeston motor-cycles. In it you have a 
horse under you which will do whatever you wish, and you can 
regulate it very easily. It does not matter whether you are 
old or young, or male or female j you have a willing servant 
which will carry you anywhere. You can go to Scotland with 
it, and you are thoroughly independent of horses or vehicles if 
you possess one. 

Dr. C. W. Iliffe followed, and in the course of his remarks 
said :— As to the motor-cycle, 1 may say that Mr. Lawson sent 
down a telegram to the works on Thursday, with regard to 
Saturday's tour to Brighton, desiring that a motor-cycle should 
take part in the journey. The result was that Mr. Gorton's 
son, who had not ridden the cycle more than four or five times, 
was selected to ride it, and it is now a matter of history how well 
the little machine came out. It started under the most unfavour- 
able circumstances from the Hotel Metropole. It reached 
Reigate in the most respectable time, being fifth in the line of 
arrivals there. After a quarter of an hour's delay, it proceeded 
to Brighton, which it reached in the unprecedented time of four 
hours and three-quarters. (Applause.) At Keigate and Brighton 
electricians and engineers of very great competency examined 
the machine, and one and all pronounced this verdict : that it 
was the very best machine on the road. I may say it was the 
only one of British manufacture there. (Applause.) 

A Shareholder : Do you make the motor-carriages ? 

Dr. Iliffe : No ; only the motor-cycles. Our department is 
that of manufacturing ladies' and gentlemen's motor-cycles, 
together with the general cycle industry. 

A vote of thanks was accorded the chairman and directors, 

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and the proceedings closed. Shareholders afterwards inspected 
one of the motor-tricycles which had been brought into the 

Anglo-French Motor-Carriage Co. (Limited). 

The statutory general meeting of the shareholders of the 
Anglo-French Motor-Carriage Company (Limited) was held on 
the 24th ult., at Winchester House, Old Broad Street, E.C., under 
the presidency of Mr. E. B. Ellis-Clark. The Secretary (Mr. F. 
H. Firth) having read the notice convening the meeting, 

The Chairman said : — Gentlemen, — You know that the 
Company was formed to exploit the system of M. Roger, who 
had small works in France. These works, as was stated in the 
prospectus, were altogether inadequate for the carrying on of a 
large business, and one of the first things that the directorate 
did wan to look about for fresh works in France. The French 
directors found very suitable premises, and Mr. Barrett and I 
were deputed to go over to see these works. We thought them 
admirably adapted for the purpose, but of course they were 
simply works without any of the necessary machinery to carry 
on our operations. While negotiations were in progress for 
these, the French directors saw that considerable delay would 
take place in equipping an empty factory, and although they 
continued negotiations for this factory, they immediately set to 
work to see if they could not find works completely equipped 
for our purpose ; and in the course of some little time they were 
successful in putting their hands upon works which they thought 
were very suitable. Mr. Barrett and I went over to Paris again, 
and I must say that in the course of a long experience I do not 
think I ever saw a factory that was so suitable for the purposes 
of our business. Not only the machinery that was there, but 
the order and the planning of everything was modern and 
up-to-date. It is just a place that we ought to have to carry 
on our business in Paris ; in fact, if it had been designed for 
our works, it could not have been better. A great deal of time, 
thought, and money has been spent upon the place. Negotiations 
are still proceeding for the acquisition of this factory. These nego- 
tiations in England are often very protracted, but my experience is 
that they are very much more protracted in France. The nego- 
tiations, however, are now being actively carried on by the 
members of the board in Paris, and I believe, from information 
which we only received this morning, they will be successful in 
their endeavours to obtain this factory for us. All I can say is 
that if they do we shall have one of the best factories in France 
for the purposes of our undertaking. Meantime, we have not 
been idle in England. Messrs. L'Hollier and Gasooine set to 
work to try and find us a factory in Birmingham, which we 
consider the most central neighbourhood for our business. We 
have taken premises occupying about 3,000 square yards, which 
we are now equipping in what I think I may call a modest 
manner. We are not going to spend so much money there, to 
begin with, as we had anticipated, owing to the proposal to 
acquire this factory in Paris. Mr. Gascoine is here to-day, and 
he will tell you that we are very nearly ready to commence work 
there, and 1 hope that within a few weeks we shall commence 
to make our carriages in England. A good many of you — in 
fast, I suppose all of you — have been interested in the accounts 
of the recent motor-car tour to Brighton, and I daresay some of 
you may have been rather disappointed at our not having 
occupied first, second, or third place in what finally, although it 
was called a tour, came with some to be absolutely a race. Well, 
the fact is, that the leading vehicles in this race were not the 
ordinary motor-cars of commerce, if I may say so ; they were 
specially-constructed for the Marseilles race, and they had 
10 horse-power, whereas ours only had 5. We put into that 
tour the ordinary vehicle such as we should sell every day to our 
customers, and therefore we did not occupy that position in the 
race which probably some of you thought we should have done. 
That race, however, has taught us a great many lessons, and has 
been very useful to us in every way. For my own part, I am 
very glad that it took place, because it will enable us, before we 
make any other stojk, to effect certain modifications and 
additions to our motors which, 1 believe, will enable us to have 

the very best motor-car in the market. After dealing at some 
length with the prospective value of their patents, and to the 
fact that they intended at first to build carriages of utility 
instead of vehicles of luxury, he concluded by saying : — We have 
got a great many orders and inquiries coming in every day — I 
had forgotten to say that the Paris house is making motors for 
carriages for the distribution of goods for the Louvre. I think 
all this shows that we have got a first-rate carriage. I may also 
say that there is a cab company at Bordeaux which has investi- 
gated all the motor- carriages, and come to the conclusion that 
ours is the best, and they are forming a company to put our cabs 
on the streets of that city. I shall be very glad to answer any 
questions that may be put to me by the shareholders, and will 
say, in conclusion, that I believe we have got a first-rate future 
in front of us. (Applause.) 

At the request of some of the shareholders, Mr. Gascoine 
(the manager) said : — It seems to be the opinion of everybody 
in the Midlands that we have been exceedingly fortunate in 
securing such first-rate works there. The rent is low ; we are 
nearly all on the ground floor ; we are right in the centre of the 
city, and we shall be able to combine show-rooms with the 
factory. As far as the Birmingham part of the business is con- 
cerned, everything is looking exceedingly favourable. We have 
been getting 50, 60, and up to 80 letters every morning, and 
although we find our difficulty at present is to secure orders, 
owing to the fact that we have nothing to show as samples of 
English-made carriages, or even of foreign-made carriages, in 
the course of a few days we shall have English-made delivery 
vans which we can show customers, and directly we do this we 
shall be able to secure numbers of orders. The question has 
been mentioned about the suitability of electricity as compared 
with benzoline. I am sure it is very satisfactory for us to see 
in to-day's Press that Edison, the eminent electrician, gives it 
as his candid opinion, that at present electricity has not a 
chance with the motors in the market worked with steam or 
gas. Our motor is practically a gas-motor, only instead of using 
coal-produced gas, we use gas which is generated by benzoline. 
Of course, our business is not a speculative business. As our 
Chairman has said, we are not making any attempt to puff it ; 
we want to go slowly but surely ahead, and produce something 
which is really practicable, and then I am sure we shall have a 
great success ; there will be no lack of orders. (Applause.) 

A vote of thanks was then passed to the chairman. 


[ Under this heading we intend in future giving a full list of any 
new Companies registered which tale power to make, deal, or 
become interested in any manner in autoraotor vehicles. Where 
detailed particulars are not given under this beading we shall be 
pleased to reply to inquiries through the " Answers to 
Correspondents' " column. All communications should be 
addressed to the Editor. The only stipulation which we male 
is that where the inquiry involves a search of the records at 
Somerset House— as in the case of information on the subject 
of the holdings of shareholders — a postal order must be 
enclosed to cover the Government stamp of one shilling which 
is charged before a search is allowed to be made.] 

Armstrong-Dove Motor Syndicate 

Anglo- French Cycle Co. 

Australian Cycle aud Motor Co 

A. B. C. Cycle Fittings Co 

Auxiliary and Light Railways and Tram- 
ways Co. 

British and Colonial Cycle and Components 

Birmingham Tubes (Limited) 

Brainard's Pneumatic Tyre Machine Syndicate 

Birmingham Pneumatic Tyre Syndicate 












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[December, 1896. 


Coventry Machinists' Co 10,000 

Chorlev Railway Wagon Co 20,000 

Casswell (Limited) 50,00!) 

Chainless Gear Manufacturing Co. .. .... 8,000 

Cycle and Motor Accessories Co 10,000 

Duthoit Brothers 2,000 

Haddon Cycle Co 60,000 

Ibex Development Co 25,000 

International Communications (Limited) .... 10,000 

Improved Cycle Saddle Syndicate 3,000 

J. B. Dunlop Cvcle Fittings and Engineering 

Co ' 75,000 

KottinGearCo 60,000 

London Electrical Cab Co. 15,000 

Lillie Cycle Co. 10,000 

London Motor-Car Works Co. 10,000 

Laurie and Marner 60,000 

Lonsdale Cycle Co 2,000 

Max-Saturn Electrical Syndicate 3,000 

Miracle Cycle and Components Manufac- 
turing Co 2,500 

North Worcestershire Cycle Manufacturing 

Co 10,000 

Non-Collapsible Tyre Co 130,000 

Newcastle Cycle and Engineering Works Co. 1,000 

O'Brien's Patents 20,000 

Player Brothers, Coventry (Limited) .... 2,000 

Phoenix Accumulator Syndicate 2,500 

Pioneer MoLor-Car Syndicate 10.000 

Puncture Locator Syndicate 10,000 

Pneumatic Compensation Cycle Co 15,000 

Prince Motor Syndicate 50,000 

Ramsay's Horse, Carriage, Cycle, and Auto- 
Car Repository „ 60,000 

Stouehouse Works Co. 5,000 

Slenths (Limited) 25,000 

Singer Cycle Co. (Russia) 40,1)00 

Speed Manufacturing Co 10,000 

Starley Brothers aud Westwood Manu- 

fa Jturing Co 1 10,000 

Sans|»areil Cycle Co 30,000 

Self-Adjusting Bicycle Support Co 25,000 

Traffic Syndicate (Limited) 10,000 

Whitehead's Auto-Cycle Co 2,000 

Windliam Pneumatic Tyre Syndicate .... 5,000 

Woodley Co. (Limited) 125,000 

Yeovil Motor-Car and Cycle Co 1,000 

Zenith (Folding) Cycle Syndicate 6,000 

Motor Development Corporation (Limited). 

Registered November 24th, with a capital of £25,000 in £1 
shares, to adopt an agreement with John V. Sherrin, to manu- 
facture, sell, and deal in motors, rims, cycles, and other vehicles, 
and carriages, and to carry on the business of engineers, 
machinists, titters, founders, &c. The number of directors is 
not to be less than three nor more than live ; the subscribers 
are to appoint the first. Qualification, £1,000 ; remuneration, 
£150 each per annum. Registered -by W. T. Hick, 2, Church 
Court, Clement's Lane, E.C. 

Hastings and St Leonards Engineering, Cycle, 
and Motor-Car Co. (Limited). 

Registered November 18th, by C. Doubble and Co., Serjeants' 
Inn, E.C, with a capital of £2,500 in £1 shares. Object : to 
enter into agreements with N. Chennells and W. Wingfield, and 
to manufacture aud deal in cycles, motors, carriages, carts, bath- 
chairs, wheels, tyres, machinery, &c. The directors are R. H. 
( Jaby, L. O. Glenister, N. Chennells (managing director), J. C. 
Miller, aud W. Slade, junior. Qualification, £25 ; remuneration, 

£80 per annum, divisible. 
Road, Hastings. 

Registered office : 37, Havelock 

English Serpollet Motor Syndicate (Limited). 

Registered on November 18th by Ashurst, Morris, Crisp, and 
Co , 17, Throgmorton Avenue, E.C, with a capital of £100,000 
in £1 shared. Objects : To enter into an agreement with George 
Hopkins, Gustavus P. Harding, John T. B. Sewell, and Charles 
O. Maugham ; to make, sell, let, exchange, deal in, and dispose 
of engines for motive or other power, motors, motor-cars, cabs, 
cycles, omnibuses, trams, carriages, and vehicles ; and to carry 
on the business of mechanical, hydraulic, and electrical 
engineers, manufacturers, and contractors, machinists, smiths, 
engineering tool makers, boiler makers, &c. The first directors 
(to number not lew than three nor more than seven) are to be 
nominated by the subscribers. Qualification, £200. Remune- 
ration, £500 psr annum and a percentage of the profits divided 
between them. 

Westralian Motor-Carrying Co. (Limited). 

Registered on November 24th, by J. A. Maxwell, 97 and 98, 
Bishopsgate Street, E.C., with a capital of £7 in £1 shares. 
Objects : To carry on the business of carriers, transport agents, 
coach and carriage builders, cycle, motor, carriage, and autocar 
manufacturers, dealers, and repairers, machinists, &c. Registered 
without articles of association. 

New Issues. 

The British Motor Syndicate (Limited). 

The issue of this Company's shares at a premium is fully dealt 
with in an article which will be found on page 103. With 
reference to the result of the venture the following statement, 
made by Mr. Harry J. Lawson to an interviewer, is the only 
official intimation which has been made : — 

" The issue of the British Motor Syndicate was merely for a 
certaiu amount of increased capital. We didn't expect, nor do 
we need, the whole of the capital for which we asked the public 
to subscribe. The issue has been very successful indeed, and 
the most enthusiastic people in connection with it are the share- 
holders. As far as the position of the new shareholders is 
concerned, I am willing to make a public statement that, in my 
opinion, their shares will be, in a very short period, at a much 
higher price than £3. We have everything of the most improved 
character in electricity and steam, which we would not take 
anything for. My own belief in the system is shown by the 
fact that I have nearly all the money I have in the world — 
except some house and land property— invested in these motor 
patents and in the different companies owning them." 

The Defiance Cycle and Motor-Car Company (Limited), 
Swansea, has been floated, with a capital of £10,000. It is 
understood that nearly all, if not all, the shares have been taken 
up by a few local gentlemen, and the manufacturing operations 
will commence at Swansea in January next. Suitable premises 
on the Strand are available. 

A few days ago Sir David Salomons, the President of the 
Self-Propelled Traffic Association, was to be seen driving in the 
Park, iu Fleet Street, and other crowded thoroughfares, in a 
new Serpollet carriage which he has just received. Consider- 
able improvements have been made upou the original design, 
and an early opjxirtunity will be given for inspection of the 
carriage in Loudon. 

Jezeli Pan zechcisz oglaszac w pismie naszem prosze podac 
nazwe "The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle Journal.'' 

Digitized by_ 





At the request of several correspondents, and in pursuance of 
our arrangements to publish sectional views of typical motors, 
we illustrate the details of the celebrated Daimler engine. The 
patentee, Herr Gottleib Daimler, was for a considerable period 
associated with Dr. Otto in the work of perfecting the well- 
known gas engine which is identified with the name of the 
latter. , Since Herr Daimler commenced business on his o»n 
account he has gained the unquestioned position of being the 
leading designer of oil-engines for motor-carriages on the 
Continent. I£ia first application to a bicycle was made in 18S6 
—and his then effort was illustrated in-our last issue — while in 
the following year he applied the same prineiple to a motor- 
carriage. ■ . 

I until the piston reaches the end of its stroke. The amount of 
I compression to which the gas is subjected on the return stroke 
| of the piston, can be regulated in accordance with the spriug 
I employed. It varies, as a rule, between 42 and 50 lbs. 

The explosion takes place immediately after compression as the 
I piston is starting on the second forward stroke. The firing is 
effected by means of the platinum tube C, heated to incan- 
descence by a burner B, the contact being effected by means of 
1 an automatic movement actuated by a reciprocating member of 
| the engine. 

i On the return stroke the burnt gases are discharged through 
i the bottom valve, which is lifted by the rod A, raised by a cam 
I working on a small shaft, which only rotates at half the speed 
' of the main shaft, so that the rod A is only operated every 
! other revolution. 

'• The cylinder I is cooled by the water-jacket, while the disc M, 
and the rods are enclosed in air-tight casing L, to protect them 
from dost and dirt. The shell is partially filled with oil t so that 
the crank shaft, rods, and disc are perfectly lubricated. The 
ordinary rate of working is high, viz., 700 revolutions per 
minute, but in consequence of the efficient oiling arrangements, 
there are no difficulties in this respect. 


His engine consists in its main essentials of two cylinders 
cast together, the operations involved, viz., the drawing in of 
the explosive mixture, its compression, explosion, and expulsion 
of the waste products, following exactly the " Otto cycle," which 
is so well-known to all interested in the matter. 

The automatic system employed to supply the requisite charge 
of oil to form, in combination with air, the volatilised explosive 
charge is very neat and simple. The float chamber is connected 
with the reservoir containing the main supply of oil, the float H 
regulating the inlet of petroleum so that it cannot rise above the 
fixed level in (J. The oil is in consequence conveyed to the jet 
E at a constant pressure, being vapourised at that point by the 
induced draught, caused by the suction of the piston. The 
carburetted air passes through the valve into the cylinder freely 

At a special meeting of the members of the London Chamber 
of Commerce, held on the 1st inst., in the Council Room, 
Botolph House, Major Flood Page delivered an address upon 
" Motor Vehicles." 

\ Mr. W. H. Willans, Chairman of the Council, presided, and 
the large audience which assembled on the occasion included 
line Count de Torre Diaz, Baron G. de Reuter, Mr. John 
M'Call, Mr. Boverton Redwood, Mr. W. Mowat, Mr. Alexander 
Sclanders, Mr. J. Lulham Pound, Mr. A. R. Bennett, Mr. 
George J. Jacobs (President of the Institution of British 
Carriage Manufacturers), Mr. A. R. Seunett, Mr. J.-H. Mace, 
Mr. L. Epstein, Mr. W. B. Leaf, Mr. C. J. Wharton, Mr. J. 
M'Andrew, Mr. F. S. Tomkios, Mr. Walter Hancock, and 
Mr. Kenrick B. Murray (Secretory). 

The Chairman, in oiiening the proceedings, remarked that 
the attendance that afternoon was a clear indication of the 
interest taken in the subject of the lecture. 

Major Flood Page, in the course of his address, stated that 
since the Act of Parliament relative to the subject of his address 
had referred to motor-cars as light locomotives, they would, so 
far as they were concerned; have to use that most unfortunate 
name. But they must have one word for everyday use, and 
since locomotive had been mono]>oli8ed by steam he would 
suggest the word "automotive." He continued to give a history 
of the various means of locomotion, observing that the first 
omnibus appeared in Paris in 1828, and in London one year 
later. In 1823 there were only 12 cabs in London, and in 1880 
there were 25,000 hackney carriages, while at the present 
time there were 115,000. France had ever lieen before England, 
and was now in advance of her in respect of the automotive. 
That was, he remarked, to a great extent due to the restrictions 
placed upon their use. Continuing, he dealt with the regulations 
laid down by the Local Government Board, the stringency of 
which was, to some extent, again due to the words " light loco- 
motive/' He believed that experience, however, would soon 
alter the present regulations, and he ventured to prophesy that 
before many years had passed there would hardly be any restric- 
tions other than those at present in force with regard to horse 
traffic. They would find that but one of the rules drawn up by 
the Local Government Board would be sufficient, and that would 
be the one regulating the speed to a " reasonable '' and " proper ' 
rate, having due regard to the safety of foot jwssengersand other 
vehicles. The automotives would be found to lie of great com- 
mercial value, and he firmly believed that in the near future quite 
different regulations would bo in force. There was one very 
satisfactory feature in the regulations, and that was that 

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they should only have effect for six months, and during 
that time he trusted they would be able to overcome 
the public nervousness, and that of the authorities. He 
would like, however, to protest against the action of the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, who had caused to be inserted into 
the Act a clause which was iniquitous. It was to come into 
force on the 1st of January next, and stipulated that in Great 
Britain every automotive should be subject to an additional 
duty of Excise, in the case of an uuloaded vehicle weighing 
under one ton to the amount of two guineas, and under two 
tons three guineas. They would thus have two classes of 
omnibuses in London, one paying a tax of 15«. and the other 
of £3 18*. With regard to the commercial results of the 
introduction of the automotive, he anticipated they would affect 
the petroleum trade, mechanical engineering, the carriage trade, 
railways, and by no means least of all, the war departments of 
every country in the world. The new industry would find 
work for thousands of men, though some, of course, would be 
displaced. Most of the automotives at present in this country 
were of French construction. He saw no reason why this 
should not be a purely British industry in every particular, 
for he believed it had come to stay. He continued to 
criticise the various methods at present employed in regard 
to the motive power used by tlie automotives, expressing 
the opinion that electrically-propelled vehicles would find 
favour in towns, inasmuch as the electricity could be easily 
supplied, while in the country districts he believed petro- 
leum and steam would be more extensively used. He was 
of opinion that the automotive would in England supply the 
place of the canals of the Low Countries ; and if the farmers 
did not, commercial men must organise the agricultural districts, 
so that they might, by the additional means of local communi- 
cation afforded them, strive to retain within the United Kingdom 
a large proportion of that money now paid to the foreigu farmer. 
There was plenty of room for improvement in the automotive, 
and he did not believe that the automotive of the future was yet 
built. They were at the beginning of a new era of internal 
communication, and he firmly believed that trade and commerce 
would benefit by it. 

Mr. Sknnktt, in paying a compliment to the lecturer, said 
that he had clearly shown that there was much work before 
both engineers and carriage-builders of this country, and he 
thought it was quite useless for them or anybody else to waste 
time in the invention of a new name for self-propelling vehicles. 
If, however, they chose to do this, he thought the name should 
be one which carried its meaning on its face, which he certainly 
did not feel was the case in regard to the word suggested by 
Major Flood Page, namely, " Automotives " ; for such a word 
could with equal appositiveness be applied to ordinary stationary 
motors, and also it would be necessary to tack on to this newly- 
invented word the name of the vehicle. If you called through 
your telephone, " George, bring the automotive," what could the 
groom do but "phone" back, "Which one, sir?" (Laughter.) 
Now, if you simply made use of the word " motor " in front of 
the vehicle you desired to refer to, all trouble was at an end. 
Thus you could call for your motor- Victoria, your motor-dog- 
cart, motor-van, motor-wagon, motor-omnibus, &c. Complaint 
had been made that the regulations of the Local Government 
Board were too stringent, and should be done away with to a 
very large extent. He thought that in introducing a new 
innovation it was better to err on the side of safety, at least 
until" such time as it had been demonstrated that such stringency 
was unnecessary, when it could be with advantage removed. 
Mr. Sennett defended the employment of a double brake on self- 
propelling vehicles, pointing out that it was not only a means 
of increased safety but one of considerable convenience. He 
had driven various motor-carriages considerable distances, and, 
especially in the heavier types, he found it a great convenience 
to have two brakes, so that the wheel or hand-brake might 
be applied gently to take the weight off the carriage when 
descending a hill, and its speed and general control affected by 
the foot brake. If you had a simple brake so powerful as to 
comply with the regulations, you would find that brake a very 
inconvenient one for gently slowing up, and manipulating 

amongst tiatlic. What he thought was required, was a very 
, handy brake for general use applied by the foot, and another 
and more powerful one for hill descending. Beference had been 
made to the difficulty of estimating speed. If this were neces- 
sary to be done, he did not see much difficulty in it ; all you 
i had to do was to take a measured distance, say, between one or 
more lamp-posts, and note the time occupied in the transit 
between them. It was certainly somewhat of an anomaly that 
Parliament should be practically unanimous in removing a 
burden from an industry, and then immediately go and tax 
it, but he thought, however, the immense economy which 
mechanical self-propelling traffic would shortly show over 
horse-drawn traffic, would not only neutralise the effect of 
the taxation, but would render it of small moment. One 
benefit to urban traffic should shortly be brought about, and 
that was the adoption of a sixpenny cab-fare system. This 
would probably be found of great advantage not only to the 
business man, but also to the proprietor and to the driver. One 
thing he would much like to draw the attention of the meeting 
to, and that was the reprehensible practice adopted in this 
country of leaving horses, from the mouths of which the bits 
had been removed, standing quite unattended outside wayside 
inns, and in other positions. This, he thought, amounted to 
culpable neglect, and should be dealt with by legislative enact- 
ment, if County Councils possess not the power to stop it. He 
had run a good many miles in France, and the petroleum motors 
certainly frightened country horses, although town horses took 
but little notice of them ; "accidents from this cause were there 

Crevented by the prevailing practice of attaching all horses left 
y themselves to a ring in the ground by means of a rope. 
In the new Act provision, of course, had, very wisely, been 
made for the carrying of a light on motor vehicles ; he was 
sorry that the word was used in the singular — which he under- 
stood was a slip on the part of the draughtsman — two lights 
should, undoubtedly, be provided for, for the use of a single 
lamp by cabmen and others without reference to the "near" or 
" off " side was decidedly a source of danger. He thought it 
would be a good thing for users of motor vehicles voluntarily to 
use two lights, and to put on the "off" side a small disc of 
green glass, about the size of a penny, in front of the flame, and 
another of red glass on the " near " side. By this means both 
the position and direction of going of the vehicles could at 
once be ascertained. This would obviate a vast amount of 
slowing-up in travelling on country highways, a thing which 
he hoped would shortly be practised to a very great extent 
for the transport of farm and market garden produce. The 
point, however, he wished to call attention to was, that if it 
were necessary on the part of motor vehicles to carry lights, 
it should also be made compulsory on the part of horse-drawn 
vehicles. (Hear, hear.) The latter were the most dangerous, 
from the fact that the animal's head projected some 10 feet 
beyond the point of support of the light, whereas with motor- 
vehicles these were almost invariably placed quite at the front 
of the vehicle. He regretted to learn that it was a moot point 
as to whether County Councils could enforce regulations for the 
universal exhibition of lights upon vehicles. Mr. Sennett 
thought this point should l>e cleared up without delay, and if 
any further legislation were necessary it should be entered upon 
at once. With regard to the best form of motor, he thought 
Major Flood Page had dealt with this matter with commendable 
impartiality. Undoubtedly, various forms of motors possessed 
advantages under various conditions, but with regard to 
electricity, it should be pointed out to the non-technical 
mind that electricity as used in modern motor- vehicle 
work was not a motive power at all ; it was merely a 
vehicle for the reproduction of motive power which had 
previously been obtained from a steam-engine, therefore, if you 
could run, for example, an omnibus by means of steam power, 
without visible emission or noxious exhalations, it was clearly 
far more economical to use steam directly for that purpose 
than through the intervention of electricity. He felt, however, 
that there was a great future for electricity in urban tratfic, 
and he hoped it might not be long before we had an efficient 
electrically propelled cab system. With regard to petroleum, 

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undoubtedly there was a vast field open for this in the future, 
but at the present moment petroleum and gas motors had not 
been made sufficiently adaptable to motor vehicles, that it 
might be said their employment in this relation was an un- 
qualified success. The shortcomings of steam-motors, indeed, 
were so much less important than those of petroleum-motoi-s 
that it was more convenient to follow the unscientific course 
of using petroleum to raise steam and drive your vehicle by 
steam fiom petroleum than by petroleum direct by means of 
explosion or internal combustion ; no doubt, however, develop- 
ments would speedily take place now that our highways are 
open. With regard to the employment of motor vehicles in 
war, referred to by Major Flood Page, he thought there was 
a vast future open for them in regard to commissariat and 
transport work, but he begged leave to differ entirely from 
the Major in regard to horseless gunnery. The French (jfovern- 
nient had had transport vehicles built upon the Serpollet 
system, and these had been severely tested, and had fulfilled 
the requirements admirably, but the military authorities pointed 
out that, with regard to gunnery, if you had a gun drawn by 
half-a-dozen horses, and one were shot down, another could 
be quickly harnessed, whereas if you had a shot through your 
motor your gun was at once hort de comlxtt. With regard to 
the formation of companies, he thought it was certainly neces- 
sary to form companies for the purpose of development, and 
although the lecturer had referred to the loss of millions in 
reference to the introduction of electrical lighting, Mr. Senuett 
pointed out, amid much laughter, that this money had not sunk 
either into the sea or the land, but had merely changed hands. 
The public must exercise discretion and look out for themselves, 
which he admitted was a very difficult thing, now that company- 
promoters were so much on evidence, and actually run their own , 

Mr. G. J. Jacobs, Master of the Institute of Carriage Manu- 
facturers, made some very amusing remarks, pointing out that 
constructors of petroleum motors should hasten to perfect them, 
because it would be decidedly infra dig. to see a coachman in 
his pig-skins, pink tops, and cockade, working away with hammer 
and chisel ou his carriage by the roadside. He said coach- 
builders of this country were waiting for the engineers to decide 
what motor was to be used, for they had to make the body, 
whilst the latter made the soul. They indeed were more con- 
cerned in the making of things of beauty, and they were quite 
prepared to make an elegant equipage when the matter of the 
motor bad been settled, for it was that which determined the 
general design. 

Baron de Rkuter having spoken, and brought figures to show 
that in the running of automobiles in Paris the fact had been 
demonstrated that they were safer than horse-drawn vehicles in 
that city, in which he believed the driving on the part of the 
French coachman was the worst in the world. 

Mr. Walter Hancock spoke as to what steam hail done in 
this relation, and was likely to do, and gave souie interesting 
particulars concerning the work of his uncle, the Mr. Walter 
Hancock who had been so very successful in regard to the 
running of steam omnibuses in London about 1830. 

The proceedings terminated by a vote of thanks to Major 
Flood Page, proposed by Mr. W. H. Willans. 


not necessary to fully describe any of these, as they were 
illustrated in previous issues. The New Beeston Cycle Company 
and the motor-driven Olympia type of tricycle were also well to 
the fore. Amongst miscellaneous exhibits the Silvertown detach- 
able tyre and the Fleurs tyre deservedly attracted a large share 
of attention ; while the D *arf Cycle Company showed a well- 
made chainlets bicycle, which we understand they intend to 
adapt to motor purposes at no distant date. The National 
Cycle Motor-Car Insur.mce Company (Limited), of King 
William Street, London, did a thriving business at both the 
Agricultural Hall and the Crystal Palace — the secretary, Mr. 
Willson, informing us that he had booked several good lines. 

These famous exhibitions of cycles and accessories which have 
just taken place have been greater successes than ever — whether 
judged from the standpoint of attendance or exhibits. It is out 
of our province to specially describe the exhibits, as they mostly 
consisted of pedalled machines, the merits of which have been 
fully discussed in the newspapers specially devoted to that ever- 
growing industry. The British Motor Carriage Syndicate 
(Limited) had a capital exhibit, which proved one of the 
principal attractions, consisting as it did of some of the leading 
types of vehicles which took part in the run to Brighton. It is 



Mr. Wall, a stockbroker of Cork Street, Liverpool, contributes 
an interesting description of a journey which he recently under- 
took from London to Liverpool in an Arnold carriage. As 
the journey was primarily intended for pleasure purposes, no 
attempts at high speeds were made. The chief difficulty which 
was experienced was in obtaining supplies of oil of the requisite 
quantity to use in the engine ; but this will doubtless soon be 
remedied by organisation. The following were the daily runs : — 

miles. h. m. 

Mondiv, Nov. 23, London to Barnct .... Hi 130 

Tuesday, „ 24, to Towcester 48i fi 32» 

Wednesday, „ 25, „ Dravton 52 8 29t 

Friday, „ 27, „ Stafford 281 3 65 

Saturday, „ 28, „ Whitchurch 34 6 50 

Monday, „ 30, „ Birkenhead „ 34 4 15J 


20 a 

31 31 

2 40 

28 51 

• Hills and stones. 

t Biour lost in byroa Is in duri. 
J Good road. 
70 or 80 miles travelled in the dark. 


The removal of the restrictions on the use of mechanically- 
propelled vehicles is likely to result in the motor-cars. making 
their appearance in Dundee at an early date. When it became 
definitely understood that the cars were to be legalised the 
directors of the Dundee Tramway Company took up the 
question of making use of the new vehicles for the purpose of 
developing their traffic in the districts where at present there 
are no car lines ; and it is now more than likely that the 
question of tramway extension in the city will be dealt with 
by means of the motor-cars. The only part of the present 
tramway system on which horse cars are run is the Perth Road 
line, and under the present regulations mechanically-driven 
cars cannot be run on that line. The intention is, however, to 
make use of them in the districts where there are no tramway 
lines, and which are at present entirely neglected by the 
Comi«ny or only served by 'buses. It ha3 been suggested that 
motor 'buses might be put on the Downfield route, and that 
Birkhill and other country districts might have regular com- 
munication with the city. It is also proposed that Fainnuir 
and Lochee termini iniid't be connected in the same way. 


The Dai/i/ Chronicle of Saturday last has a wonderful repro- 
duction of '"a print on a silk handkerchief which has been in 
the possession of one family for 70 years." It is entitled "The 
Century of Invention, A.n. 2<)(M," and some of the motor- 
carriages represented are very apposite to-day. 

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The uusuitabilily of electric traction for tramways with heavy 
gradients has been so often urged that some details may be 
given of a line at Lausanne, newly o]>eued ami now working 
successfully, where the maximum gradient of 11 '3 per cent, 
extends for 300 yards, probably the heaviest in Europe. More- 
over, the line is hilly for its full length of 7J miles. The cars 
weigh empty six tons, carrying 26 passengers, increasing the 
load to eight tons, and they have each two motors of 20 b.p. 
to give a speed of from .12 miles an hour to 7 miles on the 
heaviest gradient. The motors are of the four-pole type of 
85 per cent, efficiency, and when developing 15 h.p. run at 
540 revolutions. Emergency brakes are fitted to the cars, 
consisting of a piece of iron with sharp teeth, which may be 
lowered down and forced against a wooden rack rail, by which 
means the car can be stopped within two yards on the 11 "3 per 
cent, gradient. The overhead system is adopted, and the six- 
pole dynamos at the central station are driven by two Crossley 
gas-engines, each of 130 effective horse-power when working at 
160 revolutions. They have flywheels of six tons weight. The 
current produced can be varied from 100 amperes at 152 volts 
to 140 amperes at 50 volts, and accumulators are provided at 
the station. 



A vehicle of this description has just been completed and will 
shortly be introduced to the various municipal authorities. It 
is 22 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 9£ feet high. Instead of being 
placed at the side the motors and brakes are above the wheels 
and axles, so as not to impede the action of the dust brushes. 
Three large rotary brushes, fixed on the centre of the car, do the 
sweeping and loading work on the same principle as a carpet 
sweeper, and are covered with steel casings, whbh have proper 
outlets for discharging the sweepings into the body of the car. 
As to the car itself, it can be worked either backward or forward 
without any change of machinery, the whole arrangemeut being 
reversed by the simple pressure of a lever. The brushes make 
five revolutions to each one made by the car wheel, and this 
high-brush speed forms a powerful suction which takes up all 
refuse matter and deposits it in the car. It is stated that the 
car has a loading capacity equal to 50 carts ; can travel at the 
rate of nine miles pe.r hour while performing its work ; and that 
it can cleanse 45 miles of road in a day besides disposing of the 
refuse gathered, the cost per mile of working being about 12*. 

i M M ^ M *i*vwwir>nAAA" 


The fourth Salon du Cycle was opened at 2 o'clock on Saturday 
afternoon in the Palais de l'lndustrie. There was an immense 
number of visitors, and several slight accidents resulted from 
overcrowding. Many people found it iuijKxssible to gain admis- 
sion. So great was the throng that when the Minister of 
Commerce arrived on a visit to the exhibition a way had to 
be made for him by a considerable body of police. At one time 
exit was a matter of great difficulty, and to make matters worse 
at dusk the electric light suddenly failed and people had to 
groi>e their way out into the Champs Elysoes. There are 
altogether 5Mt exhibitors, and the stands occupy not only the 
entire ground -floor but also a portion of the first storey. France 
is repiesented by fully 450 exhibitors. Since the last show the 
number of motor-car exhibits hiis quadrupled. The leading 
English firms are well represented, and the excellence and finish 
of the work displayed on their stands receives general praise. 
American exhibits occupy a very prominent place this year. 

The Duryea Company— an illustration of one of whose carriages 
appears on this page —are fully confident that they have one of 
the best motors at present on the market. Mr. McKim, the 
owner of the patents, is, however, not for the moment inclined 
to sanction the publication of any details as to his special claims, 
as he prefers to wait until everything is, in his opinion, complete, 
instead of publishing points piecemeal. We hope, in an early 
issue, to be able to publish in a concise form all information 
which is likely to be required in respect to these patents. In 
the meantime we hear that Mr. McKim has demonstrated in 
a very practical way that he is not afraid to back his good 
opinion of his Duryea motor, by sending a challenge to the 
Secretary of the Motor-Car Club, suggesting, purely as a test 
of endurance and suitability for road traffic, that he should 
euter one or more of his carriages to compete (not for speed 
necessarily) against any other carnages that the Motor-Car Club 
may possess or control, the suggestion being that they should 
start from Sc. Martin's-le-Grand and travel to Glasgow ami 
back. The stakes suggested were £5,000 a side, to be deposited 
with an official of one of the leading financial institutions. 
This test was to be entirely as to endurance and suitability for 
ordinary road traffic, and was in uo way to be a race, but, of 

course, the limit allowed by law of 12 miles an hour would 
have been permissible in the ordinary way. The suggestion of 
Mr. McKim was, as we understand it, that the stakes were to 
go to the winner, and the loser was to hand over the losing 
vehicle for the winner to utilise in whatever manner he might 
think fit We believe the Secretary of the Motor-Car Club 
has declined the challenge for several reasous ; one being that 
the Club does not own any motorcars, and another that the 
Club and its members, headed by its President, do not, in any 
way, countenance racing on the public highway. But, as we 
have i>ointed out, the question of speed beyond the legal limit 
was absolutely specified as not to have any bearing uj>on the 
issue, we hardly think the latter reply was necessary. We believe 
the challenge was specially extended to the President of the 
Club or any other members who might possess vehicles which 
claim to be" superior to or as good as the Duryea. In reference 
to this latter extension of the challenge, we understand that 
the same was laid before the President, and also handed to 
Mr. Lawson, to deal with as representing the British Motor 
Syndicate, but so far, we ljelieve, he has not taken up the 

Motor Cars. — Caution ! Before purchasing a motor car, wait 
and see the Britannia Company's newly patented engines, 
which require'no lamp after starting, and which require no 
dangerous essence or spirit. Address, Colchester. No con- 
nection with other firms advertising in similar name. [Advt. 

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"Phil May's Gutter Snipes." (London: Leadenhall Press.) 
Price 6». 

_ Oy another page we reproduce, by permission of the pub-' 
Ushers, an illustration from this book. It is, unfortunately, not 
one_ of the happiest of Mr. Phil May's endeavour*, as the 
subject is not a very promising one. All who wish to see our 
great pictorial humorist at its best should get this book ; the 
artist simply revels in the scope for his pencil which is afforded 
by the vicissitudes of life amongst street children. He is 
mostly amusing ; but, when he chooses, his grim pathos brings 
the tear to the eye. The 6*. edition has been exhausted ; but 
the publishers intend to make a popular edition at half-a-crown: 
As a Christmas work it should have an enormous sale. 

"Carriages Without Horses Shall Go." By A. R. Ssnnett, 
M.LM.E., M.I.E.E., and M.I.C.E., &c. (London : Whittaker 
and Co.) Price 2«. 

This is a marvellous cheap and able book. It has for hs 
basis the paper which Mr. Seunett read before the British 
Association on "Horseless Road Locomotion"— a notice of 
which has already appeared in our columns ; but Mr. Sennett, 
who is undisputaoly an authority on this subject, has elaborated 
upon the paper, and by the aid of some 40 admirable illustra- 
tions he traces the evolution of the motor-carriage from the 
types in vogue in the early days of the century ; and while 
doing ample justice to the progress which has been made by our 
Continental friends, points out the lines on which future 
improvements are almost certain to proceed. The Locomotives 
on Highways Act, 1896, and the regulations which have been 
made under it, are fully set out and commented upon. The 
book cannot fail to be of service to all concerned in the manu 
facture and purchase of these vehicles : while all general 
readers who wish to be " up-to-date " in this matter will consult 
this most reliable guide. 


" Auto-Cars." By D. Farman, M.I.E.E. Translated from the 
French of Lucien Serraillier. (London : Whittaker and 
Co.) Price 5*. 

This is one of the most practical books yet written on 
automotor work, and, as might be expected, it is the production 
of a Frenchman. The author is well-known on the other side 
of the Channel as an expeit on the matters of which he writes, 
and the Baron de Zuylen de Nyevelt, president of the Auto- 
mobile Club of France, in writing the preface to the work has 
emphasised this fact. After an admirable chapter upon 
theoretical matters and formulae, in which the theory of 
engines in general is sufficiently explained and investigated, the 
author describes in detail the whole of the leading motors and 
carriages. All necessary details are fully described and 
illustrated — the engravings, of which there are 112, being very 
clear. M. Farman, while being a keen advocate in favour of 
petroleum, is fair in his remarks ; and his book should not only 
be perused — but studied— by all who wish to take up the 
subject at the point to which Continental engineers and 
carriage builders have carried it. A sufficient index is con- 
tained in the book, and tends considerably to its utility as a 
work of reference. 

rate the pitfalls which may present themselves to the layman 
who attempts to interpret the law, we prefer to let Mr. Grim- 
wood Mears speak for himself. In the course of an interview 
he said : — 

" From a lawyer's poiut of view the accidents will group themselves 
mainly under three heads. There is, first, the inevitable accident; 
then that due solely to the negligence of the party causing the 
damage; and the third instance in which the party injured himself 
contributed by his negligence to the damage he sustained. This 
classification does not pretend to be either scientific or exhaustive, 
but it presents the familiar divisions usual to this class of work. In 
each of our three heads the principles of law are clear ai.d well 
defined, the difficulties that arise are mainly on account of the facts 
being complex and controverted. A few simple illustrations will 
present the definite rules which tend to establish the liability or 
immunity of the parties. And, first, inevitable accident. Appro- 
priately enough we may call our illustration a " hard case." A is 
crossing the road ; a runaway horse belonging to B turns the corner 
rapidly and knocks A down. What is A's remedy ? Briefly and 
bluntly he has none, providing the accident is not due to the negli- 
gence or lack of skill of B or his servants. At the time of the 
accident both were in possession of equal legal rights. B had as 
much right to ride or drive a horse along the highway as A had to 
traverse it on foot. The mere fact of a horse bolting is not, per se, 
evidence of negligence. Before A can recover he must show that B 
or his servants did some act inconsistent with the standard of 
prudence required from a reasonably competent and carefnl man. 
By thus showing that B might have avoided the accident, had he 
used more care or been reasonably expert, the case is at ones removed 
from the category of inevitable accidents, and, therefore, does not 
impair the general rule that for an inevitable accident there is no 

" A plaintiff who is suing either for injuries to his property or to 
his person by reason of collision or running down must give evidence 
of negligence before his case can be submitted to the jury. This must, 
of course, be understood to be true of those cases only in which there 
is no contract between the parties. We are taking the ordinary 
instance where A collides with a vehicle belonging to 1) or runs over 
B, a person previously unknown to him. B then must, as we havo 
said, prove that A was negligent, and he must further show that the 
negligence and resulting damage are clearly and uninterruptedly con- 
nected. The mere fact that an accident has happened is not enough. 
Occasionally there are presumptions raised by the law in a person's 
favour. One of the meat important of these is that which in a sense 
protects the person crossing the road from the vehicle which knocks 
bim down. The foot passenger needs less evidence of negligence to 
support his case than if he were a plaintiff seeking to recover damages 
by reason of a collision between vehicle and vehicle. We have, 
therefore, seen that when an accident takes place the person injured 
mast prove that the defendant was guilty of negligence, and that it 
was from this negligence that the damage ensued." 

Many warnings and admonitions are given in the volume, but 
our advice is buy the book and save money in litigation. 

"The Law of the Motor-Car, with the Regulations of the 
Board of Trade." By Grim wood Mbars, of the Inner 
Temple, Barrister-at-Law. (London : Messrs. Reeves and 
Turner.) Price 3*. 6rf. 

Almost coincidently with the coming into force of the Light 
Locomotives Act we have an able legal authority and an enter- : 
prising firm of publishers ready to hand to interpret it. All 
who use motorcars or who contemplate employing them I 
should obtain the book. In case anyone is inclined to under- j 

" Power Locomotion on the Highway." By Rhys Jenkins, 
M.LM.E. (London : Win. Cate, Limited.) Price 2s. 6d., 

This h a practical bibliography of all matters pertaining to 
locomotion on common roads, with an interesting preface and 
sketch of historical matters. To the student it affords a ready 
means of finding the sources from which information can be 
obtained ; but we expect that with the great increase in interest 
taken in the subject the author willl find it very difficult to 
keep it up to date. The motto of the book is very apt, viz., 
" Sir, mark me, ere long we shall see a pan of coals brought to 
use in place of a feed of o^ts." — Bishop Berkeley. 

The Ulatgov Herald has recently published a very able series 
of articles on Mechanical Tramway Traction : and we hope that 
they intend to republish these in book form. The issue should 
be a very successful one. 

! " Cuando escribe, retierese Al "The Automotor anj> 
Horsblkss Vehicle Journal." 

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We do n)t hold oursilnes responsible for opinions expressed bg 
our Correspondents. 

The nam! ani address of th» writer {not nuessari '■# for publica- 
tion) most iii all cases accompxng letters intended for insertion, 
or containing queries. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — I am directed by Mr. Harry J. Lawson, the President, 
and by the Committee of the Moto-Car Club, to notify to you 
that it is the intention of the Club to hold a great motor-car 
competition some time in May next year. The tests will be 
given on the point of design of the motor-car, consumption and 
cost of fuel, and other points, but the principal point will be 
speed, which we are of opinion affords the most satisfactory test 
as to the excellence of construction of a mechanical vehicle. 

It is proposed to offer for competition £2,000 in prizes. 
Notice of this competition is given thus early in order to enable 
English manufacturers to be prepared with their productions in 
good time. If sufficient entries are received, the Committee will 
confine the competition to British-made motor vehicles. In 
order to carry out this competition satisfactorily, the Committee 
will require special ground within easy access of London, and 
containing at least a full level aud straight mile. A special 
prize will be offered to the first mechanically-propelled vehicle 
which accomplishes a mile in a minute. 

Owners of race-courses and other large enclosed spaces are 
invited to communicate with me if they are prepared to 
co-operate in providing the necessary course. There is no doubt 
that this marvellous and novel competition will attract an 
immense concourse of people, and will excite an interest not less 
than that aroused by the classic races. All communications on 
this subject should be addressed to me, at the offices of the 
Motor-Car Club, 40, Holborn Viaduct, London, EC. — I am, Sir, 
your obedient servant, C. Harrington Moore, 

Nov. 21rf. Hon. Sec. 

to be selected for the trial. Experts know perfectly well tliat 
the power required to propel a light motor-carriage on the level 
when the road is good, is exceedingly small, while such a carriage 
on an incline might be a complete failure for want of sufficient 

No test could be more delusive than the one suggested. It 
would place the present petroleum motor-carriages on a par with 
steam, whereas, on meeting an incline, the steam carriage would 
in a few moments be out of sight, whilst the petroleum -driven 
one was struggling to climb the hill. 

This I can vouch for from what I have seen in connection 
with motor-carriages and those in my possession, as well as from 

It is not fair thit the public should be made to believe that 
the proposed test is likely in any way to produce a satisfactory 
vehicle. Anyone who purchased a carriage based on such a 
notion, would soon regret his bargain. — Yours ever faithfully, 

David L Salomons. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — I observe that it is proposed to have a Motor Derby. 
To this none can have any oDJection. It is merely a question 
for those who run in the race, to consider how far they care to 
risk their lives with no compensating advantage. 

But in the announcement, the following words occur :— "The 
Committee will require a special ground .... at least a full, 
level, and straight mile." Elsewhere there appears the follow- 
ing — " but the principal point will be speed, which we are of 
opinion affords the most satisfactory test as to the excellence of 
construction of the mechanical vehicle." 

In these two quotations lie the danger of the proposed race, 
so far as the public safety and the pockets of purchasers are 

The Local Government Board, in order to meet the desire of 
the local authorities to limit the speed, have fixed 12 miles an 
hour for the maximum, and the Act itself permits no rate 
beyond 14 miles an hour, and no one can hold out the smallest 
probability that this rate of speed will be increased in anv future 

Therefore, any attempt to place self-propelled vehicles on the 
market capable of making a pace much greater than that per- 
mitted by law, will simply act as an incentive to their owners to 
do that which is forbidden when hurrying to keep an appoint- 
ment for which they are late. 

But the worst feature in the announcement is the statement 
that speed is the best test for a carriage, because a level track is 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir,— I venture to send you a rough sketch of a design for 
a motor-carriage, which is at least not on horse-drawn lines. 
As a member of the Self -Propelled Traffic Association I am 
much interested in the subject, and have gone so far as to 
advocate in the Electrical Review and other papers a combina- 
tion of petroleum and electricity— an oil engine with a dynamo 

Twtliihq Qn'»ff 

*£P ^ 

being carried on a leparate tender, and the current generated 
passing to the front of the vehicle and thence to an electric 
motor connected with the driving wheels. The tender is 
preferably two-wheeled, and attached to the driving axle of 
the vehicle by elastic shafts, so (hit the vibration of the engine 
is practically unfelt. At the same time the well marked advan- 
tages of an electric motor are obtained without the weight, 
cost, and trouble of storage batteries — though it may be 
desirable to have enough battery power to start the dynamo 
and engine without load. 

(I enclose a rough sketch of a cab to show the arrangement 
and functions of the various wheels, the effect being that of one 
vehicle, though there are technically two.) 

I should suggest four cylinders for the oil engine, giving an 
impulse every half revolution ; perhaps six if weight would 

Please note, wheels all same size. 

So much for the " engining " of the carriage. 

A plan is given of the " travelling carriage," showing deck 
arrangements, so to speak. A novel feature is the lavatory 





accommodation, the various doors being so arranged as to 
secure the greatest possible privacy. 

Should you care to publish this as a crude design you are 
very welcome to it, as I am not competing for any of the prizes 
now being offered, and have no wish for copyright. — I am/ &c, 

Alfred J. Allen. 
London Institution, Finsburt Circus, 
December 2nd, 1896. 

P.S. — With regard to the sketch for a petroleum-electric 
carriage which I had the honour of sending you recently, it 
should, perhaps, have been mentioned that the oil used is 
supposed to be of the lighter variety, the heavier oils pre- 
sfnting (in spite of their greater safety) some serious disad- 
vantages, notably a very pronounced odour. Another point 
with regard to the provision of an electric current as a means 
of transmiting the power of the engine, is the possibility of 
driving all the wheels supporting the carriage. — I am, &c, 

A. J. Allen. 

December 5th, 1896. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir,— The attention of my directors has been called to the 
fact that the name of Maple and Company, Limited, is being 
extensively used to advertise motor-cars. It is also stated that 
this company has placed large orders for motor delivery vans. 
I am requested to inform you that my company has not given 
any order for motor-cars, nor for any such description of 
vehicle. — I beg to remain, dear Sir, yours truly, 

Thos. Finlat, Secretary. 
Maple and Co. (Limited), 149, Tottenham 
Court Road, W., Dec. 3rd. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sib, — We have pleasure in enclosing a copy of the letter we 
wrote to the Home Secretary on the subject of the new 
Petroleum Regulations, for publication in your col u ma — Yours 
tmly, Careless, Catel, and Leonard. 

Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, N.E., 
Dec. 2nd, 1896. 

Hope Chemical Works, 

Hackney Wick, N.E., 

November I4t/i, 1896. 
To the Rioht Hon. Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. 
Dear Sir, — We have just seen a copy of the new Petroleum 
Regulations for Autocars. 

We are manufacturers of a doubly distilled mineral spirit 
called "petrol," which has been adopted by the Autocar Club 
as the best spirit for use in petroleum motors. 

In the introductory statement referring to the regulations 
you state that " not only is the vapour from mineral spirit, 
which is given off at ordinary temperatures, capable of being 
easily ignited, but also when mixed with air of forming an 
explosive mixture." 

We would respectfully suggest that these words as they 
stand do not fairly represent the facts of the case, and are 
calculated to create a wrong impression, and needlessly alarm 
the public. 

Sir V. D. Majendie gave the Select Parliamentary Committee 
on Petroleum, which sat this year, an exact definition of the 
conditions which were essentially necessary to produce an 
explosive mixture of petroleum vapour and air (see p. 43 of 
No. 4 paper handed in by Sir V. D. Majendie) as follows : — 
(a) A temperature sufficient to disengage from the petroleum 
appreciable amounts of inflammable vapours. 

(6) The confinement of the vapour so disengaged in an 
unventilated or insufficiently ventilated space. 

(c) The application of fire or a light, and he adds, " If any one 
of these conditions be absent an explosion is a physical 

We would submit, therefore, that the clause as it stands is 
calculated to make the public think that just in the same way 
as the mineral spirit gives off a vapour at ordinary tempera- 
tures which may be easily ignited, so the vapour given off may 
at any moment unite with air and form an explosive mixture 
which would be capable without any warning of causing a 
serious accident. 

We think that such a statement, unqualified as it is, is likely 
very needlessly to prejudice the use of mineral spirit, and to 
inflict a serious injury on all those interested in motors, such as 
the Daimler motors, in which some form of light petroleum is 

As being manufacturers and distributors of this kind of spirit 
for over 25 years, since petroleum was first introduced into this 
country, we can speak positively as to the great ignorance and 
prejudice which exists amongst the public about it, and the very 
general confusion in the public mind between such explosives 
as gunpowder and the light petroleums, ignoring the fact that 
the latter are perfectly harmless, and cannot explode unless the 
three conditions mentioned by Sir V. D. Majendie are complied 

Under the circumstances we hope you will be willing to 
amend the clause by adding the words " in a confined space," 
so that it will read thus : " Not only is the vapour therefrom 
which is given off at ordiuary temperatures capable of being 
easily ignited, but also, when mixed with air ' in a confined 
space,' <3 forming an explosive mixture." 

It is physically impossible for any explosive mixture to be 
formed in the open air ; it could be produced only in a confined 

All those interested in autocars feel that they owe a deep 
debt of gratitude to the Board of Trade for the liberal way in 
which they have modified the provisions of the existing 
Petroleum Ants so as to meet the changed conditions, and it 
is relying on your sympathy that we have ventured to make 
the above suggestion. — We are, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

Carless, Capel, and Leonard. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — Judging by the frequent remarks and communications 
addressed to me during the last few weeks, and more particularly 
siuce the occasion of Sir David Salomons' visit, I fear that a 
wrong opinion has, in many instances, been formed regarding 
the scope and aim of this Association's work. It is to guard 
against the idea — apparently general — that commercial interests 
alone are to be provided for in our programme that I venture 
to claim a portion of your valuable space. 

The specific object of this branch has been defined as " The 
scientific investigation of self-propelled vehicular and locomotive 
road traffic," and, in this city, circumstances have conspired to 
make it appear that the chief desire is to promote the circula- 
tion of heavy goods traffic by means of motor vehicles. Such 
priority has been considered expedient solely by reason of the 
pressing need for experiments and trials in this direction, and 
must not be taken as evidence that the papers, lectures, and 
discussions during our first session will be of limited interest 
and application. It seems to me that, since the successful 
" evolution " of a satisfactory vehicle for heavy work must 
embrace data suited to the construction of lighter types, no more 
inclusive method of treatment could be devised. This, therefore, 
may be looked upon as a fortunate development, seeing that the 
study of light conveyances only would be practically valueless 
when necessity arose to meet the exigencies of goods haulage. 

In conclusion, I hope that all persons in this neighbourhood 
who intend to follow the movement in a scientific manner, 

Digitized by 




whether they be interested from recreational or business motives, 
will communicate with me for particulars of the Association. 
On receiving a written application, I shall be most happy to 
send a copy of Sir David Salomons' inaugural address, together 
with our programme for the 1896-7 Session, to any of your 
readers. . 

■E. Shrapnell Smith, 
Hon. Local Secretary the Self-Propelled 
Traffic Association. 
Royal Institution, Liverpool. 


. Soon after the publication of the prospectus of the above 
Company we received several letters from those mentioned in it, 
or interested in its success. Some are published below, and we 
at the same time add one important communication which was 
not sent in direct, but which is of public interest : - 

Sir, — I am directed by the proprietor of The Engineer to ask 
you to be good enough to allow me to state in your columns that 
the reference to this journal in the prospectus of the British 
Motor Syndicate (Limited) is entirely unauthorised by them, 
and tint the gentleman named in such connection has resigned 
his post as their assistant editor. — I am, Sir, your obedient 
servant, S. White, publisher of The Engineer. 

33, Norfolk Street, Strand. Nov. 27th. 

Sir, — As statements having reference to this syndicate have 
been made by advertisement and otherwise which may do me 
considerable injury unless the obvious inferences from them are 
contradicted, I beg tliat you will in fairness allow me to say 
that the reference to my name and to The Engineer in the pro- 
spectus of that syndicate was not only unauthorised by me, but 
was entirely without my knowledge. Further, that I have no 
interest of any kind whatever in the British Motor Syndicate 
or any other motor-carriage company or business. The reference 
to my editorial connection with The Eiigineer is also so made, I 
will admit inadvertently, as to do me harm by the inference that 
my resignation had some connection with this syndicate. I must 
therefore ask to be allowed to state that I resigned in July in 
consequence of pressure of private practice, and the announce- 
ment of this resignation has been made in the business columns 
of the principal technical journals in London. — I am, Sir, your 
obedient servant, W. Worby Beaumont. 

Sir, — Will you be geod enough to allow us to state in your 
columns that the reference to Crossley Brothers (Limited) in the 
prospectus of the British Motor-Car Syndicate (Limited) is 
entirely unauthorised by us, and that the gentleman named in 
such connection is only acting as one of our consulting engineers, 
and the patent referred to in the prospectus must be his own, as 
it is in no way connected with this firm ? — Yours, Sic, 

10, St Bride Street, Robert Wilson. 

Nov. 30th. 

Sir,— A number of letters having appeared in certain journals 
on this subject, we trust you will afford us space to reply. 

With reference to the names of two well-known patentees 
mentioned in our advertisements without, as it has been said, 
their first-obtained consent, we beg to state that our Syndicate 
actually paid to the said two patentees the very substantial 
sum of £12,000 a few weeks ago, and bought outright their 
patents with all future improvements they may make connected 
with this industry. We are advised that^ having so purchased 
their inventions, we have a perfect right to advertise them as 
patentees in any manner we may desire. 

As to the manner in which they are referred to, we have 
followed exact precedents, and described them in the same wav 
as the public have hitherto been accustomed to see them styled. 
As to other statements, we are are quite prepared for, and, 

indeed, like some amount of opposition, for the whole subject 
is so entirely new and in advance of the times that it would 
indeed be singular if certain old-fashioned and undoubtedly 
respectable people, without a motor in their whole composition, 
were not to some extent shocked ; but it must be remembered 
that, rightly or wrongly, we believe we have in our hands a 
gigantic monopoly, nearly approaching in importance that of 
the railway companies of the United Kingdom. 

Times and future events alone can prove how nearly accurate 

we are in our estimate, but in the meanwhile the public would 

do well to bear in mind that no successful monopoly has ever 

: yet been established without similar opposition to that which is 

i now manifested. We have only to refer to Crossley's themselves 

and their patent gas-engine, the Singer sewing machine, the 

Plimpton Skates, the Incandescent Light, and Dunlop Pneu- 

i matic Tyre, and other revolutionary inventions, which have 

, now proved themselves, in spite of every scepticism, to be fully 

, worth all the millions of money to the shareholders their 

founders once prophesied. — Yours faithfully, 

Charles McRobie Turrkll, 
The British Motor Syndicate (Ltd.), Assist Sec. 

59, Hoi born Viaduct, E.C., Dec. Ut, 1896. 

[Among the many letters which are crowded ont are communi- 
cations from Sir David Salomons, Mr. A. R. Sennett, Mr. 
H. P. Holt, and Mr. Radcliffe Ward.] 

Motor-Wagon Communication between 
Manchester and Liverpool. 

As a forerunner to the adoption of this service between Liver- 
pool and towns in the Manchester district, a complete survey 
of the roads has just been completed by Mr. Joseph Hawley, 
Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., acting under the instructions of Mr. Alfred 
A. Jones (Messrs. Elder, Dempster, and Co.), one of the vice- 
presidents of the local branch of the Self-Propelled Traffic 
Association. The report is most favourable, and may be regarded 
as the first step towards the accomplishment of this enterprising 

We hope, in an early issue, to be able to give full particulars 
of this important scheme. It is expected that by May next 
all will be in form for the beginning of operations. Mr. Shrapnell 
Smith (the hon. secretary) and Mr. Lawrence Jones (hon. 
solicitor), of the Liverpool branch of the Self-Propelled Traffic 
Association, are taking all necessary steps to further the 

Australia's Motor-Cars.— The Largest In the 

Most of us no doubt thought that we were fairly early in the 
: field over this motor-car business, but it turns out "that Australia 
is well in advance of us. It already has the biggest one in the 
: world. 

The largest horseless carriage in the world has just been built 
J in California. Some idea of its size may be gathered from the 
i fact that it possesses 75 horse-power, an unheard-of amount for 
i this new form of vehicle. 

This particular car will travel between Coolgardie and the 
coast, and is intended merely for freight. It will pull over 
rough roads two other wagons. Coolgardie is 400 miles in the 
i interior, and up to the present time all supplies for the men at 
the diggings have been transported by the old wagon system, a 
wearisome task. It was considered impracticable and too 
expensive to construct a railroad to Coolgardie, so the idea of a 
big motor-car was hit upon. 

It was no small matter designing such a vehicle. For one 
thing water is scarce on the road to Coolgardie, and so the 
steam ought not to be exhausted upon the air, but saved, 
reconverted into water, and again used. 

Digitized by 





Compiled for"Tn« Actomotor and Horsklkss Vehicle Journal" 
by Herbert Haddan and Co.. Registered Patent Agents, of 
18, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C., London. 

Patents Applied For. 

24,430. November 2nd, 1896. Sir C. S. Forbes. Improve- 
ments in or applicable to motor-cars, road-carriagea, and the 

24,526. November 3rd, 1896. W. A. P. Werner. Improve- 
ments in driving mechanism for self-propelled road vehicles. 

24,699. November 4th, 1896. F. A. Sharratt and W. W. 
McLeod. Improvements in braking cycles, motor-cars, and 
like carriages. 

24,848. November 6th, 1896. J. Birtwistle Improve- 
ments in and relating to power-driven vehicles'for use on toads. 

24,881. November 6th, 1896. J. B. Fcrneaux and E. 
Butler. Improvements in explosion engines, especially suit- 
able for propelling vehicles, boats, and otiier bodies. 

24,912. November 6th, 1896. V. E. Pretot. Improve- 
ments in and relating to speed and reversing ge.xr for motor- 
carriages and other purposes. 

24,953. November 7th, H96. W. Rowbotiiam. Improve- 
ments in reversing and variable speed gear for vehicles, launches, 
and the like. 

25,103. November 9th, 1896. H. Middleton. Improve- 
ments in steam propelled cycles and carriages. 

25,140. November 10th, 1896. W. Rowbotiiam. Improve- 
ments in self-starting apparatus for explosion engines, in 
particular for those used in vehicles, launches, and the like. 

25,202. November 10th, 1896. J. G. Stidder. Improve- 
ments in or relating to motor and other road cars or vehicles 
and cycles. 

25,226. November 10th, 1896. J. Powell and H. Moore. 
An improved method of and apparatus for driving cycles and 
other road vehicles and machinery generally by thj aid of 

25,412. November 12th, 1896. W. Simpson, W. L. Bodman, 
and D. H. Simpson. Improvements in the construction of 
motor-driven vehicles. 

20,480. November 12th, 1896. W. Banies, W. Norris, and 
J. Simkiss. Improvements in driving and reversing gear for 
oil and other engines, especially applicable to motors for common 

25.515. November 13th, 1896. L. S. Crandali, and S. G. 
Mason. Improvements relating to the storage and utilisation 
of compressed air or gas on cycles and other vehicles. 

25.516. November 13th, 1896. S. Gorton, W. Taylor, and 
The New Beeston Cycle Co., Ltd. Improvements in or 
relating to velocipedes, auto-cars, and the like. 

25,628. November 14th, 1896. F. Parker. Improvements 
in motor aud other road vehicles. 

25,718. November 14th, 1896. F. K. Woodrofke. Im- 
provements in and connected with road vehicles propelled by 
petroleum, and other motors. 

25,735. November 16th, 1896. J. Marsdex and M. Pearson. 
Certain improvements in aud relating to the mechanism of locks 
for cycles, motor-cars, or for other suitable purposes. 

25,844. November 17th, 1896. M. E. Thomas, W. F. Toops, 
J. M. Hulen, H. L Hendrick, E. L. R. Hendrick, aud R. W. 
Htsndrick. Means for storing up the electricity generated by 
the application of the brakes to the wheels of moto-cars or 

26,105. November 19th, 1890. R. J. Crowley and E. B. 
Payne. Improvements in or relating to the means for trans- 
mitting motive power applicable to motor-cars aud other 
vehicles aud the like, also for other suitable purposes. 

26,1 14. November 19th, 1896. W. J. Wynn, A. E. Wynn, 
and W. J. Radford. Improvements in automotor vehicles. 

26,180. November 19th, 1890. B. Coultas and J. V. 
Coultas. Improvements in and connected with mud-guards for 
cycles, motor-cats, and other vehicles. 

26,232. November 20th, 1896. J. H. Ball. Improvements 
in automotive vehicles and in mechanism for the same. 

26,302. November 20th, 1896. F. W. Greenorass. Im- 
provements in and relating to self-propelling road vehicles. 

26,316. November 21st, 1896. A. T. Ellis. Improvements 
in and appertaining to cycles aud pneumatic tyred aud such like 

26,362. November 21st, 1896. W. Gibson, W. H. Palmer, 
and A. J. P. Whitaker. An improved driving chain for cycles 
and other road vehicles. 

26,415. November 21st, 1896. E. Pellas and S. Fossati. 
Impiovements in and connected with steering gear for moto- 

26,563. November 24th, 1896. .1. E. Wallis. Improve- 
ments in road locomotives, light rood locomotives, or motor-cars. 

26,595. November 84th, 1896. F. Smith. Improvements in 
motor road vehicles. 

26,643. November 24th, 1895. H. S. Maxim. Improve 
ments in motor carriages or vehicles. 

•26,688. November 25th, 1896. C. Willsox. Guards for 
motor cars or locomotives. 

26,721. November 25th, 1896. J. M. Starlet. Improve- 
ments in driving chains, especially applicable to cycles, motor- 
cars, &c. 
; 26,780. November 25th, 1896. F. K. Woodroffe. Improve- 
ments in or connected with motors for vehicles. 

26,779. November 25th, 1896. B. M. Liniiwall. A fender 
for motor cars. 

26,850. November 26th, 1896. A. G. Meliicish. Improve- 
ments in and connected with gas or oil vapour motors, and 
their connection with motor vehicles. 

20,886. November 26th, 1896. B. J. Jacobs and The 
Yeovil Motor Car and Cycle Company, Limited. A new 
or improved reversing apparatus for motor-driven vehicles. 

26,907. November 2Gth, 1896. F. L. Mbrritt. Improve. 
ments in motor-cars. 

26,956. November 26th, 1896. F. R. Frost. Improvements 
in connection with motor cars and like vehicles. 

26,976. November 26th, 1896. C. M. Johnson. Improve- 
ments in and connected with motor vehicles. 

27,054. November 28th, 1896. J. E. Dixon. Certain im- 
provements in metallic tubes for the frames of bicycles and 
other velocipedes, motor carriages, and for other purposes. 

27,104. November 28th, 1896. J. W. Davison. Improve- 
ments in or relating to the construction of wheels for carriages, 
motor cars, cycles, and other vehicles. 

Specifications Published. 

15,564. August 19th. Electro propulsion of vehicles or 
vessels. L. Epstein. 

According to this invention the necessity of providing 
charging stations is obviated by providing means on the vehicle 
itself by which the secondary batteries can be recharged. For 
this purpose the motor is so arranged, which motor is driven by 
the electricity from the secondary batteries, that it can itself 
be used as a dynamo-machine, and means are also provided 
whereby the said motor can be easily uncoupled from the motor 
shaft and coupled to a small subsidiary engine, by which it can 
be worked as a dynamo to recharge the secondary batteries. 

18,868. October 8th. Electric velocipedes. H. W. Libby. 

Relates to a bicycle to be propelled by electricity, and consists 
of a frame with an electric battery and an electric motor secured 
to said frame, a longitudinal tube extending from the frout to 
the rear fork for holding the exciting fluid for the battery, an 
electric controlling device, suitable connections between the 
battery, motor, aud controlling device, aud suitable mechanism 
for transmitting motion from the motor to the driving wheel. 

Printed Copies of the above Specifications Published may be 
obtained by forwarding In. for cost of each copy and pontage 
to Messrs. Herbert Iladdan and Co. Application* not i/et 

Digitized by 





— • — 
The British Flying Machikb Syndicate. 

Capital — Ten Millions. 

In Ten Million Shares of One Pound 

A 1 

Prospectuses of the above forwarded on application. You 
can only get the shares at a premium. The directors having 
acquired the rights in all the Flying Machines which have up 
to the present oeen invented, strongly recommend this enter- 
prise to persons desirous of investing their capital in a highly 
prosperous undertaking. 

The directors point with pride to the successful accomplish- 
ment of a public breakfast in London and the successful 
accomplishment of a public dinner in Timbuctoo, and rely 
upon these facts to convince the public that the suggestion 
which has been made by carping critics that the first 
necessity of a going concern is that it should be able to go is 
absolutely without foundation. 

Pictures of Flying Machines earning a substantial dividend 
and travelling the skies in all directions have already 
appeared on the back pages of the daily and weekly papers. 

Persons who desire more than this as a guarantee of the 
dividend-earning powers of the British Flying Machine Syndi- 
cate had better lock up their spare capital in the baby's money- 
box. — The Referee. 

Prince Ranjikinhji's name figures in the prospectus of the 
British Motor-Car Company as " owner of Iiidiau patents." 
Can this (asks a curious correspondent) have reference to the 
Car of Juggernaut, which may be regarded as one of the earliest 
autocars ever patented 1 — The Qlobe. 


— • — 

ADVERTISER, having extensive warehouses and well known 
throughout the West Riding, is desirous of representing a 
good firm of oil-motor makers. Apply George Thwnites, Iron 
Merchant, Leeds. 

E'NG-INEER, with sound practical experience of high-class engines, 
( and thorough commercial training, having office in Manchester, 
is open to take up a good agency for motorcars. Address Lancashire, 
care of King and Co , Limited, 62, St. Martin's-lane. 

AS DRIVER. — Town or country ; Daimler and Benz system ; 
had 6 months' experience. A. J. Ldeell, 15, John-street, 


S DRIVER. — Good mechanic and electrician ; first-class references. 
E. Sellier, C, Lurline-gardcns. 

AS DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Knowledge of electrical work ; 
references; age 28. Chas. Smith, 1, Coptic-street, New Oxford- 
street, W.C. 


Incorporated by S/ecial Licence ol the Board of Tiade, under the 
Companies Acts, 1862 to 1890. 


Vie- Presidents. 

Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart. John Philipson, Esq., J. P. 

Alexander Siemens, Esq. 

President- -The Right Hon The Eakl of Derby. 

{'ice.Presidents~At.PREn Holt, Es<|., M. Inst. C.E. ; Alfred L. Jones, Esq., 

J. P. ; H. Percy Boulnois, Esq., M. Inst. C.E. , and a Council of twelve. 

Hon. Local Secretary — E. Shrai-nrll Smith, the Royal Institution, Liverpool. 

Secretary (from whom all particulars can be obtained). 

Andw. W. Barr, 30, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. 

Subscription, s\ it. per annum. 


is the "Facile" Petroleum Oil Motor, 

which requires 
No spirit or dangerous esaenoe. 
Mo beating- tube. 
Ho oonstant-buralng lamp. 
Mo battery. 
All of these are causes of trouble. 



No connection with other firms advertising 
under similar name. 






Auction Sales of Freehold and Leasehold Properties periodically, 
including Plant and Machinery, Steam ar.d Marine Engines and 
Boilers, Automotors, Marine and River Launches and Yachts, 
Bicycles, Agricultural Implements, Pictures, Works of Art, 
Furniture, Jewellery, &c. 

Surveys and Valuations for Partnerships, Company Promoters, 
Probate and Administration, Land and Agricultural and Trade Valuers. 

Civil and Ecclesiattical Dilapidation* Surveyed and Assetied, 

Advances also made to any amount on Property intended for Sale. 

Estate Development and Sanitation a Speciality. 


■*"*■ Co.. having Plant specially adapted for this purpose, charge Cells of all sires 
promptly, thoroughly, and cheaply. Terms on application. Accumulators on hire 
for temporary lighting, experimental uses, etc.— 3, Dorset Buildings, SallsDury 
Square, Fleet Street, E.C. Telephone No. 65,166. 



through the superiority, have the largest sale in the world. Engine, Cylinder, and 
Machinery Oils, njd. ; Special Cylinder Oil, is. 4d. ; Special Engine Oil, is. *d. : 
Gas Engine, nynamo Oils, is. 6d. per gallon ; Special Gasolene, Benzolme, and 
Petroleum, for Motor purposes; Light Machine Oil, lojd. ; barrels free and carnage 
paid.— Reliance Lubrioating Oil Co.. 1? and «, Water Lane, 
Great Tower Street, London, E.C. Depots at Liverpool, Bristol, Hull, 
Cardiff, and Glasgow. Telegrams: "Subastral, London." 


^ FITTINGS. MODERN AND ANTIQUE. Antique Candelabra, &c, 
adapted to Electric Light in such a manner as to faithfully represent candles. 
Temporary lighting at Feles, Balls, At Homes. Estimates and plans for complete 
Electric Light Plants. Motive Power : Steam Engine, Oil Engine, Gas Engine, 
or Turbine 


E. L. Berry, Harrison & Co, Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

Office and Show Rooms-Lyric Chambers, Whitcomb Street, London, W.C 

Telegraphic Address — " Kathode, London." 

Digitized b) 




59, MARK LANE, LONDON, E.C. (bast peST&m, kent.) 

These Carriages are now offered for sale in every variety 
and description, magnificently made and finished. Up to 
ist May, 1896, the firm of Benz & Co. have sold and delivered 
600 of these Motor Carriages, which are now running all over 
the world. 

The Patent Oil Motors are quite silent and do not give 
off any heat or smell. 

Speed can be obtained from Ten to Fifteen Miles an hour, 
Hills of one in ten scaled with ease, and the Carriages and 
Wheels arc strongly constructed. 

The Motive Power is Rectified Petroleum or Benzoline of 
the specific gravity of 070, which is easily obtained anywhere, 
at about cy/. to i\d. per gallon, and a two-seated vehicle costs 
less than a halfpenny per mile to run. The working is so 
simple that any novice can drive the Carriage, and with two 
gallons of benzoline 70 to 80 miles can be accomplished. 

The Oil Reservoir of the Carriages hold about 5 gallons. 
The Speed is controlled and regulated by the driver. The 
Carriages arc fitted with new Patent Steering Apparatus, and 
can be stopped instantly. 

'I here is no light or flame inside the Motor, consequently 
absolutely no danger of the benzoline catching fire, or, in 

windy weather, of the lamps being blown out. The power is produced simply by the gas from the benzoline exploding and the 
electric spark in the combustion chamber. 

In each Carriage there are two accumulators (2 volts), and each one will last for about 350 miles, so that when one is 
discharged, you switch on to the other, and get the discharged one re-charged at the first place where there is electric light. 

We guarantee our Carriages to be of good quality and workmanship, and we will make good any defects in material 'or 
workmanship within three months from delivery, with the exception of damage caused through carelessness or rough treatment. 


The "ID " Tyre. 

perfection rubber tyre. 

for light and heavy vehicles. 

:d not to roll out. 

This Over 

is no experiment, 36,000 pairs in use 

see opposite. in the United States. 

le compress the rubber eo that, if it is cut, it closes up and no material injory is inflicted, and consequently wears smooth. 

An examination of the Principle of our Tyre oonvinces yon of it« superiority over all others. 

I Ml V T PMIIin. IV 65 & 67 » WHARFDALE ROAD, 


Digitized by 





A »»/ A I 



Price 3d. eacb. 

Pronounced by 

Connoisseurs to be 

better than Havannahs. 




Price 3d. each. 

We are receiving nnst 
gratifying letters from 
Customers in praise of 
these Cigars. 

Sold in Two Sires— No. 1, 22s. ; No. 2 20». : Bouquets (Small and Mild)21S. pcrlOO, Carriage Paid. 
Ilor de DlndlgUl Cigarettes, 8«- pe; lOO, Carriage Paid. Assortment of all the al«nc in box complete, *8- 6d., Post Free. 

., « & 7*. STRAND, W.C., & 143, CHEAPS1DE, E.C. "^mgsMgS** 

OAHLBBF, CAPEL & l*OU«.8», of Hose Cb.emlca.1 Wo'ka, an<l Pharos Wwki, Hackney Wlok, London. n.E., specialty dl«t'l 

Petrol, the spirit best adapted for Motors, Motor Carriages, Launsbes, etc.. etc 

Maximum of efficiency and perfect combustion ; therefore great economy, and no deposit in cylinders. 

bto sBiEi.1.. nro x>xxcrr. wo tboubld. 

CARLESS, CAPEL ft LEONARD have supplied the above lor the Daimler Motors lor over five years, aud hold the highest testimonials. 



Digitized by. 






Circulates amongst Makers and Users of Autocars, Cycles, etcj: npUti MAftffalfifygdom, the Colonies 

and the Continent. > 

Vol I. No. 4. 

JANUARY 18th, 1897/ 1 


Price Sixpence. 

C O N T EWiaaaEW vo 



The Kane-Pennington Motor 

Tne Mechanical Propulsion of Trajiway Cars 

Sir William Arrets Ke«r Motor 

Too Seli-Propelled Traffic Associa'i m and CaifiJ 

Mr. J. B. Tuke on Oil Motors 

A Coarfsbatkler on the Future of Automotors 

Tramway Motors for Light Railway 

Mr. E. Shrapnel) Smith 

Motor Water-Cart » 

Tramcar Propelled by Hot air 

Royalty and tho New Industry 

Note* of the Month 

TIM Serpollet Steam System of Motors 

Coachmakers and Motor-Cm riages 

Molor Vehicles to Convey Produce in Queen* Con .iy 

Itoatness Notes 

An interview with Mr. McKim 

Trade Novelties 

Bradford Technical College 

Answera to Correspondents 

What. Will the New Year Teach Us? 

Road Traction In Populous Di»u icrs 

Penny Parcel I'elivery by Motor Vehi li-s 

Keviews of Books 

The "facile" Petroleum Oil-Enitine 

By Motor- Bus at Midnight 

Abel's Flash-Test Apparatus 

Continental Notes 

S^lf-Proprlled Traffic Ass iciation 

The Blot Accumulator 

Liverpool Police and Automotors 

Doings of Public Companies 


New Inventions 





Iw compliance with tho request of several correspondents, we 
give the following description of Mr. Pennington's Motor, taken 
from his Specification, numbered 23,771, and dated December 
11th, 1895. As we have not had an opportunity of testing the 
efficiency and utility of this much-advertised motor, we at 
present withhold our opinion as to its merits, but hope to deal 
exhaustively with it in an early issue : — 

Referring more especially to the invention with a motor 
having two cylinders, the bearing pieces, 35, for the axle of the 
propelling wheel are each provided with horns, 36 and 37, for 
the lower and back braces, which are of steel tubing. It is 
preferred to make these solid to fit into the hollow ends of the 
braces ; but they could be made hollow to receive the braces, 

Further, each of said bearing pieces is provided with a seat, 38, 
for the front end of the engine cylinder, and the piece, 35, is also 
provided with a bearing, 39, for a valve gear to be described 
below. Each beariug piece could be provided with such 
bearings, but, as 1 find it advantageous to otierate the valves of 
both eogine cylinders from one gear, only the one piece is 
shown as so provided. 

It is preferred to use a removable block, 40, under each end 
of the axle to allow this to be readily inserted and removed 
when desired. 

In making bicycles and similar vehicles self-propelling, it is 
desirable to reduce the weight ; and, in order to effect this, the 
hollow frame of the vehicle (or such portion or part thereof as 
may be thought available) is made to constitute or form part of 
the reservoir for the oil. As shown, the top braces, 41, 41*, 
make part of such reservoir In order to carry a large supply 
of fluid, a can, 42, is mounted on the frame, and connected, by a 
nipple, with one of the fhiid holding braces. A hollow cross 
piece, 43, forms a brace and also a pipe connection between the 
fluid holding braces at their lower ends. The couplings, 43*, 
unite the cross pieces to the braces. At 44 is the filling opening 
of the can, 42. 

In the cross piece, 43, is the conical orifice and threaded 
cylindrical opening for the needle valve, 45, which regulates 
the delivery of the oil. This needle valve has a threaded stem 
engaging the threaded opening and the tapering point within 
the conical orifice as is usual in needle valves, the turning of the 
stem inserting the point more or less deeply into the orifice to 
check or cut off, or' to start or increase, the delivery from said 
orifice. The needle valve is formed at the end of a flexible 
valve rod, 47, which is extended forward and provided with a 
handle, or other operating means, within reach of the rider. 
Its forward end is upheld by the handle bar, the valve rod 
passing loosely through a loop, 46. The valve rod, therefore, 
does not interfere with the turning of the handle bar, nor with 
its vertical adjustment Such a valve rod, as is described, 
might be used to operate any suitable form of fluid delivery 
valve, and the described arrangement of needle valve could be 
used with any suitable operating means; although -it ij an 
advantage and a special improvement to use the valve rod and 
the needle valve arrangement in connection with each other. 

The oil drips from the orifice into the opening, 18, at the top 
of the arched pipe, 49, and is thence conveyed to the engine 
cylinders through the valve to be described below. 

In order to reduce the weight of the engine and to favour the 
conduction of heat from the engine cylinders, 6 and 6*, they are 
each made of a steel tube, cut away at one end to leave a 
projecting tongue, 7, for attachment to the bearing, 35, of the 
engine crank shaft, 10, which, as shown, is also the axle of 
the vehicle wheel, 2. The seats, 38, are curved (or cdncaVe on 

i 2 

Digitized by 


11 rt 


[Jani-aht, 1897. 

their faces) to fit the curvature, in cross section, of the tongues, 7. 
The curvature of the tongue increases its strength, as well as 
facilitates the manufacture of the tongued cylinder. The engine 
cylinder, being single acting, the front ends are left open. The 
rear ends are closed by the heads, 51, which carry the valves, 23, 
23*, 54, 54*, and ignition tubes, 52, 52", and which also reinforce 
the steel tubes, at the explosive end, by means of a flange, 53, 
for each tube or cylinder. The ignition tubes are made of 
platinum, or other suitable material, each closed at its outer 

Fig. 1. 

end and opening each into one cylinder at the inner end. They 
are kept hot at the proper point to insure ignition of the 
explosive mixture in the cylinders when fully compressed, as 
is well understood in the art. 

In each cylinder moves a hollow piston, 13 or 13 d , which is 
connected by its pitman or connecting rod to the cranks, 11, 11", 
respectively at the corresponding end of the shaft or axle, 10. 
The pitmen are each best made of a small steel tube, 12 and 12* 
respectively, with end pieces, 57 and 58, of a thicker material. 
The rear end piece, 58, fits between bosses, 59 and 60, on the 
inside of the hollow piston, with which it is connected by the 
journal-pin, 61. The front end piece is loosely connected with 
tiie pin of the crank, 11 or 11*, a bushing being advantageously 
interposed. The bushing fits between the end piece and the 
crank pin with sufficient looseness to turn freely, and has 
inwardly and outwardly turned flanges which oxerlap the 
respective parts. A screw tapped into the crank pin holds all 
in place. 

The rear ends of the cylinders, 6, 6*, are connected with each 
other by means of the chambered cross piece, 02. This, as 
shown, has several functions ; it forms a cross brace between 
the rear ends of the cylinders, and also between the rear ends 
of the top braces, 41, 41* ; it forms chambers for enclosing and 
protecting the ignition tubes, 52, 52* ; it forms supports and- 
protectors for the burners, 63, 63* ; it forms a support for the 
rock bar, 64, pivoted at 05 to a boss on its under side, the said 
rock bar operating the exhaust valve mechanism, as explained 
below. On top, the middle portion of this crosj piece is cut 
away so as to allow the escape of the products of combustion 
from the burners, 63, 63*, if necessary, to supply air for their 
combustion. The burners, 63, 63*, may take air from the 
outside through the burner tubes, as in the familiar Bunsen 
burners ; and the orifices for the escape of the products of 
combustion need not be made just as shown. Ears, 66, on the 
piece, 62, fit over the projections, 68, between the bent pieces, 

67, forming the lower ends of the top braces, 41, 41*, and the 
heads 51. 

The heads, 51, are each made double, the inner plate being 
iutegral with the projections, and also with the flange, 53, 
which enters the cylinder tube. The outer plate has projec- 
tions, 69, which tit outside the cylinder. The itdet port and 
outlet port are each made through the flange, 53, the cylinder 
tube, and the corresponding projection ; and so also is the hole 
for the ignition tube, 52 or 52*; only there is, preferably, no 
outside projection corresponding to 69 for the 
ignition tube. 

The inlet and outlet valves, 23, 23", 54, 54*, 
are each screwed into threaded openings in the 
projections, 69. They each include a chambered 
body, with the opening and seat for the valve 
disc, 70, in the partition between the chambers, 
also with a lateral opening, 70, the full diameter 
of the valve disc, and in line with the valve 
stem, 75, and with an elongated hollow cylindri- 
cal extension, 71, also in line with the valve 
stem. The opening, 70, is provided with a 
closure, shown as a screw plug. A spiral com- 
pression spring, 72, surrounds the extension, 
71, through which the valve stern, 75, passes 
and by which it is guided. It presses at its 
inner end against the b idy of the valve, and 
at its outer end against a disc, 73, on the end 
of the. valve stem. In this disc is an annular 
groove, which receives the end coil of the 

The- inlet valves, 23, 23*, open inward (that 
is, toward the engine cylinder) and are opened 
by the atmospheric pressure when a sufficient 
vacuum is made in the corresponding engine 
cylinder, and closed by the spring when there is 
no such vacuum. 

To the top of the valve one end of the arched 
pipe, 49, is secured by a union, 74, with a disc 
of gauze or perforated metal, 49*, interposed. 
One end of the pipe, 49, is fastened to the top of the valve, 23, 
and the other end to the top of the valve, 23* (see Fig. 3), 
so that the same fluid-delivery valve, 45, shall serve for both 

The exhaust valves, 54, 54*, also open inward, and are opened 
by valve mechanism and closed by the springs. To open the 
valve, 54, there is a tappet, 77, on the valve rod, 78, whose rear 
end is jointed at 79 to the rook bar, 64, and which is guided by 
an eye of the guide piece, 83, fastened by a nut on the lower 
part of the valve. 


JflO. 2. 

The tappet strikes the end of the valve stem and forces it and 
the valve disc inward against the pressure of the spring. 

To open the valve, 54", a tappet, 80, is provided on the valve 
rod 81, whose rear end is jointed at 82 to the corresponding end 
of the rock bar, 64, and whose front end is loosely connected 
with the crank-pin, 73, of the valve gear, 15. This wheel is 

Digitized by 


jAXfABV, 1897.] 



double the diameter of the pinion, 14, on the shaft, 10 : so that 
the exhaust valves are opened once in every two reciprocations 
of the corresponding pistons, 13 or 13*. 

The gear as shown is provided with a boss, 76 b , to hold the 
valve rod, 81, away from the gear teeth, and to give a longer 
bearing in this gear to the crank pin. It is provided with an 
annular groove, 77 b , to receive the end of tubular bearing, 39, 
and with a pin, 78 b , to enter said bearing. A screw, 79 b , tapped 
into the pin, holds the gear in place, the under side of the screw- 
head bearing against the opposite end of the bearing. This 
special arrangement is advantageous, but it may be replaced 

r.u. 3. 

by another if its advantages are not desired, ami the same 
remark applies to other particular constructions shown iu the 
drawings and particularly described. 

At 80 b is a can of oil for supplying the burners, 63, 63*. It is 
upheld by straps from the top braces, 41, 41*, and has a tilling 
opening, 81 b . A feed pipe, 82 1 ', conducts the fluid to the branches, 
83 and 84, which lead to the respective burners. Stop cocks, 
85 and 86, in the branches control the supply to the burners. 

The operation is as follows : — 

The can, 8() b , beiug supplied with proper fluid, the burners, 
63, 63*, are lighted to heat the ignition tube.', 52, 52*. Then 
the rider, adjusting the needle valve and mounting the machine, 
starts the wheel and shaft turning. Assuming that the parts 
are in the position shown, the pistons are both drawn forward 

Vir.. 4. 

by the cranks, II, 11", and pitmen, 12, 12". If both cylinders 
are empty, a mixture of air and oil is drawn into both cylinders 
through the arched pipe, 40, and the inlet valves, 23, 23*. As 
the end of the forward stroke is reached, the springs close the 
inlet valves. During this movement, or half revolution, of the 
shaft, 10, the crank pin, 73*, has made a quarter revolution, 
removing the tappet, t<0, from the stem of the valve, 54*, and so 
rocking the bar, 64, as to bring the tappet, 77, againot the stem 
of the valve, 54. 

The pistons, 13, 13", are moved back together, and the tappet, 
77, forcing open the valve, 54, (he contents of the cylinder, 6, 

are exhausted, while the oonteuts of the cylinder, 6", are com- 
pressed because the valve, 54*, is closed. The compression takes 
place also in the ignition tube, 52* aud when it is complete the 
explosive mixture reaches the part of said tube which is 
sufficiently heated to ignite the mixture and to cause it to 

The pistons having now reached the inner (or rear end) of 
their stroke, the force of the exploded and expanded mixture in 
the cylinder, 6*, forces the piston, 13*, forward and turns the 
shaft, 10, profiling the vehicle. During this forward move- 
ment, the piston, 13, draws in from the arched pipe, 49, a charge 
of oil and air, its exhaust valve, 54, as well as the valve, 54", 
being closed during this movement. 

^ 65 Jl ' 

Fio. 5. 

During the next inward movement of the pistons, 13, 13*, the 
valve, 54*, is opened and the valve, 54, closed, so that the contents 
of the cylinder, 6*, are exhausted, and those of the cylinder, 6, 
compressed. The parts are now again in the position shown in 
the drawing. The compression of the explosive mixture in the 
cylinder, 6, forces it into the ignition tube, 52, until it catches 
lire and explodes, forcing the piston, 13, outward and through 
the shaft, 55, drawing the piston, 13*, so aa to draw an explosive 
charge into the cylinder, 6*, to be in turn compressed and 

In order to effect the compression of the explosive mixture in 
the cylinders, 6, 6", it is evident that some force is necessary. 
In ordinary gas engines, a heavy fly-wheel has been employed 
to store force for each explosion sufficient to effect the next 


Fio. t>. 

compression. Sometimes the force of an explosion has been 
made directly to effect the subsequent compressions. It is found 
unnecessary to use either of these expedients, and the vehicle may 
therefore be made lighter. The weight of the rider has beeii 
found available to store power for effecting the compression. 
This is an advantage, not only in saving weight, but it makes 
the vehicle self-stopping when the rider dismounts, the weight 
of the vehicle alone not being sufficient to effect the compression. 
The illustrations accompanying the above article may be 
described as follows : — Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a vehicle 
having a two-cylinder motor, and a plan of the same ; Fig. 2 
is a view on the line 11 — 11 of Fig. 1 ; Fig. 3 is a cross-section 
on a line 12—12 of Fig. 2 ; Fig. 4 is a view on line 13—13 of 
Fig. 2 ; Fig. 5 is a view on line 14—14 of Fig. 2 ; and Fig. 6 is 
an enlarged view of a detail. 

1 ,i 

Digitized by 




[Jakiaby, 1697. 


Lecture at the Sheffield Technical School. 

At the Technical School, St. George's Square, Sheffield, on 
Saturday evening, the 19th nit., a lecture was given before a 
large number of the members of the Sheffield Society of Engi- 
neers and Metallurgists, by Mr. W. H. Watkinson. M.I.M.E, 
M.I.E.E., Professor of Prime Movers at the Glasgow and West 
of Scotland Technical College, on "The Mechanical Propulsion 
of Tramway Cars." The chair was taken by Mr. T. W. Sorby 
(president), and amongst the other* present were Professor 
Kipper. Councillors G. Senior, W. F. Wardley, B. Chapman, 
J. C. Whiteley, Messrs. G. T. W. Newsbolme, W. T. Beesley, 
and G. H. Mel lor. 

Professor Watkixson, at the outlet of his lecture, said it was 
not until comparatively recently in this country that there had 
been any great demand for rapid street triusit, and on that 
account this branch of engineering had been ton much neglected 
by engineers. In the United State? the demand for rapid 
traction had been great, and engineers had risen to the occasion, 
and supplied the demand very effectively by means of the 
electric overhead system That night he purposed dealing 
with the relative merits of the various systems which at present 
seem most promising. The demand for rapid street transit had 
now become so pronounced, and the benefits which were to be 
derived from it were now reo )gnised to be so great, and the loss 
to a city like Glasgow through the lack of it was so enormous, 
that the public would not loug tolerate the present slow and 
cruel system of horse traction. Proceeding, he said steam, air, 
gas, anil oil engines have the great merit that each car is inde- 
pendent, and therefore a general breakdown of the system is 
impossible. The underground cable and the electric (with- 
out storage batteriet) depend for their succe» mainly to the 
fact that with them the prime m >vers at the central station 
cau be very large and of the most economical type. This, 
however, is almost their only claim for supremacy. At 
present the electric battery system is not iu a sufficiently 
advanced stage to prove commercially successful, and 
until recently steam cars had not been successful owing to 
problems involved in the design and construction of the boilers 
and etgines. Now, however, they knew how to construct 
motors of that type, which for efficiency and lightlies t surpassed 
all others. It was now no longer necessary to provide a separate 
locomotive, as the whole of the apparatus can be placed on the 
p:isseuger car itself. This possibility enables the total weight 
propelled to be enormously decreased. The great advantages of 
the steam-engine are due to its being able to exert great power 
with small loss of efficiency during the starting of the cars or on 
inclines, and also to it being able to work with maximum 
efficiency under the normal load and to the ease with which its 
direction of motion can be received. The principal drawbacks 
are the smell and dirt from the products of combustion when 
fitted with an ordinary boiler, but by the use of coke or oil these 
nuisances may be very greatly reduced, and by using forced 
draught and letting the chimney discharge downwards they may 
be almost annihilated. In connection with tramway cars these 
nuisances can be done away with altogether by dispensing with 
the furnace, the steam being generated by superheated water 
carried in suittble reservoirs beneath the car, they being 
replenished at a central boiler station. By means of the 
Serpollet boiler the condenser may be dispensed with, as the 
steam is still superheated, aud, therefore, invisible on leaving 
the engine. When discharged beneath the car no nuisance is 
caused by the exhaust. Serpollet generators are now used of over 
50 horse-power, and a number of cars in Paris are fitted with 
them. Compressed air, he further said, has long been used for 
the transmission of power, but the problems involved have, until 
recently, been far less appreciated than those connected with any 
other system. On this account the efficiency of the older 

compressing plant and motors was very low, and it is still 

generally believed by engineers that the system is necessarily 

inefficient ; but a new era has commenced, and compressed air 

will probably play a most prominent part in the transmission 

and distribution of power. In this system there is no chance of 

smell or visible exhaust. The efficiency of an electric motor 

is higher than the air motor, but as the former runs at 

high speed gearing has to be used which reduces practical 

efficiency below that of an air motor. Mentioning here the 

McKareki system (used iu Berne) and the Hughes and 

Lancaster system (tried experimentally at Chester), Profess >r 

Watkinson passed on to gas and oil engines, which, he said, 

at present seem to promise to become the mo3t successful of all 

motors for tramcars and m >tor-carriages generally. Those in use 

have the great drawback that their direction of motion cannot 

be reversed, and, therefore, gearing has to be used for this 

purpose. In spite of thu, however, gas-engine tramway cars 

are now working successfully at a lower cost than any other 

system. Most of the smell is due to lubricating oil sent out 

with the exhaust The great drawback to the cable system is 

the iuitial cost, and the difficulty is in connection with the 

extensions. A disadvantage is that if the rope fails the whole 

system is thrown out of action, but an advantage is that it is 

practically impossible for a car to run away. He was of the 

opinion that the system has a considerable future before it 

For hilly districts, he thought, it is better than the electric 

system, but he would not advise it to be laid in many cases. 

In the case of the overhead electric system, the wires do not 

aunoy more than telephone wires, but if telegraph or telephone 

1 wires fell across them the user of the instruments might* be 

injured. A fracture, too, might arise at any time by a slight 

accident, and whilst so far accidents have not been very great, 

frequent accidents have taken place. It is by far the most 

flexible system, and pays better than others, as the total cost of 

running cars is made up by a great many items. Although, 

however, these cars are such a great success in the United 

States, it does not follow that they will be so successful here, 

owing to the greatly reduced fares, and the distances passengers 

will travel. Kecenf, changes in the system have made it far 

more efficient than it was a few years ago, and he did not think 

that Sheffield or Glasgow had lost anything by waiting. The 

Americans could not wait, and they had paid for the experience, 

which will be most valuable here. He did not thiuk it wise to 

rush in for any of the systems, but rather advised one <>r two 

to be tried experimentally, so as to .ascertain where a system is 

applicable to the requirements. The streets in Glasgow are 

narrow, and there are a great number of right-angled curves 

: which absorb a great deal of power— far more than in the case 

1 of horse cars. The relative advantages aud disadvantages of 

i different types he summed up as follows : — Oil— Disadvantages : 

[ Vibration due to unsteady running, danger of fire or explosion, 

not self -starting, not reversible, easily damaged, complicated 

; gearing. Advantages : No boiler required, automatic action, 

driver has not to look after coal or fire. In the case of steam, the 

disadvantagesare : Stoking, water-level and pressure gauge to be 

attended to, weight of bailer and water ; while the advantages 

are : Engine light, simple, aud understood by most men, gearing 

simple, easily started aud reversed, vibration less, no smell, 

| danger less than with oil, inclines easily mounted. Gas shares 

all the advantages of oil and is less dangerous. It is more 

certain in action, but the disadvantage is the recharging of the 

reservoir. The advantages of electricity are, no vibration, no 

smell (except from acid fumes), aud the disadvantages are heavy 

accumulators, rapid depreciation, c»stly, both initially and in 

working and the recharging of cells. The conclusions he had 

arrived at were that at present the steam-engine car is the best 

on the market so far as independent motors are concerned, 

because it is independent, and because there is no nuisance. It 

is the most reliable in every way, and until other oil engines are 

brought out it will continue to be the best one. The electric 

system possesses very great flexibility, and has the merit of 

novelty, and it has proved a financial success. He did not 

think," however, that they had arrived at a point at which 

definite steps should be taken which would involve a great 

Digitized by 


Jancasv, 1897.] 



outlay on any system. He believed they had pursued the wisest 
plan iu waiting, and lie thought they would continue to be wise 
in being patient in connection with the development of the 
various systems. The lecture, which was attentively listened 
to. was illustrated with lantern views showing the different 
machinery of the various cars which the Professor technically 

Professor Rippbh proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer. 
He said it would be nothing short of a great financial mistake 
at the present time to conclude from the observations of systems 
which already exist that one system is better thrtu another, and 
he believed in Sheffield it would be a great mistake to think 
that what was best from Attercliffe to Lady's Bridge, would 
prove the best from the New Market to Broomhill. There were 
engineering matters which would require considerable working 
out, and it was important that they should not tie themselves to 
the system, so that when they had spent money on it they could 
not do anything else to carry it on. ( Hear, hear.) 

Councillor Georoe Sbnior seconded the vote, expressing 
himself in favour of the overhead system or steam. 

The vote was carried unanimously after a little discussion, * 
and a similar compliment to the Chairman concluded the 


Oxb of the most important proposals yet made with regard to 
tramway traction has beeu laid before the Glasgow Corporation. 
Sir William Arrol — the celebrated engineer— and Mr. George 
Johnstone, who are joint patentees of a new oil engine, have, 
through Messrs. Borland, King, and Shaw, writers, Glasgow, 
offered, within four months of acceptance, to equip any route in 
Glasgow with tramcars driven by mechanical power. This they 
are prepared to do at their own expense, on th? express con- 
dition that, should the Corporation decide, at the end of two 
month*' trial, that the cars are unsuitable for the purposes of the 
Corporation tramway system, they shall bs withdrawn, and the 
community bj in no way held responsible for the expenditure 
incurred, this bsing borne entirely by the promoters of the 
scheme. But the promoters anticipate an unequivocal success 
for their cars, and should their expectations be realised during 
the preliminary trials, they offer on behalf of their clients to 
equip every tramway route in Glasgow with cars driven by 
mechanical traction, and to run these for a period of seven years 
at a cut to the tramway departmeut not exceeding what it at 
present pays for boras haulage. The cost of horse haulage is to 
t>e calculated on the basis of the past two years' working of the 
cars by the Corporation, which period admittedly was the 
cheapest on record for such a system. At the end of the seven 
years the promoters undertake to hand over to the Corporation 
as a free gift the whole of the cars, with their motors, in good 
working condition, and these latter to be held free of any charge 
for royalties which the patents owned by the promoters would 
entitle them to impose. As nearly as need be calculated for 
present purposes, horse haulage, without deducting anything for 
depreciation, costs the tramway department £100,000 per annum, 
so that, while Messrs. Borland, King, and Shaw's proposal prac- 
tically amounts to offering to equip the city's tramway system 
with cars driven by a s?lf-contained motor for nothing, the 
sum they would receive undfr the proposal would ba in round 
figures something like £100.000 per annum for seven years. 

Reporting on this offer, Mr. Young, the Corporation Tramway 
Manager, said : — " It is now about two years since we had 
communications from the sime firm in connection with a forth- 
coming patent by the same inventor. These communications 
were quite as vague as the present one. Before the motor was 
produced or tested I was asked if I would entertain or recom- 
mend an agreement binding the Corporation to adopt the system, 
to sonu extent, in the event of a test being satisfactory. Of 
courss, I did not see my way to d > so. Facilities for testing the 
invention by conditionally using the rails were, however, frankly 
granted by the committee. The outcome was the Johnstone 

motor-car, which was, for a considerable time, tested in our 
Coplawhill Yard. It was afterwards tested on the city streets 
with members of the committee on board, and nothing has beeu 
said about it since. It is still standing in our premises at 
Dennistoun." In the present system the propelling power is 
kept secret, and one month's trial of the undivulged motor was 
to decide a contract for seven years. In his opinion the 
committee should not get mixed up in any speculative scheme 
of the .kind, and more especially if it cannot be operated by 
men employed by themselves. 

Acting on this report the Corporation declined to accede to 
the request made by Sir W. Arrol and his colleague. 



As briefly recorded in our last issue, an " extra session " of the 
Liverpool local branch of this Association was recently held 
under the presidency of Mr. H. P. Boulnois, the City engineer, 
when Mr. P. Willoughby read a paper entitled, "The Improved 
Method of utilising Canals for Traffic," with special reference to 
the canals of Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

In the course of his remarks, Mr. Willoughby said it might 
appear out of place to introduce for consideration a subject so 
antiquated as canals, especially having regard to their financial 
condition and to the state of decay into which many of them 
appeared to be rapidly drifting, for, although some still yielded 
a dividend to their shareholders, others barely paid their manage- 
ment and working expenses, and some were actually derelict ; 
but they must remember that before the railway era canals were 
very profitable undertakings and of great importance as a means 
of transport to the mercantile community, and the aim of his 
paper, he said, was to show how canals could now be so 
transformed and utilised as to meet the requirements of the age 
and to regain the popularity they formerly enjoyed. The cities 
and towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire were well supplied with 
transport accommodation by the several railways and canals 
passing through the district, and most of them had the advantage 
of both systems ; but in consequence of the severe competition 
to which every trade and business in the country was nowbeing 
subjected, a pressing demand had arisen for lower rates of 
carriage, which the railway companies appeared unwilling and 
the canal companies in their present state were quite unable to 
afford. He believed that one of the objects for which their 
association had been formed was to render some assistance in 
this direction, and he therefore ventured to bring to their notice 
the improved method of utilising canals for traffic, iuvented by 
Mr. Cook. He then enumerated the seven canals in direct 
communication between Liverpool and Manchester, and proceeded 
to point out the reasons for the failure of the present canal 
system, and afterwards explained the improved method of 
utilising canals for traffic. He said it was proposed to draw 
off the water from the long-dUtanee canals, and lay down on the 
bed of them a standard main line of 4 feet 8£ inches gauge 
railway, constructed with stone foundations, timber sleepers, 
cast-iron chairs, and a single line of 90 lbs. to the yard steel 
rails, with gradients in the place of locks, retaining as waterways 
such portions as might be required to connect the rails with 
other canals which were not transformed, or with canalised or 
other rivers. A single line of rails, with sidings and turnouts, 
would be sufficient to transport ten times the amount of traffic at 
present carried over the canals, but there was ample room on all 
canals for a double line, which could be laid down when required. 
The essay also dealt exhaustively with the financial side of the 

At the close of the address a discussion was carried on by 
Messrs. C. R. Dykes (Rochdale Canal Companv), Maunsel C. 
Bannister, J. Walwyn White, A. Bromley Holmes, G. F. 
Ransome, A. Williams and E. Somerset (both of the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal Company). The usual compliments to the 
reader of the address concluded the proceedings. 

I 4 

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Mr. James Edward Tuke, of Harrogate and Bradford, who 
lias been recently exhibiting the Arnold motor-carriage iu 
various parts of the country, last month delivered a lecture at 
the Keighley Drill Hall on horseless vehicles. Facilities were 
offered for a .thorough inspection of the machine, and Mr. Tuke 
showed himself quite willing to explain the most minute details 
of construction and working. He also gave exhibitions of the 
car in motion, and negotiated the most difficult corners at a good 
speed without the slightest trouble. The front axle remains 
stationary and the steering wheels run on a pivot on the principle 
of the Olympia tricycle. The motor is driven by oil, and can be 
both started _ and stopped readily. It was remarked that the 
smell from oil so much complained of in connection with vehicles 
of this type was comparatively slight, notwithstanding the fact 
that the motor was running in a confined place. Mr. Tnke's 
lecture was given in a chatty style. He did not claim that the 
motor was perfect, not did he "believe that it was a failure, but 
he pointed out that the vehicles were as yet in their infancy, 
just as bicycles were twenty years ago, only makers would have 
the not inconsiderable advantage of all those years of experience 
in the cycle trade. " Emancipation Day " had come before they 
were ready ; makers had been caught napping, and the result 
was that at present they were not able to meet the demaud 
which was springing up in various parts of the couutry. The 
lecturer traced, with the help of the lantern, the history of the 
motor from 1780, when a steam carriage plied about Paris, and 
he dwelt upon the barriers erected against its extension iu this 
country by the, owing partly to the antipathy of the railway 
companies and the ill-conceived objections of horse-breeders. He 
next discussed the relative advantages of steam and oil as a ; 
motive agency. He classed the principal advantages of steam ' 
as follows : — (1) Eeduced vibration when the car was at a stand- 
still ; (2) the car was self-starting ; and (3) elasticity of working. 
In regard to advantage No. 2, he said that to start the steam car I 
they had simply to open the valve and the machine began, 
whereas with oil engines they had to set the fly-wheel and 
crank into swing positiou, with the cylinders filled with an 
explosive mixture of oil and air before they could secure the 
combustion necessary to get the first natural revolution of the 
fly-wheel. To set against the advantages of steam, they had the 
following advantages in the case of oil engines :— (1) Less 
mechanism and consequent less danger of the machine getting 
out of order ; (2) less need of overhauling ; (3) the simplicity of 
the oil engine would enable it to be driven by any person of 
ordinary iutelligeuce, and would not require an engineer. Mr. 
Tuke dealt with several methods of ignition, and declared iu 
favour of electricity, pointing out that the carriages would run 
300 or 400 miles with one charge, and the cost of refilling the 
electric sparker would not be above 6rf. Summing up, he Baid 
that for heavy work — such as van* carrying a couple of tons or 
omnibuses carrying 20 or 30 persons— he thought steam was 
desirable ; but for light work— cars to carry 10 or 20 cwt., or 
to carry a small party— he had no doubt that the advantage was 
in favour of oil. 



A largelv-attended meeting of the Aberdeen Mechanical 
Society was held recently iu Gordon's College, Aberdeen —Mr. 
Sproul, president, iu the chair— when a paper on "Carriage 
Building " was given by Mr. Robert Shinnie, of Messrs. B. and 
J. Shinnie, eoachbuilders. 

Mr. Shinn-ie remarked that carriage-building included the 
construction of even- kind of vehicle, from the luxurious 
Pullman car to the scarcely less important child's mail car, and | 
had a passing glance at the motor-car movement. Iu dealing 
with carriage- building, he said they might well ask themselves 
where they sttod. Were their past works about to become ' 

obsolete I Their present routine had received a sudden check, 
and large- promises filled the air. If the eagerness with which 
the fulfilment of those promises was searched after, and if the 
anxious throb of expectancy raised with regard • to gigantic 
horseless carriage and motor-car companies, with enormous 
wealth of money and possessions, were any true portents, the 
world was on the eve of changes vastly greater than occurred 
when railways were introduced. Meanwhile they might 
continue discussing the carriage! with which they were familiar, 
and be ready to welcome the vehicles of the future — when they 
come (laughter and applause). Mr. Shinnie then noted that 
carriage-building grouped together a variety of diverse occupa- 
tions or handicrafts, and these he enumerated in this order :— 
(1) Wood workers and "body" makers, (2) under-carriage 
makers, (3) wheelmakers, (4) blacksmiths, (5) trimmers, or 
workers in leather and cloth, (6) painters, (7) draughtsmen and 
designers. In addition to these, he observed that there are 
numerous auxiliary occupations concerned in the industry to 
meet the requirements of special makes of steel and iron, 
_ special timbers, fabrics in silk and cloth, fittings in silver, ivory, 
' and other ornamental materials, colours, and varnishes, leathers 
of various kinds and colours, and he pointed out that the success 
of the finished article very largely depends on the skilful selection 
of the various materials of which the carriage is constructed. 
The lecturer proceeded to describe the various technical pro- 
cesses in carriage-building from the lithographed designs to the 
finished vehicle. After glancing briefly at the historical aspect 
of his subject, comparing the vehicles of the olden time with 
those of later days, Mr. Shinnie concluded with another reference 
to the motor-cir, remarking that great improvements must 
necessarily take place in the present types, alike in the matters 
of gracefulness and weight, before they can become widely 
popular, but with development- on these lines the carriage- 
building of the future may be conducted still more on the 
principles of true art and science. 

In a discussion that followed the reading of the paper, the 
Chairman touched on these last points. It was his view that in 
seeking to attain the grace and lightness in the motor-carriage 
that were yet lacking, engineers and eoachbuilders between 
them may effect such a structural change in the form of vehicles 
as to bring in a new type that shall be alike beautiful and useful. 
Very cordial thanks were awarded to Mr. Shinnie for his paper. 

Tramway Motors for Light Railways. 

The Sydney Minister for Works has had a report from the 
Engineer-in-Chief for Railway Construction with regard to the 
utilisation of tram motors on light lines of railway. In view 
of the recent Light Railways Act the following retume of that 
document will be of interest in this country : — It is intended to 
convert all the steam tramways to electric lines, and the use of 
the motors will of necessity be discontinued. It was Mr. Young's 
idea that the motors might afterwards be put on the pioneer rail- 
ways. Mr. Deaue points out that these tram engines have now 
to take in water every five or six miles. In the country, of course, 
such frequent stoppages would be an impossibility. To obviate 
the difliculty the motors would have to carry tenders holding a 
supply of water, and the weight of the tender with its burden 
would, as a consequence, have to be deducted from the haulage 
capacity of the motor. In a grade of 1 in 20 the motor carrying 
water enough for 10 miles and coke for- 20 could haul 30 tons. 
With a tender carrying sufficient water and coke for a trip of 
50 miles, the haulage would amount to 22 tona. For a grade of 
1 in 50 the loads would be 85 tons and 77 tons respectively ; for 
1 in 80, 132 tons and 124 tons; for 1 in 10", 159 tons and 15L 
tons. While the motors can easily negotiate sharp curves, still, 
if curves such as there are about the city and suburbs were 
adopted in the country, the rolling stock, except the passenger 
carriages, would have to be specially built. Another drawback 
would be that a transfer of freight would be required when the 
maiu lines were reached. 

Digitized by 


Jantaut, 1897,] 




As hon. secretary of the Liverpool and District Centre of the 
Self-Propelled Traffic Association, Mr. Shrapnell Smith has 
been highly successful in his efforts to establish it on a firm 
basis. To quote Sir Davirl Salomons on the occasion of his 
inaugural address at Liverpool, in October last :— " In Mr. 
Shrapnell Smith Lord Derby will find a clever, enthusiastic, 
and nard-workiug honorary secretary." He has been exceed- 
ingly energetic and tactful, while, judging only from the 
experienced manner in which he has worked, many who do 
not personally know him will be surprised to hear that he is 
not yet 22 years of age. 
Youth in his case has by 
no means been a dis- 
advantage, and, judging 
from what he has done 
already at this early stage 
of his career, he should 
have a successful future 
in store for him. 

Mr. Shrapnell Smith 
was educated at the Liver- 
pool College (Modern 
School), St John's Col- 
lege, near Preston, the 
Royal Institution School, 
aiid University College, 
Liverpool. When 16, as 
his father wished him to 
follow either electrical or 
chemical engineering, with 
a view to which he had 
been studying, he was 
apprenticed to the United 
Alkali Company (Ltd.), 
Liverpool, and has gone 
through their head offices 
and the Gaskell and 
Deacon's Works (Widnes) 
of this great Syndicate. 
At these works Mr. Smith 
is now stationed as assis- 
tant chemist and process 

The accounts of the 
Paris- Rouen race in 1894 
led Mr. Smith to make an 
exhaustive examination 
of the early English 
records and exploits, 
which convinced him of 
the great possibilities of 
mechanical road-haulage, 
and when Sir David 
Saloinons's now historic 
letter inviting communi- 
cations appeared in the Press, he was one of the first to take 
advantage of this opportunity to join hands with those who 
were desirous of effecting the removal of the anomalous condi- 
tion of things which then existed in this country. Attendance 
at the great meeting of December 10th, 1895, at the Cannon 
Street Hotel, when the Self-Propelled Traffic Association was 
formed, succeeded as a matter of course, and this was followed 
by an opportunity of enjoying Sir David's hospitality on the 
occasion of his entertaining the committees of the French and 
Belgian Automobile Clubs in July last. 

On March the 2nd of last year Mr. Smith lectured in Liver- 
pool on " Horseless Carriages and Motocycles ; their History 
and Prospects," for which purpose he received much valuable 
help and the loan of slides from Sir David Salomons, Bart., 
Mr. W. Worby Beaumont, and Mr. J. H. Knight. 

This lecture was the fourth or fifth out of Loudon, but interest 

I in Liverpool was so small that scarcely one hundred j>eopIe 

I were present, and the local Press allocated barely 20 lines to a 

report — a very different state of affairs to what obtained when 

he lectured at the Picton Lecture Hall eight mouths later. 

The acceptance by Mr. Shrapnell Smith of" the honorary local 
secretaryship of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association was 
delayed for some considerable time, on account of a projected 
visit to South America which was not concluded, and with 
the appointment his duties quickly increased. On September 9th 
of last year the first move of the Association was made in 
Liverpool, when Mr. Smith arranged for Mr. W. Worby 
Beaumont to go down there, under the auspices of the Self- 
Propelled Traffic Association, to address the Liverpool Incor- 
porated Chamber of Com- 
merce on the subject of 
" Motor Vehicles for 
Heavy Traffic." In taking 
steps to form a local 
council it was found that 
the objects of the Asso- 
ciation readily commended 
themselves to all those 
who were invited to be- 
come members thereof, 
and, after several private 
interviews with the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Derby, 
on October 1st, 1896, 
a deputation formally 
waited upon the then 
Chief Magistrate of Liver- 
pool and received his 
acceptance of the local 

Mr. Shrapnell Smith's 
idea of a programme for 
the local branch was to 
provide a series of papers 
on the various phases of 
the movement, and to 
arrange for an exhibition 
of modern self-propelled 
vehicles at the earliest 
date, when a variety of 
types might be hoped for. 
The former has lieen suc- 
cessfully carried out, and 
the latter rests with his 
Council. All the work, 
so far, has been carried 
on with encouraging signs 
of public interest. 

In order to cany out 
the heavy detail work of 
his office Mr. Smith has 
had "to burn the mid- 
night oil " by no means 
unfreqiiently, for all his 
secretarial duties have been discharged single-handed, and 
in no case has his "hobby" been allowed to interfere with 
the due performance of his engagements in the chemical trade. 
In the course of our interview with Mr. Shrapnell Smith, he 
said : — " At present, my interest in the matter is entirely 
scientific ; from the first indication, the revival of road loco- 
motion has exercised a peculiarly fascinating influence over me, 
and I was unable to refrain from identifying myself with the 
pioneer work in some capacity." We also gathered that the 
humanitarian aspect appeals very forcibly in Mr. Smith's case, 
and his sympathy in tlie matter is undoubtedly intensified by 
the exceptionally hilly nature of the Liverpool streets. 

Mr. Shrapnell Smith is to be heartily congratulated on the 
excellent results which have attended his efforts ; while the 
Council of the Association could hardly have found a gentleman 


Digitized by 




[Janiaev, 1897. 

more fitted in every way for the position which he no admirably 
occupies. Before accepting the post, we understand that he 
gave a written undertaking to the Association. that he would not 
invest in or accept any commissions from motor-car companies. 
This is a very desirable guarantee, in that he is enabled to 
appear in public without fear or favour, but it need not preclude 
his one day becoming a leadiug spirit iu some of the numerous 
large carrying undertakings that are likely to come into existence 
for the establishment of traffic routes between centres of com- 
merce. We venture to assert that he would prove a great 
acquisition to any such enterprise. 


— — ♦ — .. . 

The following notice of motion has been given by Mr. G. 
Yarrow Baldock for consideration at the next meeting of the 
Hackney Vestry :— -"That, in consideration of the large and 
continually increasing amounts paid by this Vestry for horse- 
hire and cartage, and with a view to facilitate the work of 
'slopping and dusting ' being undertaken entirely by the Vestry 
without the intervention of a contractor, it be referred to the 
General Purposes Committee and to the Sauitary Committee 
jointly to report as early as may be : — («) As to the practica- 
bility and possible economy of employing for the purposes of 
the Vestry carts and vans driven by electric or other automatic 
motors ; (b) As to the advisability of fitting suitable motors to 
the water-carts and other vehicles at present the property of the 
Vestry ; (c) As to the advisability of the purchase by the 
Vestry for experimental purposes of a motor-van or vans of the 
most approved pattern designed for the collection of refuse and 
scavenging. And further, tliat the said joint committee be and 
is hereby authorised to obtain all such necessary estimates, plans, 
drawings, and specifications as will enable the fullest possible 
information (specially as to the probable capital outlay and cost 
of maintenance) being embodied in the report for the guidance 
of the Vestry." 


In view of the prominence which the question of street loco- 
motion has assumed, a description of the motor-car which Mr. 
James Murrie, consulting engineer, 264, St. Vincent Street, 
Glasgow, h;is laid before the local Corporation Tramway Com- 
mittee will be read with interest. The motive power is 
compressed hot air, which is compressed at a station by a gas- 
eugine to a pressure of 2,000 lbs. per square inch. When heated 
it is stored in accumulators consisting of nests of solid drawn 
steel tubing, enveloped by a fluid maintained at a temperature 
of 800 degrees. Each station is placed as near a tramway 
terminus as possible, and the hot air is conveyed from the 
accumulators through small flexible metallic tubes to a pillar on 
the street. The car having been drawn up opposite this pillar, 
the end of the tube is attached to another coupling on the car, 
and the reservoir of the latter is charged, and the tube dis- 
connected in less than half a minute. In cases where it is 
incouvenient to have fixed stations, the generating appliance 
may be erected on carriages which, having been charged, are 
run along the tramway rails to the motor-car into which the 
hot air is transmitted through coupled tubes resembling those 
used iu connection with the Westinghouse brake on railway 
trains. The reservoir underneath the car consists of several 
solid drawn, mild steel tubes encased in asbestos with an outer 
metallic jacket. One of these reservoirs will store sufficient air 
to propel the car for eight mile*, or, by adding to the weight, a 
reservoir can be made to contain enough to propel the car for 
24 miles. The motor, which is fitted below the car, consists of 
six cylinders, each operating on an axle crank set at an angle of 
60 degrees to its neighbour. It will propel the car in either 

direction, and works up to 25 indicated horse-power. The 
motor is arranged to' ait as an air compressor, and when the 
action is reversed it serves as a brake, energy being stored in 
descending a hill or in stopping. The car starts gently. A small 
independent motor coupled to a dynamo supplies the current U> 
four 20-candle electric lights at an estimated total cost of a 
penny per hour. In front of the wheels at each end of the car 
is a revolving life guard. A dial in the interior of the ear 
automatically shows the route and the streets that are being 
traversed. The tickets are stamped automatically with .the 
names of the streets at which the passenger enters or leaves the 
car, so that the conductor does not require to leave the platform 
where he receives the fares from the passengers as they leave. 
Three brakes are attached to the car — the motor, a modified 
Westinghouse, and a lever brake. The weight of motors, 
reservoirs, &c, average 1H cwt. per car for a run of eight miles, 
or 28 cwt. for a pin of 24 miles. Mr. Murrie estimates thtit 
the cost of running such a car will range from 1|</. to 2d. per 
mile, according to the type of engine used at the station, these 
sums including a!l charges for energy, such as fuel, repairing 
of motors, depreciation, wages at ttations and insurance, but 
makiug no allowance for management. 


To Mr. Hugh Inglos, who is a son of General Inglos and a 
connection of Lord St Oswald, is due the credit of introducing 
motor- carriages to Royalty. This event took place at a house 
party given by Lady Sheffield, when H.R.H. the Duke of 
Cambridge, K.G., availed himself of the opportunity of indulging 
in a drive in a carriage smartly driven by Mr. H. Inglos. The 
motor was an oil one of a modified Daimler type. Subsequently 
at Doncaster Mr. Hugh Inglos — who is interested in the 
Omnium Supply Company gave a lecture on the horseless 
carriage, in the course of which he alluded to its many advan- 
tages, stating that it took up no stable room, and would ruu 
from 50 to 100 miles with one charge of fluid, and would attain 
a speed of from 12 to 30 miles an hour with ease, and continue 
it night and day. Motors could be made to any necessary 
home-power, and could be fitted with specially constructed 
pneumatic tyres on the latest improved silencing systems ; any 
part could be renewed at any time, and vehicles could be run 
either slow, half speed, or full speed, and could be replaced at 
once ; and any youth could drive them with absolute safety. 
Compared with horses and carriages the motor-carriage was 
cheaper both in cost and maintenance, and he looked to the day 
when the farmer would have his own light railway, practically, 
and would go to market and back again, and send his produce 
with ease and economy. If wanted expeditiously, no time was 
lost in lookiug for the groom or harnessing the horse ; a match 
was simply struck, and the auto-carriage began to move. To 
medical men he could conceive no greater boon, and how handy 
it was for running to and from the station with passengers and 
luggage ? France and America had for some time been in the 
field in the making of these cars, but England was only just 
beginning to develop its strength. He further dwelt upon the 
various motive powers used — steam, oil, and electricity, and he 
said that he believed, and his own opinion was, that steam, 
notwithstanding its present disadvantages in the weight of 
machinery and so forth, would eventually held its own, but, at 
present, steam was not nearly so suitable as oil or electricity. 
Electricity had the disadvantage of the weight of the accumu- 
lators, and oil practically was the best motor they possessed at 
the present moment. There was also compressed air, but this, 
so far, had proved unsuitable for the purpose. He remarked 
that there were various kinds of oil engines, and described the 
many valuable patents which were essential to the building of 
good oil engines, and, in conclusion, he expressed his strong convic- 
tion thai; English engineers, who could still build the best ships 
and the best locomotive engines, would hold their own in 
building the best and most economical motor-cars. 

Digitized by 


J .tier art, 1897. J 




Excitement was recently caused in Oxford Street by tho 
taking fire of a motor-car which wa9 proceeding along the 
ctreet. The driver on discovering the mishap speedily 
brought the car to a standstill alongside the pavement. 
A cry of " Fire ! " was raised, and a large crowd rapidly 
(fathered round the vehicle and assisted in extinguishing 
the flames. 

— — ♦ 

Queen Christina of Spain is the only Sovereign who 
possesses an automotor. The carriage, which has been 
on view in London for some time, has now been forwarded 
to the Royal lady. 


The Tramway Committee of the Glasgow Corporation 
have agreed to postpone for a month consideration of the 
report by the genoral manager and his engineer in regard 
to the various tramway motors in use in American cities 
which they had visited. 


The Fifeshire County Council are not satisfied with the 
Scotch regulations for motor-carriages — although they 
are already more stringent thau those in vogue in 
England. The alterations which tbey seek are as 
follows :- — 

Art II.— (2) That on roads under 16 feet wide, the width of 
light locomotives allowed to travel thereon be not above 4 feet 
'J inches. That no light locomotive he allowed on any road 
under 13 feet in width. (3) That the width of tyre be made 
t<> correspond to the weight, of a light locomotive when loaded. 
6) That there be shown on each locomotive weighing lj tons 
or upwards, the weight of the locomotive unladen, and the 
maximum weight which it is to be allowed to carry or draw. 
(!i) That there be two lamps, one on each side of each loco- 
mutive. Further, that provision be made that the person in 
i harge of a light locomotive shall be not less than 18 years of 
;ige, and shall be certified as qualified to be in charge of light 

Pakis, like London, has been visited with a motor- 
carriage fire. It was five o'clock and just dark on a 
December night, when a sudden fire broke out in the 
middle of the street, flames shooting up to the second floor 
»f the houses. People catnu running up from all sides, 
and a couple of minutes later the fire-engines appeared 
upon the scene and played their hoses on a burning 
motor-carriage. The reservoir, containing six gallons of 
nil, had caught fire, setting aflame the woodwork. The 
carriage, or rather van, belonged to a bootmaker of the 
Boulevard des Italiens, but the boots were cleared out in 

That fearful and wonderful invention, the Keeley 
motor, is once more to the fore. Apergy is, we are told 
by an American correspondent, the name of the " force " 
claimed for the motor. It is thus defined : — " It is 
obtained by simply blending negative and positive 
electricity with electricity of the third element or state, 
and by charging a body sufficiently with this fluid, gravi- 
tation is partly reversed, and the earth repels the body 
with the same or greater power thau that with which it 
formerly attracted it, to that it may be caused to move 

away into space." Tho beauty of the explanations as to 
the Keeley motor is that they are all so simple and so 
beautifully clear that anyone — even the most unscientific 
— can understand thorn at a glance. When will that 
motor work 'i 

The Hon. Chas. Rolls, youngest son of Lord Llan- 
gattoek, the Hendre, Monmouth, has been perambulating 
the country during the holidays with his Pbugeot motor- 
pi aeton, which we illustrated in our last issue. He made 
an exceptionally good journey from Gloucester to Ross, 
which compensated him for his disappointment in not 
being able to take part in the historical trip to Brighton. 

M. Le>ine, Prefect of Police, is a convert to the practical 
utility of the automobile. He ha3 written to the Paris 
Municipal Council asking permission to take from the 
money at his disposal about £140 for the purchase of a 
machine worked by petroleum for the traction of a tire- 
engine, ladders, and so forth, and for the conveyance 
of the necessary staff of pompiers. If the experiment 
prove successful, as is anticipated, horses will eventually 
be entirely replaced by automobiles in the fire brigade. 
This is a very significant move, and it speaks volumes for 
the progress which is being achieved on the Continent. 

About £100 damage was done by firo recently in the 
office of Mr. George Johnstone, Hope Street, Glasgow. 
There were some patented drawings of motor-cars in the 
office which were, fortunately, saved from destruction. 

The new electrical system of tramways now in course 
of construction in Leeds is to be ready for tho use of the 
public by Whitsuntide. 

The Corporation of Halifax have lodged a Private Hill 
empowering the authority to construct motor tramways. 
They ask for powers to work the system themselves, and 
to charge a passenger fare at the rate of a penny per mile 
or fraction of a mile. They also seek authority to use tho 
tramways for sanitary purposes, "and for the conveyance 
of scavenging stuffs, road metal, and other materials 
required for the works of the Corporation free of all tolls 
and charges in respect of such use." Officers of the Cor- 
poration when on duly are to be carried free of charge, fares 
are not to be raised on Sundays and holidays, and borrow- 
ing powers for the purposes of the Act, to the extent of 
£20,000, are taken. 

The Neath Corporation seek Parliamentary powers to 
work all tramways within their jurisdiction. 

♦— — 

The Huddersfield Town Council have adopted similar 
resolutions— so that the day of the promoter in tho 
provinces seems to be waning. 

Perth tramways have been a great success, ami tho 
directors have a substantial balance after allowing for 

K 'I 

Digitized by 




[JxsrABT, 1897. 

We are very pleased to hear thot the young girl Dyer, 
who was injured by being knocked down by a motor-car 
at Crawley during the motor-car parade last November, 
has been discharged from Crawley Hospital quite recovered 

from, the mishap. 

» ■ 

In a recent issue we commented upon Mrs. Wood's 
invention of a motor-horse. But as this idea comes from 
the opposite sex, we allow our contemporary, Woman, to 
supply a further commentary upon it : — 

Women, it has often been said, seldom excel in the business 
of original creation or invention, for their faculties are chiefly 
imitative and not inventive, but the lady who will shortly exhibit 
a remarkable patent at the Crystal Palace proves that even a 
woman's brain is occasionally capable of flights of mechanical and 
inventive genius. The invention is a petroleum motor in the 
shape of ahorse, which can be attached to any vehicle and be 
controlled by a driver from the box-seat of the carriage or ridden 
as an ordinary steed. A small waste-pipe is run under the 
carriage to the rear, where all the vapour and smoke is given off, 
thus saving all inconvenience to the passengers from that source. 
The inveutor of this motor-horse is Mrs. Wood, of Mitcham, and 
she claims by it to have appropriated all the advantages of the 
motor-carriages, which will so soon be seen in our streets, without 
any of their numerous disadvantages. I shall he interested to 
see this invention, but it is to be hoped that Mrs. Wood has not 
really attempted to imitate the outward form of the horse. The 
result of such a proceeding could only be comic. 

Woman is, of course, illogical. Take away the " outward 
form of the horse" and what remains of the novelty? 
Surely our friend from Mitcham conld not be expected to 
design an ordinary traction-engine ! 

opinions as to the rate of progress by nearly 25 per cent., 
while the lowest figure mentioned will in nearly every 
case be higher than that at which tho vehicle is moving. 

The members of the Cardiff County Council have been 
for some time past almost equally divided in their opinion 
as to how the tramway line3 should be owned. As ft 
natural consequence, debates have been many while the 
decisions were but few. At last, however, they have come 
to a resolution, which runs as follows : — 

That the Corporation buy the lines and depots for £61,500 ; 
that they lease them to the Company for 15 years at a rental of 
5£ per cent, of the purchase money ; and that the existing lines 
be made equal to new at the cost of the Company, that the lines 
be doubled where necessary and convenient, that the fares be 
not raised, that the Company introduce electrical or any other 
mechanical traction when desired by the Corporation, and that 
all extensions and newly constructed lines be rented on the 
basis of 5i per cent 

»— — 

There have been some convictions during the month 
for furious driving, more particularly in the Midlands. 
When, however, a policeman or anyone else swears that a 
speed of 20 miles an hour has been exceeded, it by no 
means follows that it has. We should like to take X 2410 
along a country road on a frosty day nt 10 miles an hour 
and ask him for his estimated rate of running — the 
probabilities are that he would state a record-breaking 


I.\ fact, there is nothing so hard to estimate as the speed 
of a passing vehicle whea it travels at anything over nine 
miles an boui\ Let half a dozen men, taken at haphazard, 
stand at a corner and see a carriage driven by at top 
speed, and we will venture a fairly heavy wager that if 
they state their hon?st opinions they shall differ in their 

When the time comes for revising the law, driving to 
the danger of the public must be the factor which is to 
determine a man's guilt or innoceucc and not any pre- 
sumption as to the actual speed at which one progresses. 

Mention of the fact that motor-cars are prohibited 
from passing up or down the Long Walk in Windsor 
Park has already been made. A further notice has been 
posted to tho following effect: — "Motor-carriages and 
other locomotives are not allowed on the private roads in 
the Park." 

| ' Any Corporation which may contemplate taking over 

the undertaking of a tramway or other company, &c, 

i within its borough boundaries, will do well to follow the 

prudent example of Sheffield. The Corporation of that 

i town have managed to come to a pri/ats agreement with 

the Tramways Company to purchase the whole of their 

undertaking for £27,500, and when it is known that tho 

I original demand of the company was £31,000, and tlio 

| original offer of the Council £27,000, it must be admitted 

| that the lattsr have made a very good bargain. Speaking 

| from the point of view of public bodies, and consequently 

| of the ratepayers, we may Fay that it is decidedly the 

best policy in such matters to arrive at- a compromise 

without arbitration. 


The Streets Committee of the Middlesborough Cor- 
poration have appointed a committee to meet and consult 
with thair neighbours — the Councils of Thornaby and 
Stockton — as to the conditions upon which electric tram- 
ways are to be jointly allowed in the districts mentioned. 

" Anecdotes " is responsible for a statement that a 
qnick-firing gun which can discharge 700 rounds a minute 
and travel 45 miles an hour has be3n perfected, and is in 
truth a reality of war. The writer continues : — " The 
effect of 50 or 100 of these machines of war charging 
into a large body of troops, or run through a city at a 
high rate of speed, firing their deadly missiles on the 
inhabitants as they rushed through, can readily be 
imagined." Well, yes, Jules Verne has long ago imagined 
all this — but when will the reality come ? It is easy to 
edit a newspaper of the popular Bits order. One has 
oidy to describe an absolute achievement of the apparently 
j impossible and the trick is done. 

As reported elsewhere, the Glasgow Corporation have 
I considered the proposal of Sir William Arrol and Mr. 
I George Johnstone to equip, free of cost, a section of their 

tramway system for the demonstration of the Johnstono 
I motor-car. The proposal was rejected, and the Corporation 

adhered to their decision to give a fair trial to any motor 
I which may be exhibited for inspection, and, generally, 
I to give all inventors reasonable facilities to do so. It 
I was also resolved that Mr. Young's report on his American 

investigations should be circulated. 

Digitized by 


Jahpaet, 1897.] 



Altogether 11 applications have been made to the 
Light Railway Commissioners from the promoters of 
light railway schemes throughout the country, and pre- 
parations will be at once made by the Commissioners for 
considering them. 

In order to carry out an improved system of electrical 
working, the South Staffordshire Tramways Company is 
to be reconstructed. A sum of £140,000 is to be raised 
on 4| per cent, debentures, while the interest on the 
preference shares is to be reduced to five per cent. The 
charges thus created will amount to £10,600 per annum. 

We learn, on the authority of such a competent judge 
as Lord Lonsdale, that motor-car3 are not likely to inter- 
fere with coaching as a form of sport. Some day, he 
says, motor-cars may replace omnibuses, vans, drays, 
and carts, though ho holds the opinion that enormous 
improvements will have to be effected before the new 
vehicles can do that ; bnt he confidently says that " they 
will never oust the carriages and traps in general, except 
in the way of night work in London, or heavy work in 
the country." Asked to give a reason for his confidence, 
Lord Lonsdale replied: "Well, just for the same reason 
that men do not go grouse-shooting with Maxim guns — 
because there is no sport in the other thing." 

The introduction of the motor-car into Wales was 
marked by an unfortunate but unavoidable accident. 
One of Thornycroft's horseless carriages had been pur- 
chased for conveying ship's stores, &ca, from Cardiff to 
Barry Dock, and was brought by road from London. 
When near Cardiff Infirmary Mr. W. Duncan, the secre- 
tary to the purchasing company, in attempting to remount 
the car while in motion, slipped, and before the carriage 
could be stopped, had one of his big toes crushed, and 
amputation was necessary. 

The New York Post Office authorities believe that 
horseless wagons will prove cheaper and more expeditious 
than the vans at present in use. Their success in this 
respect has been demonstrated elsewhere, and it is 
expected that ere long the new vehicles will entirely 
displace the old-fashioned horse-drawn Post Office vans. 
The chief advantage claimed for the motor-car is thit 
it runs so smoothly in the streets and roads that the 
letters and other mail matter can be sorted and stamped 
in transit, as in a travelling Post Office on the railway. 
In this way the mails can be taken from the points of 
collection direct to the train ; and thas a considerable 
amount of time is saved. For parcel post purposes, in 
this country, horse vans, in some places around London 
especially, are utilised instead of the railway during the 
night. Should the American experiment of road and 
street sorting motor-carriages prove successful, we may 
by-and-bye see them introduced into Englaud. 

poration power to raise money for the purpose of con- 
structing tramways— £83,050 — and will enable them to 
work the tramways themselves or by their lessees, and 
to use steam locomotive, cable, electric, or other 
mechanical power. 

The Company which has recently laid down in New 
York an improved underground trolley conduit for 
working their electrical tramway system is, as might 
be expected, in difficulties, owing to the cold weather and 
snowstorms which have recently prevailed in America. 
The engineers concerned, however, say they are confident 
that they can keep the conduits clear. It is well for us 
that the experiment should be tried in the States ; for 
if they can ever, which is more than doubtful, get an 
underground system of electric mains for tramway pur- 
poses which will work satisfactorily in all weathers it 
would soon be universally adopted in this country. Of 
course, always premising that the cost is kept within 

reasonable limits. 


The Blackburn Corporation have agreed to renew the 
lease of the local Tramways Company on their substituting 
electric for horse traction on two of their three routes. 
The Corporation will supply the Company with electricity 
at the price of 2^d. per unit up to 140,000 units, and 
2d. per unit above that quantity, and will provide over- 
head wires and poles, the Company to maintain their own 
motors and electrical plant. 

The Bradford Corporation have deposited in the 
Private Bill Office of the House of Commons for con- 
sideration during the ensuing session a " Tramways and 
Improvement" Bill. The measuie will give the Cor- 

An ingenious excuse was recently made by a West 
Ham farrier for neglecting to maintain his wife and 
family. He said that since he saw a motor-car he had 
not the heart to shoe any more horses. The Bench 
thought he was suffering from that species of " motor- 
ataxy " which ordinary people call laziuess, and sent him 
for a month to a place where exercise on the treadmill 
has usually an exhilarating effect. 

The Sale District Council have decided to oppose the 
tramway scheme of the Manchester Carriage and Tram- 
ways Company, solely on the ground that the proposed 
overhead electrical wire system is nnsightly, aud objec- 
tionable in many other respects. 

The officials of the Loudon Road-Car Company enjoyed 
a very successful dinner on the 7th inst. Of course tlie 
subject of motor-carriages could not be kept out of the 
Rpecches, and while regretting the " loss of their fellow 
four-footed labourers " — as some present called them — 
they were all ready to welcome any improvements which 
might bo brought forward. 

Our cab strike can hardly bo said to have produced 
much of a revolution in London locomotion. But in New 
York they are just at tho expectant stag.i at which wc 
were some two or three months ago. The New Yorkers 
are also indulging in the luxury of a cab strike. It is n 
more formidable affair in the land of freedom than in 
London. There the striker pulls out his revolver and 
shoots nt sight. 

K 3 

Digitized by 




[Jantabt, 1897. 


A deputation from the Aberdeen Town Council recently came 
to Loudon for the purpose of inspecting motor-carriages, with 
the object of recommending to their colleagues which system 
would be most suitable for the purposes of the Board. As a 
)K>werful vehicle capable of carrying some 20 persons to and 
from the beach is required in Aberdeen, none of the oil motor- 
driven vehicles were in any way suited to their wants, but 
conducted by Mr. G. Hopkins, of Parliament Street, and Mr. 
Julius Harvey, of Queen Victoria Street, to the Serpollet depot 
at Willesden, they there saw two diverse vehicles which enabled 
them to thoroughly test the merits of the steam -carriage. One 
was a small vehicle like a phaeton to hold four per* ns, and the 
other was a large tramcar to carry 50 passengers. 

As it is understood that the members of the deputation 
reported favourably on steam, as represented by M. Serpollet's 
invention, we quote as follows from the statement of one of 
the representatives. He writes : — 

" We had not many minutes to wait until Mr. Oust, the 
engineer, representing M. Serpollet, announced that he was 
ready to demonstrate the capabilities of the tramcar. In the 
rails leading out of the shed there is an awkward double curve 
like the letter 'S,' and it was a point of interest with the 

conductor is placed on the front platform. The boiler consists 
of a group of tubes so arranged that the heat of the furnace 
can play freely round them. Water, injected by means of a 
powerful hand-pump, is immediately converted into steam, and 
it i9 one of the features of the Serpollet system that an increase 
of several horse -power can be obtained in an instant by one or 
two strokes of the hand-pump. The advantage of this is 
evident. When a vehicle reaches a hill or a road along which 
travelling is heavy, additional power is required, and the use of 
the hand-pump in the case of a Serpollet car has been described 
as analogous to an application of the whip in the case of horses. 

^W^ T 


Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. 

deputation to observe how the car would negotiate the curve. 
As a matter of fact, it turned easily, if not elegantly, and was 
promptly switched on to a private line extending for about 
200 yards along the side of the commodious premises. The 
visitors having entered the vehicle, it glided down a slight 
gradient to the end of the line at the rate of about five miles an 
hour. On reaching the bottom, the engines were immediately 
reversed, and the c»r made its way back again, climbing the 
hill with no apparent effort. The journey was repeated again 
and again, more power being applied at every fresh start until a 
speed of about 10 miles an hour was attained. There was 
very little noise, and no smell. The use of coke prevents smoke, 
and the steam esctpes as if by stealth. 

" The car, which was built a few months ago, was for some 
time in use on the streets of Paris before being taken to London 
for exhibition purposes. Although the vehicle we saw differs in 
many res|>ects from the sort which would be suitable for traffic 
in Aberdeen, a brief description of it may be interesting. It is 
built to accommodate 20 persons inside. 24 on the top, and six 
on the front platform, the outside passengers being protected 
from rain by a roof. The front of the tram resemble* an 
ordinary car, except that six seats are placed under a kind of 
verandah. At the back are the appliances for driving and 
regulating the car. Here may be seen the furuace, the auto- 
matic oil pump, the handles by which the motive pjwer is 
npplied, and, in short, all the paraphernalia of a locomotive on a 
small scale. There is room at the back for only one man to 
attend to all the functions of regulating ami driving, while the 

Another material advantage claimed for the Serpollet boiler i* 
that it cannot bnrsti The tubes are filled, not with water, hut 
with steam merely, and, in the case of a negligent driver allow- 
ing the tubes to be overheated, all that can occur is an escaiie 
of steam and a stoppage of the car for tbe time being. The 
engine -a very powerful-looking little thing — is subtly concealed 
between the two pairs of wheels. Motive power is applied to 
the running wheels by a series of cogged wheels, the pistons and 
connecting-rods so conspicuous in a locomotive being absent 
here. Were it not for the compartment at the back of the car, 
and a suggestion of unusual solidarity, there would be difficulty 
in distinguishing it from the ordinary tramcars we see on the 
streets every day." 

Fio. 3. 

Apropos of this visit, and of the favourable comments made 
by Sir David Salomons as to the future prospects of steam as 
represented by the Serpollet boiler, we append a few illustrations 
showing the details of tubes and some views of carriages wliL'li 
have been recently constructed in Frauce. We have received 
so many queries from correspondents on this subject that we are 
pleased to have an opportunity of affording the information 
which we have been repeatedly asked for. 

Fig. I shows a section of the form of tube which has been 
adopted after several trials. It is made out of steel tube, the 
slit in the centre being a 1 ! the water or steam space which is 
provided, so that it has an enormous reserve of strength. The 
boiler is, in fact, constructed on the principle of a practically 

Digitized _by 


.Iakvarv. 1897.] 



instantaneous conversion of the water supply into 
steam of the pressure required — the supply of water 
being automatically supplied as steam is used iu the 
cylinders. These tubes are coupled up as shown iu 
h'ig. 2, while Fig. 3 shows in detail the method in 
which the joints are made. 

The combination of stamped sections of the shape 
shown in Fig. 1 and the drawn tubes of the joint 
marked A in Fig. 3 are arranged in the fire-box, so 
that only the stamped section is exposed to the full 
force of the hot gases ; the tubes A are only sub- 
jected to much lower heat ; while the threaded ends, 
K, are altogether outside of the fire-box. In this way 
•Treat safety and strength-pressures of 1,500 lbs. 
and upwards have been frequently applied at very 
high temperatures without any distortion of the 
tubes. This has been demonstrated repeatedly, and an 
iustance may be given : — One of the extremities of 
nn element (an element being the group of tubes 
shown in Fig. 2) was closed, and the other was 
■•onnected with a test pump. When the element 
had been heated in a forge fire to a temperature of 
from 780° F. to 900° F. water was injected into it at 
varying pressures up to 3,000 lbs. without any percep- 
tible distortion. In practice the Oontrole de-s Mines 
of France certify these tubes as safe at 1,500 lbs., 
and this is done by virtue of a Ministerial older 

issued after an elaborate series of experiments in 
1888. It will be readily seen that the tube elements, 
as they are called, can be readily grouped in prism 
arrangements, so that they can be used as horse- 
power varying between two horse-power and 50. 
One enormous advantage of the thickness of tubes 
used — besides that of safety — is that a considerable 
amount of heat is stored in the tubes, and this is 
taken up by the cold water as it is pumped in. If 
they were thin in section the great disparity in 
temperatures would soon lead to a disruption in 
shape from this cause alone, without any reference 
to the poor efficiency which would ensue. With 
regard to the general details of the Serpnllrt engine 
and carriage, we hold over until we have an 
opportunity of illustrating and describing in detail 
a new carriage which is about to lie placed on the 
market. Iu the meantime, however, we avail our- 
selves of the courtesy of Mr. A. It. Sennett, who 
has lent us blocks with which we illustrate, on this 
page, various foi-ms of Serpollet steam carriages, 
which may be taken as types of those hitherto 
introduced by the maker. We may mention that 
these views will appear in a book which will be 
shortly published by Messrs. Whittiker and Co., 
entitled "Horseless Road Locomotion: its History 

K I. 

Digitized by 




[Jantaht, 1807. 

and Modern Development." This work is from Mr. Sennett's 
pen, and from the advance proofs which we have had an 
opportunity of examining, we can safely state that this volume 
will become one of the standard authorities on motor matters. 



The annual social gathering of Messrs. Atkinson and Philipson's 
employes, their wives and friends, to the number of nearly 200, 
took place at Newcastle-on-Tyne on New Year's Eve. At the 
concert which succeeded the tea, Mr. John Philipson presided, 
and presented the prizes to the deserving apprentices. He 
remarked that it was the 38th anniversary of the first pre- 
sentation, and he believed his system had the desired effect, 
in encouraging improvement in work and the habit of punc- 
tuality. The motor-carriage would take a certain place on the 
roads which were now open to it, but he did not think it would 
interfere to any marked extent with the manufacture of English 
pleasure carriages and of harness. Motor-carriage building 
would be a distinct branch, and he hoped shortly to have a 
wing of their manufactory devoted to the purpose. The greatest 
caution was necessary in the selection of a motor, as, up to the 
present time, the engines were far from perfect ; but he and 
his sons were working and watching carefully, so that they 
might, at the earliest possible moment, be able to offer some- 
thing reliable to the public. This, he believed, was the best 
way to keep the industry in their hands, as the coachmaker, 
owing to bis special knowledge of carriage construction and 
suspension, was the proper and most capable person to produce 
a carriage which would work without noise or vibration, and 
would run smoothly, and be comfortable and durable. The 
concert was followed by a dance, in which Messrs. William 
and John Philipson, junr., took part. 

Motor Vehicles to Convey Produce 
Queen's County. 


Some further particulars are to hand as to a service of auto- 
motor vehicles which will be shortly established in the southern 
jiortion of Queen's County. It is proposed to run vehicles both 
for goods and passenger traffic from Johnstown, in the county 
Kilkeuny, to Ballybrophy Station, calling at Rathdowney and 
continuing to Borris-in-Ossory. The district is an important 
one for grain and green crops, and there is almost a continual 
line of heavy vans on the roads in the harvest time conveying 
the produce to the Ballybrophy Station. It is also an important 
line for cattle conveyance. Nearly all the young cattle brought 
up to the Queen's County for fattening come from the south and 
west portions of Limerick County and from Kerry. They are 
nearly all discharged at the Ballybrophy Station, and after a 
large fair in either of these counties the roads round Bally- 
brophy are studded with lots of cattle for the different graziers 
living about. A great many of the cattle have from time to 
time to be brought from the station to their destination on cars 
and cart-'. The motor-cars will be fitted up for the purpose of 
taking over that traffic also as well as the conveyance of sheep 
and swine. 

The country which the new service will open up is a rich and 
iniportmt one. There has been almost a continual movement 
amongst the people there for a railway line through it. The 
proposal to run motors for the light traffic of the district has 
given a great deal of satisfaction in tha locality. The project 
nvgina'el with a wealthy resident in the neighbourhood of 
JolirHtown, with whose name more than one enterprise in the 
district ii associated. 

Cardiff Adopts Motors. 

The South Wales Motor-Car and Cycle Company (Limited), 
has been registered with a capital of £5,000 in 1,000 £5 shares, 
and the whole of the shares issued have been taken up by 
merchants, snippers, and traders connected with the Cardiff 
Docki. The directorate consists of Mr. E. L. Downing, Captain 
Hamilton Murrell, Mr. T. R. Thomas, Mr. R. T. Duncan, and 
Mr. H. Thomas. The headquarters of the Company will be 
119, Bute Road, Cardiff. The premises are now undergoing 
extensive alteration, and will soon contain a varied assortment 
of motors and cycles. The Company's engineer submitted an 
exhaustive report on the different types of motors, and in the 
first instance recommended the purchase of a steam motor van, 
steam being the best and most easily managed motive power 
known up to date. The Company adopted the recommendation, 
and forthwith placed an order for a steam motor-van with the 
Steam Carriage and Wagon Company (Limited). 

The type of van built at the Chiswick works is well known, 
as we have fully described and illustrated it in our columns, 
especially in our last issue. The van was run down to Cardiff 
by road, the distance traversed being 158 miles, while the total 
time under steam on the journey was 25 hours — the load carried 
being about half a ton. The roads between London and Oxford 
were in very bad condition, being up for at least one-third of 
the distance. From Oxford the second day's journey was on 
rather better roads, while the last run from Gloucester through 
Chepstow to Newport and Cardiff was over very hilly roads, but 
every acclivity was successfully climbed. Not the slightest 
stoppage was necessary on the way for either adjustment or 
repair, and the van arrived at Cardiff in as good a condition as 
it was in when it left Chiswick. 

The new van will not be a mere advertisement, but will have to 
earn its own living. It will be a familiar object about the docks 
collecting and delivering, and when convenient making trips 
to Newport and Barry on the same mission. A large amount 
of work has already been promised for the van by shareholders, 
who calculate upon effecting a great saving over the present 
system in vogue. It will be decidedly interesting to watch 
the outcome cf the experiment, which may lead to an extensile 
industrial development in the district. 

We have recently had an opportunity of minutely inspecting 
and testing the driving chains manufactured by Messrs. Brampton 
Bros., of the Oliver Street Works, Birmingham. It is rather late 
in the day to testify to the excellence of finish which this firm 
have achieved in their products, but the exquisite finish of 
their manufactures and the consistent strength which is main- 
tained by them in all their varied output are worthy of the 
highest praise which can be given. In their own speciality they 
are without rivals. 

Motor-Cars in the Isle of Man. 

In view of the fact that the Imperial Parliament has passed a 
Bill authorising the use upon certain roads of motor-cars, there 
has been introduced into the Manx Legislature, at the instance 
of Mr. James Mylchreest, who represents Castletown in the 
House of Keys, a Bill to legalise the use of light locomotives, 
not to exceed in weight four tons, and so constructed that no 
smoke or visible vapour is emitted therefrom. Fourteen miles 
is fixed as the maximum speed of travel along public highways. 
It is provided that yearly duties shall be charged. After some 
discussion the Bill was adopted by 14 votes to four. 

The Fifth Avenue Stage Company has, says Dalziel, ordered 
one hundred motor 'buses, of 20 horse-|>ower each, and expects 
tn have them running in a few month*. 

■>*^»*%»%« , ** , »*-»*»* l W*.i'W*^*i*W« 

Ha hirdetok irjak kerunk a "The Actomotor and Hoiwk-« Vehicle Journal" gondolni. 



Jantabt, 1897.] 




His j£5>ooo Challenge, and Opinions on Motor- 
Vehicle Matters generally. 

Ix our last issue we announced the fact that Mr. J. L. McKim, 
(if 81, Cannon Street, E.C., had challenged the Motor-Car Club 
generally, and its president particularly, to a contest, offering to 
lwck the Duryea Car, in which he is interested, against any other 
four-wheeled vehicle of equal horse-power for the sum of i'5/HX). 

Nothing having come of this (as the authorities at Holborn 
Viaduct elected to stand down), a representative of ours recently 
waited on Mr. McKim to ascertain how matters stood, and to 
gather his opinions in general on motor affairs. 

After some difficulty an appointment was obtained with 
Mr. McKim, in his handsome offices, which are noteworthy as 
an example of furnishing in the most tasteful of American styles 
— everything that can secure comfort to the visitor, and at the 
same time facilitate the rapid transaction of the work in hand, 
having been studied in the arrangements, which en jxisaant are 
models of what the surroundings of a high-class business 
establishment should be to-day. The door having been locked 
to keep out for ten minutes the thousand and one applicants 
for admission to the presence of n successful organiser of 

commercial undertakings, our representative at once asked 
Mr. McKim whether he hail heard anything more from the 
Motor-Car Club as to his challenge. To this he replied : — 

" No ; and the most j>eculiar part of the transaction is, that 

: while the secretary of the Club tried to obscure the real issue by 

asserting that s|>eed trials are not allowed in this country, he 

, was at tlie same moment sending letters to the. Press offering a 

i prize of .£2,000 for a Motor-Car Derby, and a special prize for 

the vehicle which could accomplish a mile in one minute. I 

cordially agi-ee with Thk Aitomotor — the opinions of which I 

like as much as I dislike its title — that speed is by no means the 

only, or even the chief, test of a motor vehicle, and that such a 

competition as proposed by the Club could only, if carried out, 

bring the industry into contempt and discredit." 

" Your aim then was i " 

" Simply this. I believe — in fact, I know — that the Duryea, 
judged by all the practical |>oiiiU which will appeal to the 
] engineer and the commercial man, is a long way ahead of any 
other motor-vehicle, and I wished to prove that by an open 
challenge to the President and all other members of the Motor- 
car Club to run it against any other vehicle over a course 
sufficiently long and varied to settle the matter and for a stake 
large enough to make it worth the winning." 

" Nothing has come of your offer t " 

" No, and I do not think Mr. Lawson could take it up — 
if he did, defeat for him would \te certain, and he is hardly 
likely to risk another Waterloo just at present. At any rate, I 
think the honours remain with me by forfeit." 

" Well, as 1 cannot make ' copy ' out of a contest which is not 
likely to take place, will you tell me something of vour connection 
j with the vehicles in which we are both concerned and of which 
my readers would learn all that can be known ? " — 

"My interest in the motor-car industry first received birth 
i during a conversation which I had many, many years ago — almost 
more than I care to remember— with the inventor of Perkins's 
steam boiler, which, by the way, was the father of all those made 
recently for very rapid evaporation, and the engineering world 
is to-day perhaps hardly aware how energetically Perkins 
followed out his system and how fully it has been copied by 
others. Since then, of course, the conditions of English law 
made it impossible for anyone to carry out very full experiments 
in public, and it was not until French and American engineers, 
being somewhat more free from grandmotherly legislation in this 
direction, turned their attention to applying mechanical motion 
to street traction that the matter became a fixed idea in my 
mind that the time would come when this country would have 
opportunities of handling motor-cars with freedom ; hence, 
during the last five years, either personally or through my 
agents and correspondents, I have visited all the motor-engine 
works in Euro|>e and America, where the power employed was 
either gas, oil, or electricity." 

" And, as a result, what do you think is the most suitable 
type of motor for general highway work ? " 

" I scarcely know how to reply to your inquiry as to what I 
think the best motor for road traction purposes. There seems 
to be so many varying sets of conditions that one should feel 
nervous in expressing an opinion You must remember that I 
am merely an observer and not an inventor, but I may say I am 
impressed with the belief that a crude oil motor is an absolute 
impossibility, and that for several reasons, the principal one of 
which wonid be that perfect combustion cannot take place. 
Crude petroleum has for its constituent parts hydrocarbons of 
varying specific gravity and limits of boiling point, and when 
the conditions operating for the perfect combustion of any one 
of its several parts are put into operation, it follows that others 
must remain more or less outside, the range of the combustion 
which operates successfully on one." 

" As to the fully advertised claim re ' Master Patents,' so 
prominently brought before the notice of the public recently — 
are you not afraid of moving in the face of threats such as 
those made by Mr. Lawson t " 

" I am somewhat reluctant to reply to this question. I do 
not believe that Mr. Lawson or any of his friends acting for the 
several Companies in whii-h he is interested have possession of 

Digitized by 




[Jaspaey, 1897. 

any 'Master Patents,' using that word in its correct sense — 
ami if it is a fact that they have, I should not value the 
possession of them very much. I wish to examine the question 
from the very much broader standpoint of efficiency and 
economy. Curiously enough, the essential point towards the 
production of a successful motor-car has been altogether ignored 
by Mr. Lawsou in all of his different prospectuses and all his 
different statements, but I consider that his great parade of 
claims for 'Master Patents' is merely the traditional 'red- 
herring' used to prevent people from inquiring too closely as t) 
the more important points of the motors. Just think for a 
moment what effect would be produced on the minds of any 
. Board of Directors of any Rail >vay Company, if any Engiueer 
were to tell them he held the Master Patent for Locomotives. 
They would merely smile, and continue to make their engines, 
or have them made, on lines which emliodied the idea of 
economy of fuel ; and these points, efficiency and economy, have 
been hidden away for very obvious reasons by Mr. Lawson and 
his friends when speaking of motor-cars. It would be a very 
easy matter for me to design a motor-car for travelling to the 
moon, and I might call it a ' Master Patent,' but I believe 
'Old Mother (tooss' went '20 times as high as the moon' on 
a broomstick, at least so 1 read in the nursery, years and years 
ago, and such baby stories as being the possessor of the Master 
Patents for motor-cars should be used for nursery purposes, 
and not for commercial enterprises such as this— babies might 
or might not believe, but the average commercial man cannot. 
No, Sir, a Master Patent motor-car or motor-engine of any 
soit is to-day impossible, although the details associated with 
such ears and engines may be patented with advantage — 
however, I believe that Mr. Lawson uses this question of 
Master Patents merely for 'red-herriug' purposes, aud I am 
satisfied that he and every one of his advisers or sympathisers 
are very well aware of the fact that the Duryea Motor has 
passed the stage when it is necessary to bolster it up with 
ridiculous nursery stories of the broomstick style. As sole 
owner of the Duryea Motor-Car Eurojiean patents I claim that 
it is the most economical engine— it, is of course known that it 
is the most reliable— and because of that knowledge I offered 
to run a Duryea Car against any other commercial four-wheeled 
car of equal • horse-power l>elonging to any other owner, for 
stakes of 4*5,000 each side. The Duryea Motor has passed the 
experimental stage, and is established as a certainty, and the 
engineers associated with it are now devoting their attention 
to ofliciency and economy rather than any other phase of the 
question— 'that is, their efforts are in the direction of reducing 
■the amount of fuel necessary fordoing a certain amount of work, 
and this in the end must be the measure of efficiency." 

" But surely electricity will be au important factor in our 
future operations ? " 

" No, I do not. believe much in electrio motors for street 
traction purposes, principally because of the huge weight 
necessary for primary or secondary batteries. I have often 
been amused to notice the effort* of the owners of such batteries 
endeavouring to offer their wares to the public by callin« very 
distinct and prominent attention to their weak points. You 
will see such expressions as ' Weight reduced by 40 per cent.,' 
' Space reduced by 45 per cent.,' ' Platos enclosed in refractory 
envelope,' ' Free from risk of short circuit,' ' No loss of capacity 
with age,' ' Discharge rate for up-grade work almost unlimited.' 
Now. these are really and truly the weak points in each cell, 
and when one or other inventor makes such claims as these, he 
points to the fact that they are merely comparative expressions. 
When the very best cell available cannot give rapid discharge 
without seriously spoiling the plate— when short circuiting is a 
constant and ever present danger, and when they become too 
old for use in a very short time — it is not, in my opinion, a thing 
possible that we, in' the present generation at le-ist, shall see 
commercially successful vehicles running by electric current, 
Please again remember that I speak as an observer and not as 
an inventor. But if at any moment it be found possible to 
produce a motor worked by electricity, without the weak points 
above leferred to, I am prepared to buy it, and pay a very large 
price indeed for it." 

"What will the future of the industry be, audlwill existing 
vehicles crystallise into shape, or are we likely to see some 
absolutely novel departuies ('' 

■ "Speaking generally about the motor- carriage business, I am 
disposed to think that there is no motor-carriage existing to-day 
which in 10 years' time would be fathered by any prominent 
carriage builder. I am more disposed to look at this question 
from a commercial standpoint, and I feel satisfied that the 
motor-cars of the future will be the work — not of one man — 
but of several working in conjunction, and as far as I am able 
to see, the most prominent difficulty occurs by reason of the 
prejudice* and jealousies of rival patentees -each one wanting 
to consider his own particular invention more prominent than 
any other. This is more particularly so in reference to English 
and French inventors ; American engineers are willing to 
combine and ' do a deal,' pooling their ideas as it were, and 
making the best effect of a number of different plans, and I am 
quite satisfied that to secure suc't men as Mr. Hiram Maxim 
and Mr. Charles Duryea, with their store of possibilities, their 
trained mechanics, their educated engineers and assistants, who 
are fully familiar with every particu) ir connected with high- 
clast motors, is to have hold of everything which is worth having 
in this department a', mechanics." 

" Have yon any opinions as to the British Motor Syndicate's 
attempt to get i'3,000,000 for their patents ? " 
i " I think it would l>e out of place for me to make any very free 
comment as to my opinion of the policy followed by Mr. Lawsou 
recently. Generally speaking, oue can be very wise after an event, 
and now that we know Mr. Lawson has failed so signally, nearly, 
every one is disposed to say, ' I told you so.' I am quite sure 
that Mr. Lawson could not do better than he has done with 
the motors which he had at his disposal ; you see he had no 
high- class oil or steam motor to commence with, he had only 
' Master Patents,' and he was therefore compiled to expend 
a large quantity of 'gas' to 'puff' the ear along. This, of 
course, accounts for many of the wild statements made by that 
gentleman, but although this is my opinion [ cannot think it 
was either courteous or wise for the holders of rival projects 
to flood the papers with their own particular objections and 
theories at a time when Mr. Lawson was g ling to the public 
with his scheme. I am a great lieliever in the doctrine of 
fair play, and wish every man to have a full innings without 
let or hindrance — criticise him afterwards as much as you 
choose, but not at the moment when no good effect can be 
produced. I think every commercial man interested in motor- 
car business will recognise the difficulties which Mr. Lawson 
had to contend with, and whilst sympathetically smiling at 
many or all of his wild-cat ideas, yet I think he should get 
credit for anything which he has done well. He has most cei- 
tainly amused the European and American engineers immensely, 
he has proved conclusively that the comic element is a mistake 
in company promoting, he has added to the picturesque 
appearance of your Lord Mayor's Show Day by appearing in 
;i fantastic costume more usually associated with the White- 
chapel holiday element at Margate during the summer season, 
lie has driven a ' Pilot Car ' (one of the Master Patents, I suppose) 
to Brighton on Motor (Jar Liberty Day (14th November last), 
ami has succeeded in lteing 'all at sea' and in a village blacksmith's 
shop at the same time (a truly marvellous feat), and he has 
fully supported one of the traditions of this great city by pro- 
viding a dinner at the Hotel Mctropole, Brighton, in celebration 
of that day's events, but (how sad it is to use 'but') he was 
evidently still 'at sea,' or suffering from the effects thereof, 
when he' failed to recognise the presence of ladies in commencing 
his after-dinner speech on that occasion. With this reservation 
I think Mr. Harry J. Lawson has done well, and deserves to 
be thought better of than is the case, and I, for one, -will always 
be. glad to see his ' Yachting Costume,' his ' Pilot Car,' and his 
' Master Patents,' in evidence, as long as they add to the pleasure 
aud amusement of engineers generally, and to the profit of 
Mr. Lawson particularly." [At this point our representative 
thought it well to leave, as his Editor has resolved to consign the 
British Motor Syndicate prospectus, as far as possible, to the 
region which holds those things which should never have been.] 

Digitized by 


Janiabv, 1897.] 




An Electric Bath-Chair. 

Mr. John Ward, invalid chair manufacturer, of 246 and 247, 
Tottenham Court Road, London, lias made a speciality of a 
motor bath-chair suitable for sick persons, or those who for any 
reason are unable to take prolonged walking exercise. It will 

be seen from the illustration which we give that it is a handsome 
and commodious vehicle, and is constructed in accordance with 
J. V. Sherriu's patent, the motor being one of the Britannia 
ty[>e. We had an opportunity before the procession to Brighton 
on the 14th November last — in which, by the way, one of these 
chairs took part— of testing the ease with which they travel, and 
the small amount of trouble involved in their management. 
To those who cannot take outdoor exercise without mechanical 
assistance these chairs will be verj welcome. 

The "Damon" Tyre. 

At the recent National Cycle Exhibition held at the Crystal 
Palace we had an opportunity of examining and trying the* new 
'• Damon " tyre, which has been specially designed for automotor 

detailed description whi;h is attached to our illustration. The 
tyre is formed with two concentric rings with rubber inserted, 
the latter being secured and held together by screwed bolts or 
nuts. It is remarkable for the e;ise with which it may be 
manipulated, while users secure economy and strength. 
Makers of motor vehicles should communicate either directly 
with the patentee or with the Loudon agents, at 10, Da,shwood 
House, E.C. ■ . 


In our last issue we brietfy reported the fact that the House of 
Lords had, in the course of an important decision, decided that 
tramway companies have no right to use suit for the purpose of 
clearing their lines of snow. The action was between the 
Aberdeen Town Council and the' local tram Way . company. 
Being so far north, the question has of course become keen ; 
snow has fallen, and in the face of the interdict the service of 
cars has been interfered with. Immediately after the decision, 
and with the advent of the while (lakes of winter, the secretary 
of the Aberdeen District Tramways Company wrote a letter to 
the Council stating that the directors were of opinion that an 
arrangement should lie come to between the Council and the 
Company as early as possible for having the tramway lines and 
streets cleared during snowstorms in such a manner as to obviate 
interruption to tramway traffic, and suggested that a conference 
should be held on the subject. The Council's committee 
accordingly received and conferred with a deputation from the 
directors, consisting of Messrs. Cook, Collie, Allan, aud Conpor 
along with the secretary and manager. The directors suggested 
that the Town Couucil should in times of frost or suow under- 
take the duty of clearing the tramway lines as well ;is the 
streets, making use of salt so far as necessary for the purpose, 
the Company, on the other hand, al'.ording the assistance of 
their staff aud plant, and possibly also making a contribution 
towards the cost. Under such an arrangement the responsibility 
of using salt would be thrown upon the Town Council, who — 
the directors contended — were, as a road authority, in a different 
position from the Tramways Company. The deputation having 
withdrawn, the committee resolved to recommend that a reply be 
returned to the Tramways Company to the effect that, while the 
Town Council are prepared to clear the stieets for ordinary 
traffic lit expeditiously as possible, they do not see their way to 
undertake the responsibility of clearing tie lines or keeping 
them clear for the passage of tramway cars. So a deadlock 
continues. The parties have had the inestimable advantage of 
a legal decision by the highest tribunal in this country- -but 
they are, if anything, farther off than ever from solving the 
problem involved in the demolition of the snow. 


work. It is manufactured by L. Uroughtoii Wood, of Stoke nn- 
Trent, and we illustrate it herewith. From the engraving it 
will be seen that many of the disadvantages of the ordinary 
pneumatic tyre ;ue avoided by the extra strength which is 
provided. The actual construction can be readily seen from the 

At the annual conversazione held on 18th and 19th ult., an 
extensive and interesting collection of photographs, drawings, 
and models of timtoi -carriages was shown by the head of the 
engineering department, Mr. G. F. Charnock, Assoc. M.I.C.E., 
who has devoted considerable attention to the subject. The 
total number of exhibits was something like 3">0, and included 
examples lent by the Daimler Motor Company (Limited), 
Mr. E. J. Pennington, Mr. W. C. Hersey, the Anglo- French 
Motor - Carriage Company (Limited), Messrs Hoots and 
Venables, the Kditor of Tiik Aitomutou ami IIhrski.ksk 
Vkiiici.k Journal, and others. A four horse-power Pennington 
oil engine for a motor-carriage was loaned by the makers, 
T. t'oulthard and Co., of Preston, and attracted considerable 
notice by reason of its lightness and the small spare nccupitd. 
The exhibition proved so successful that it was decided to 
throw it open to the public on the following Monday after the 

eullVi Is.i/.iullC. 

L 2 

Digitized by. 




[J.vsiiBV, 1897. 






Diary and Me Bool^ 

F( Hi 

Contribution* ami articles likely to prove of interest to our readers 
trill receive due attention, but in all eases the name ami address of the 
writer must be given, not necessarily for publication. 

All matter intended for publication should reach us not later than 
the 10th of each month. Stamped envelope must be sent if the manu- 
script is required to be returned. 

All Advertisements should be sent to the Advertising Department , 
F. Kino and Co., Limited, 02, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C., 
where Advertising Rates mat/ be had on application. 

The Annual Subscription is 7s., including prepaid postage to any 
part of the world. 

Cheques and Post Office Orders should be made payable to F. Kino 
AND Co., Limited, and crossed London and County Bank; otherwise 
no responsibility will be accepted. 


obtained through Messrs. W. H. Smith and Son, and at Willing 
and Co.'s bookstalls. 

When any difficulty is experience/! in procuring the Journal from 
local newsrendors, intending subscribers can obtain each issue direct 
from the Publishing Office, by filling up and forwarding, wilh 
remittance, the Subscription form accompanying the Paper. 



The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 


JANUARY 18th, 1897. 



Pull Text of the Light Locomotives Act of last 
Session, and all Regulations made in pur- 
suance thereof. 

Illustrations of Typical Carriages and Motors. 

Valuable Formulae, Data, and Tables of infinite 
service to all Users and Owners of Auto 
motor Vehicles. 

A Handy Diary (One Page to the Week) printed 
on excellent paper. 

It is simply indispensable to all interested in the subject, 
and may be ordered of any netcscendor or bookseller, 
price 6d., or direct from the publishers — 

Mksshs. V. K1NU & C<>. (Limitkii), 


1}. It. (Huddersfield). — Having secured a return of your money 
you are to be congratulated, but you have evidently no 
further locus standi in the matter. 

J. Thompson (Maida Vale).- The stroke in six inches ; the 
revolutions approximately 650 ; and the initial pressure 
'M lbs. We cannot give an average diagram. 

Eglantine (Broadway). They are perfectly reliable ; but why 
not advertise your requirements '. 

One in Doubt (Cheshire). The number of volts cannot jiossibly 
exceed two ; we have only had an opportunity of examining 
an experimental cell. We found that the internal resist- 
ance was very great. 

Benzine (Kiiigton-011-Thames). — You cannot, without modifi- 
cation, use the heavier hydrocarbons. If you did you would 
be speedily stopped by a solid cake of carbon deposits. 
Williamson (Manchester). — Wo cannot advise you t<> 
advance money for experimental purposes unless you are 
made a paity to the application for provisional protection. 
An assignment of a share of a patent cannot be registered 
until the final has beeu sealed. 

M. McGregor (Elswick). — The arrangement is bad ; there 
is not sufficient clearance in the combustion chamber. For 
your purpose a water jacket is essential ; do not be led 
away by statements based on the results of brief and 
inconclusive trials. 

Constant Subscriber (l^eicester). — Is it not rather too soon to 
adopt this twin de plume' Anyway we regret that wc 
cannot possibly comply with your modest request. 

Seri'oi.lkt (Bedford).- There was nothing exceptional about 
the accident. It was the result of an ordinary Btreet 
collision, which happens every day to horse-drawn vehicles 
without any comment. 

Investor (South Shields). — Vou can purchase the shares at 
about tl 2s (it/. Wc do not know what you can sell 
them for. 



Digitized by 


Jam ary, 1897.] 



Nell Gwynne (Antwerp). — The carriage is driven by a modified 
form of the well-known Daimler motor. 

Amatbur (Godalming). — You must run the risk, which, in 
your case, is very great, an it looks like an infringement. 
The Dunlop Company oppose all new applications, in order 
to test the matter in the Courts. 

J. Jepfreson (York). — Your suggestion shall be carried out 
in our next issue ; aud in the meantime we thank you 
for it. 

Emblematic (Doneaster). — At your request we have carefully 
tested the cells sent to us. It is jierfectly correct that, in 
comparison with others, the weight of the " grid " has been 
reduced as stated, while the area has been increased, but 
all this has been obtained by a total neglect of all con- 
siderations as to stability. In a few minutes on a jolting 
road the plate would collapse and a short circuit would, of 
• course, be the inevitable result. 

IIotary (Shepherd's Bush). — As an idea your suggestion is, of 
course, admirable, although old ; but how can you possibly 
obtain compression ( 

F. Hatter (Devon). — We can only regret that our advice by 
letter is not satisfactory. The best plan you can adopt is to 
try the experiment, and you will theu find that by " totally 
setting aside the Otto cycle " you will only succeed in filling 
your cylinder with unconsumed carbon. 

•James Scott (Liverpool). — There is not the slightest risk of 
explosion ; while from the section of the tube you will see 
that there is but little chance of its being burned away. 
The bugbear of explosion arising from cold water coming 
into contact with hot surfaces has been demolished by the 
elaborate experiments undertaken by the Boiler Insurance 

Indignant (Aberdeen). - Let well alone; experience can only 
teach the public and ourselves where the happy meau can 
be obtained. 

Frugal, (Finsbury). — Wait ; none of the makers who will 
eventually supply the market have yet issued a compre- 
hensive price-list. In the meautime everything is a matter 
uf negotiation and of opportunity. 

Inventor (Hastings). — Thanks for drawing. We cannot accept 
your statements, although, of course, we do not doubt theni. 
If you will give us an opportunity of testing your motor we 
shall be pleased to illustrate and describe it — but in our 
own way. 

Impatient (Coventry). — Put ou the curb a bit. Do you imagine 
that within two months of the trial of the " Rocket " the 
kingdom was covered with a network of railway*? Motor- 
carriages are not evolved instantaneously — they take time 
to build. " Make haste slowly,'' is in our case the best 

Experimenter (Thirsk).— If you wish to try oils of various 
density you had better tit au air valve capable of delicate 
adjustment to your vaporiser, and you can then secure by 
"trial and error" the proper admixture which will com- 
pletely consume the various products. That is the only 
method we can recommend. 

J. Perkins (Swansea). — The secretary of the Club will, doubtlcs*, 
give you all the information. Write to him at 40, Holborn 
Viaduct, London, E.C. We do not possess a copy of the 

W. Lebrun (Jersey).— Our publishers will lend you a set for 
your purposes, if you forward them a stamped aud 
addressed envelope. 

A. M. B. — But why do you write your signature in such a way ; 
We have looked up your letter, and submitted it to our 
printer, who has grown grey in the task of deciphering such 
riddles. He suggests that your name is Bowman, while we 
make it Bridghouse. As a compromise we have cut off the 
signature to your letter and pasted it on the wrappei. Wo 
trust it may reach you. 

Tyko (Westminster). —Merc drawings will be of no use. The 
object of our contemporary is to obtain practical results. 

Simplex (Norwood). — " Molesworth's Pocket Hook," published 
by Spon, will give you the information you desire. 

R. V. (Dublin). — Thanks for your information, but we have no 
desire to reopen the matter. We expressed our opinions 
very fully in the last issue, and have no desire io " whip a 
dead horse." We would rather see those concerned using 
their undoubted ability in the direction of some project 
calculated to serve our common ends. 

Sportsman (Kempton).- - We believe the Derby scheme has been 
dropped ; at anv rate, we fervently hope that it has. 

T. May (Oardiff). — We wrote you that you could not do better 
than apply to the representative at Wembley Park. 

Gradients (Westmoreland). — We have not the necessary space 
to spare here to answer yon in full ; if, however, you will 
refer to our advertisement columns you will see that we 
publish a pocket-book which will give you all the data you 

R. F. Heron (Hampstead).— We do not know anyone who will 
teach at all at the present time ; write again some time 
hence aud perhaps we may theu be able to advise you. 

Thob. Greene (Mageney, Co. Kildare).- - We wrote you as the 
subject matter of your letter was urgent, and you will now 
see from our columns that the money is being returned in 
cases where sufficient effort is made to secure it. 

Britannia Company (Colchester). -We presume the list we 
sent you was adequate for your purpose, as we have not 
heard further from you on the subject 

J. Mackenzie ,Grauge Road, Middlesborough). — We believe the 
Credenda Tube Company can supply you with what you 

J. W. East (Louth). — We will publish an illustration with full 
l>artieulars in our next issue. 

J. A. Be A i. (Cardiff). — Speaking generally, one which covered 
the materials aud construction for a certain |>eriod, subject 
to fair wear and tear and a minimum speed at a given load 
when working at fidl power. 

*#* The British Motor Syndicate (Limited). — To the very 
many correspondents who have written to congratulate us 
on the position taken up in our columns with reference to 
this Company we can merely express our thanks for their 
cordial approval aud appreciation. We are very pleased to 
know that, owing to the efforts of the Press generally, the 
public have not been largely entangled in this dubious 
enterprise ; and that, as a matter of fact, the promoters have 
practically been allowed to enjoy their monopoly of the 
" master patents " which they claim to possess. If ever they 
realise the mammoth profits which were shadowed, forth in 
the prospectus, we shall be the first to congratulate them 
ou their good fortune ; and in that ease they will bless 
the journalistic infidels who refused to believe the glowing 
statements which were set forth. The Syndicate have the 
patents ; the shareholders have, on their own showing, the 
necessary confidence and capital to carry out their views ; 
and it is for them in the course of the future to prove, by 
the payment of cash dividends, how wrong aud blind we all 
were in not accepting the generous offer which they made 
to all aud every one of us to share their good fortune on the 
terms of subscribing a mere three millions sterling of capital. 


IH'J6 — eventful as it was in history-making epochs and 
surprises of varied kinds — may, when the story of the 
century eventually conies to be written, be known 
as the year which was famous for a revival of the 
strangled industries connected with motor traffic on the 
highways. Even, however, it' this dots not ultimately 

Digitized by 




[JANUABT, 1897. 

prove to bo its chief claim upon the attention of the 
historian of the future, it is at least certain that this 
all-important subject will be amongst its leading 
characteristics. This country, immersed in the task of 
spreading a network of unrivalled railway systems 
throughout the land, which have helped to place its 
commerce and enterprise in tho forefront of the world's 
industry, has, under the repression of an absurdly 
construed law, utterly neglected the possibilities of cheap 
and rapid communication on the highways. In the task 
of displacing the horse for the heavy work of tho land 
and in the rapid transit of passengers through long 
distances Great Britain has played the very foremost 
part; but in riveting our attention to the great problems 
involved in long-distance travelling, the scarcely less 
important factors concerned in the every-day traffic of 
our streets hnve been allowed to fall into a condition of 
absolute neglect. We have, through sheer apathy and 
waut of organisation, allowed animal power to perform 
the work which, as a great mechanical and eagineering 
race, we might easily enough have achieved by simpler 
and more economical means. 

In the meantime our Continental and Transatlantic 
neighbours, unfettered by judicial restrictions and with 
a keen desire to secure cheap and ready transport, made 
stealthy but rapid progress in the perfection of a method 
of locomotion, the very alphabet of which had to be 
learned from the efforts of the English pioneers. The 
start which they then obtained might have been even 
more firmly established than it has been but for the 
wariness of a few of our countrymen who, at consider- 
able trouble to themselves, and at no little expense, 
raised the danger signal and at last awakened our public 
men and the Legislative Assemblies to the realities of 
the situation. There is no need now to again trace the 
story which has been told in our recent issues, as to the 
means by which Sir David Salomons and those associated 
with him organised the agitation which culminated in 
the passage of the Light Locomotives Act, and the regula- 
tions which have been made in pursuance of its 
provisions. Suffice it that in spite of some drawbacks 
which time will molify, we have now a workable 
measure which, with patience and care on the part of 
those interested, should prove a sufficient charter to 
ensure tho ultimate success of a great industry which, in 
the modern sense at least, may be fittingly described as 

The advent of the enabling Act, which came into force 
on the 14th of November, has been celebrated by jubila- 
tion; tho motors have been either eulogistical ly described 
or contemptuously abused, according to the taste3 of the 
writers, while we have had at least one gigantic Company 
jiatico. The time has now come for real hard work and 
for looking the varied problems with which we have to 
deal squaroly in the face. We have enjoyed a splendidly 
initiated Emancipation Day fcle in the shape of a trip to 
Brighton ; we have swallowed the bitter pill which its 

promoters subsequently administered to us by way of a 
corrective ; and have listened to the croakers who spell 
defeat and disaster out of the fact that English manu- 
facturers have not been able to crowd onr streets at a 
moment's notice with motor-carriages constructed to meet 
the requirements of regulations, when the ink with 
which they were written is scarcely dry. Of course it 
would be open to English users to buy Continental 
patterns and makes for their use — but quite apart from 
their unsuitability for our requirements, what would 
our friends who are so fond of shouting in derision 
"Made in Germany," "Manufactured abroad," have to 
say if such a custom became by any means universal ? 

What, then, is the outlook for 1897 ? To answer this 
question dispassionately, and- with any pretence to 
accuracy, involves a careful inquiry into the processes 
which are going on beneath the apparently motionless 
stream of British motor-carriage work. With a fairly 
complete knowledge of what is being done by engineers 
and inventors interested in this matter, we can confidently 
assert that the prospect is in every respect a favourable 
one. The number of leading firms who are endeavouring 
to add motor-carriage building to their other special 
features may be counted by the score, and in nearly every 
case the desire seems to be — we are pleased to note — to 
depart as far as possible from the types which have been 
formulated by our Continental and American friends. 
Months must elapse before practical trial on the highways 
can begin to eliminate the forms which are unsuitable for 
our roads and streets, and when these have gone out of 
sight — and perhaps mind — the natural principle of 
evolution will at length bring forth the vehicle which by 
its suitability shall prove by its fitness to be the one 
which shall survive all others. The story of the bicycle, 
although on a much more impoeing scale, will, doubtless, 
be retold ; first, the period of exaggeration, ridicule, and 
bluff through which we are now passing ; then the stage 
of doubt, semi-oblivion, and earnest, but quiet, experiment 
which can only bring success; next will inevitably come 
the triumph of assured success which will only astonish 
those who forget the trite axiom that history has a knack 
of repeating itself. 


The admirable paper which was read by Mr. J. F. 
Thompson before the last meeting of the Liverpool 
branch of the Self- Propelled Traffic Association —and 
which is fully reported in another column — may be 
read with interest and profit by all concerned. Without 
going into the questions raised by the speaker, we may 
note the attention which is being rapidly given in the 
crowded districts which surround Manchester and Liver- 
pool to the favourable prospects which are held out by 
motor vehicles as a means of solving the huge problem 

Digitized by 


January, 189V.] 



of bringing the producer into the cheapest communica- 
tion with the buyer. Manchester has shown by the 
prompt, if reckless, manner in which it has poured 
millions of sovereigns into the construction of its none 
too successful Ship Canal, how keen the city is to obtain 
prominence, and if Liverpoal can, by any reasonable 
scheme of motor transit for goods on roads, see a reason- 
able prospect of success, want of money, ingenuity, or 
enterprise will not stand in the way of its being carried 
out. The local branch is doing excellent service to the 
community by enabling thes's proposals to be thrashed out 
br practical men, and tha whole country must benefit by 
the discussions which are taking place. We trust that 
London and other important centres will soon follow the 
example thus set. What is wanted mjre than, anything 
else nt the present juncture of affairs is a frank inter- 
change of opinions between those entitled to speak with 
authority. The result oannot fail to bo of benefit to all. 
Mere ex cathedra statements by those whose utterances 
are tainted with a suspicion of interested motives are 
of little value; but in the arena of free debate the truth 
has a habit of invariably getting uppermost at last and of 
remaining there. All that is wanted is a small amount 
of organisation, and the engineers and carriage builders 
of the metropolis will soon make their voices heard with 
at least as much effect as their colleagues residing in the 
chief provincial centres. 



W( are told that what has been done for letters by Rowland 
Hill is to be achieved in London for parcels by a uew enterprise 
called the London Penny Parcel Delivery and Automatic 
Advertising Company, which proposes to place on the street* 
of the metropolis 1,000 Tricycle Carriers of novel construction, 
and to open, iu every..district, offices for the receipt of pareels. 
Within a five-mile radius of Charing Cross parcels not exceeding 
3 lbs. in weight will be delivered for one |>enny - an innovation 
that ought to prove a perfect god-send to the weary City man, 
who is expected to lug home parcels in the evening, and for 
ladies who have to burden themselves with ungainly packages 
in the course of their shopping. For pareels between 3 lbs. 
and 6 lbs. it is proposed to charge \\d., and for those between 
6 His. and 9 lbs. id. — the latter weight lieing the maximum 
fixed for the moment, just as operations are at first to be con- 
fined to London. For any distance beyond the five-mile radius, 
but within the metropolitan area, an additional penny per 
]>arcel will be charged, but it is hoped that the public |>atronage 
will be so great that the Company will soon be able to carry 
for a penny a parcel up to 10 lbs. for any distance in London. 
A main source of the Company's revenue is expected to be found 
in the novel form of its advertisement*. Each Tricycle Carrier 
will bear a box to hold the parcels, and on the glass sides of this 
box will be displayed a prominent advertisement, which will 
automatically change at regulai intervals. These perambulating 
advertisements ought certainly to attract attention by their 
novelty, and we understand that already contracts have been 
given by a good many of the leading advertisers. 

" Steam Locomotion on Common Roads." By W. Fletcher. 
(London : Messrs. E. and F. N. Spon.) Price 5s. 
The author of this ably compiled work has been a prolific 
writer on the subject of motor-carriages for the last 20 years. 
The innumerable papers which he has contributed to the 
technical journals nave doubtless done much to help on the 
movement which led to the passage of the amending Act of last 
session. In this volume — which is admirably illustrated through- 
out — Mr. Fletcher treats exhaustively of the rise and progress 
of mechanical road vehicles until the days came when, by the 
working of the law, none but engines of the heavy traction type 
could be used on the highways. All the engines turned out in 
the early days of the century are fully described, while the 
details shown will be of service to the designers of to-day. Full 
justice is done to individual inventors and manufacturers, while 
the list of names is very accurate, and can be consulted with full 
confidence. We are pleased to hear that a second volume is in 
preparation with the object of bringing the matter up to date. 
The task could not be entrusted to better hands, and when this 
appears, the two volumes will prove to be perhaps the most 
comprehensive record on the subject to be found in our technical 
literature. In the meantime, all interested iu the matter may 
be safely advised to invest in the book, the historical value of 
■which it is difficult to over-estimate. 

"Tramway Motors; Lessons from America." Reprinted from 
the Glasgow Herald. (Glasgow ; George Ontram and 
Company.) Price 1*. 
This unpretentious pamphlet contains far more valuable 
matter thau can be found in some costly and much-vaunted 
volumes on the same subject. It owes its origin to the enter- 
prise of the proprietors of the Glasgow Herald, who, towards 
the end of last year, sent out one of their staff to America with 
instructions to visit the principal cities in the States and report 
as to the method of haulage adopted for the tramways in 
each place visited, with the view, if possible, of enabling the 
citizens of Glasgow to determine which of the rival schemes 
laid before them would best suit their local requirements. 
' The letters — some twenty in all — appeared in the paper during 
| the months of October and November, 1896, and have now been 
deservedly reprinted. The articles are carefully written, and 
: are brimful of statistics and facts which will be found indis- 
pensable to all who wish to accurately study a matter which is 
i every day growing to l>e of greater importance to the municipal 
authorities of this couutry. The writer evidently leans to the 
I overhead electrical system — but, as the publishers are careful to 
\ point out in their preface, " the articles were written from the 
I point of view of the present position in Glasgow," and local 
requirements must always prove powerful factors in coming to a 
1 decisiou as to the best system to be adopted. Without attempt- 
| ing to express any opinion as to conclusions arrived at by the 
I writer, the solid facts and figures which the book contains 
I renders it of the utmost value to all concerned. 

The Secretary of the Self- Propelled Traffic Association — 
Mr. Andrew W. Barr — has just issued a very neat pocket-book 
for the use of the members, containing a reprint of the Liconio- 
tives on Highways Act, 189*5, and the various rules which have 
been made in accordance with its provisions. 

WnEN writing to advertisers please mention "The Auto- 
XOTor and Horseless Vehicle .Journal." 

Mr. Walter Horncastle states, in his circular for January, 
that motor-car companies are responsible for a total capitalisa- 
tion of something like £6,000,000 during the past year. 

In reference to our statement in December issue that 
Mr. McKim had purchased Messrs. Roots and Venables' motor 
patents we now understand that a sale was nut concluded, the 
negotiations being broken off at the last moment. We regret 
the inadverteut admission of the paragraph. 

Digitized by 




[Javfabt, 1897. 


TnB Britannia Company, of Colchester, have for some time past 
given special attention to the development of the petroleum oil- 
engine, which tliov liave succeeded in bringing into practical 
working sh.ipe. The " Facile" engine (Gibbons' patent) is the 
outcome of their labour?, and a photograph of this was published 
in onr second issue. Figs. 1 to 6, which we now give, show the 
details of this system. In the " Facile" engine one valve similar 
to a large safety-valve, with a piston liody instead of wings, is 
employed as lioth main air- valve and exhaust- valve. The air, 
in passing into the cylinder, helps to keep this valve cool. The 
engine is of the internal vaporiser type, the vaporiser also 
forming the ignition tube, and being enclosed in a casing 
attached to an extension of the cylinder cover, which has cast 

ports,./,./, and the pipe, b, with the jacket,/, and by the port*, 
/, /, with the atmosphere, according to the |>osition of the valve, 
// ; m, m, are holes in the jacket, f, for admitting air for the 
formation of the explosive charges. The valve, h — which, as 
shown in Fig 3, is a mitre valve — is provided on its under side 
with a hollow cylindrical extension, which fits within the valve- 
box, o, and is provided with a series of circumferential apertures 
or openings, n, »', /<*, n\ »', communicating with the ports, 

JJ. I, I- 

During the compression and combustion stroke of the piston, 
the valve, /, is in the position shown in Fig. 4. When the 
exhaust stroke of the piston commences, the cam, />'-', lifts the 
valve, /i, from its seat, and places the apertures, n\ «*, opposite 
to the ports, /, /, so that the gases from the cylinder, ft, can 
pass under the valve, It, into its cylindrical extension, and 
thence escape through the apertures, n', n', and the |x>rta, /, /, 
to the atmosphere, billing the time that the ports, /, /, areo|>en. 

in it a passage leading to the casing. This brings the combustion 
space from the lwvck of the cylinder round to the side. The air 
supply passes round this casing on its way to the cylinder, 
through the double-purpose valve. The oil is injected into the 
bulbous end of the vaporiser by a rod working in an oil-box, 
and receiving a longer or shorter stroke controlled by the 
governor. The governor acts on a cam, which leaves a trip 
finger more or less time in contact with the rod it pushes. 
Referring to our engravings, a is the framing of the engine, and 
ft is the power cylinder, which is provided with a water-jacket, 
r, in the usual manner ; d is the combustion-chamber, which is 
connected to the cylinder, ft, by a sihort neck or passage, «, and 
which ia of much smaller diameter than the cylinder, and placed 
parallel thereto, as shown in Fig. 2 ; /is the jacket surrounding 
the combustion chamber, </ the valve-box, and h the valve work- 
ing therein, and serving both as an air-inlet valve and an exhaust 
valve, the space, i, above the valve communicating by the 
passage, t' 1 , seen at the bottom of the vaporiser, w, in Fig. 2, 
directly with the interior of the combustion chamber, d, whilst 
the space beneath the valve is in communication through the 

the air inlet porta, J,,/', are closed by the rings, o, o 1 . On the com- 
pletion of the exhaust stroke the iift, /*", of the cam raises the 
valve still further, the porta, /, I, are elnred, the apertures, »', n», 
brought opposite the ports,./,./, and on the outgoing stroke of 
the piston air is drawn through the holes, m, m, into the jacket, 
/and thence through the pipe, b, and the ports, j,j, into the 
valve box, whence it passes into the cylinder, ft, through the 
aperture, »'. In Figs. 2 and 4 u is the vaporising chamber and 
igniter, which is arranged partly within the combustion chamber, 
d, and partly outside it, the part outside being provided with 
internal ribs, «', «', and being heated for starting the engine 
by the flame of a lamp. After the engine has l>een running 
for a short time the part of the chamber, u. within the com- 
bustion chamber, d, will, it is said, be sufficiently heated to 
serve as the igniter. 

A shield is placed around the portion of the vaporising 
chamber and igniter, «, within the combustion chamber, <7, 
but with an intervening annular space, for the purpose of pre- 
venting the air entering the combustion chanilier from impinging 
against the walls of the chamber, «, and cooling it. The shield, 

Digitized by 


Jancaby, 1897.] 



r, is placid at a slight distance from t!i3 chamber, u, in order to 
afford a space into which the gases can penetrate. 

la Fig* 4 and 6, ic, w l are the barrel and plunger of the 
pump for injecting the oil into the vaporising chamber, u. 
This pump is constructed as showu in Fig. 4. In the end of the 
plunger is formed a passage, x, which terminates in a cross 
passage, x\ shown clearly in Fig. 6. Around the barrel, w, 
of the pump is a chimber, y, and around a portion of the 
plunger of the pump is a space, y', which communicates with 
the chamber, y, through a pissaje, y', the spaje being kept 
constantly tilled with oil under a slight pressure. When the 
plungor is full out, the cross passage, x r , is> in the space ;/', so 
that the oil can flow from the latter iuto the passage, x, and 
till the space above the pluuger. Immediately the upward 
movement of the pluuger commences, the passage, x', is moved 
into the part of the pump barrel which the plunger fits, so that 
the return of oil through the passage, x\ is . prevented — the 
result being that the oil in front of the plunger is injected 
into the vaporiser, it. The engine is well mounted on a strong 
wrought-iron frame and four wheels, and is fitted with a water- 


Early on Sunday morning, the SWth ult, the Strand, the 
Embankment, and the adjoining thoroughfares were the scene 
of what may be correctly termed the first completely successful 
trial of one of the new electric omnibuses which are to be shortly 
placed on the streets of the metropolis by the Loudon Electric 
Omnibus. Company The vehicle, which is constructed on Mr. 
Kadcliife Ward's system of electrical traction, left the Horse 
Guards' Avenue shortly after midnight. Travelling through 
Whitehall at the rate of between seven and eight miles an hour, 
it glided smoothly down Victoria Street on to the Embankment, 
where it attained a speed of eight and a half miles an hour. 
After running the whole length of the Embankment and up 
Whitehall iuto the Strand, a test of the capacities of the omnibus 
in climbing was made. The steep incline running up towards 
St. Martin's Lane past Trafalgar Square was mounted with ease. 
Throughout the whole run the motion caused was slight, and no 
throbbing or jolting was felt. As might have been expected, 
the bus was greeted in a not too kindly way by the cab-drivers 
about the streets. 


to GO' F, an 1 then poured carefully into the oil cup I). The 
lid is then pu» on, the rise of temperature being noted on the 
thermometer in the oil cup. When a temperature of 66° F 
is reached, the testing is started by setting the poiidulnm in 
motion, and its operation is as follows: — The first three oscilla- 
tions draws the glide slowly open, while the fourth closes it 
rauidly. At the same time the test flame is gently tilted through 
a hole in the slide to the space above the oil. This is repeated 
once for every increase of a temperature of 1° F., until the 
vapour of the oil igiiite3 within the oil cup, giviug a pale blue 
flash. The temperature of the oil at which this occurs is called 
the flashing point ; i.e., the flashing point is that temperature at 
which the oil gives off a sufficient vapour to be ignited by a 

Uxder the Petroleum Acts it is provided that oils sold for the 
purposes of illumination shall not have a flashing point of less 
than 73° F., which shall be determined by a special apparatus 
invented by Sir Frederic Abel for the purpose. A section of 
this bath and lamp is shown in the accompanying illustration, 
in which C is a copper bath, containing water A. This forms 
the water bath, within which there is an air chamber B, which 
carries a gun-metal oil cup D. This cup rests upon an ebonite 
ring, and over the air chamber B, and has a tight-fitting lid on 
which is fixed a gas-burner. The oil cup carries a thermometer 
T, and above the cover is fixed a slide, which is caused to 
uncover three holes. This gas-jet swivels on a lever, and, 
moving with the slide, carries a small flame, while the movement 
is so combined that, as the lever tilts, the flame is passed through 
one of the openings in the slide and reaches the top of the oil in 
the cup. The right hand thermometer T is intended to take 
the temperature, while the spirit lamp E supplies the necessary 

A pendulum 24 inches in length is employed in order to 
time the operations involved in the test of the flash. At the 
commencement of the experiment the temperature of the water 
in the bath is brought to exactly 130' F, while the oil is cooled 

flame. As we have stated alx>ve, the lowest point legally 
allowed for petroleum intended for burning in laiujis in this 
country is 73 F., or 22'8' C. 

At a meeting of the Belfast Corporation in committee recently, 
the Tramway Company's renewed offer to introduce electric 
traction on getting a seven years' extension of the present lease 
(of which ten are yet to run), was again considered, ami the 
Corporation decided not to grant any extension of lease, but the 
Company would be allowed to introduce electricity and double 
their lines without any additional payment for the unexpired 

Bbi Bezugnahme auf Inserate in diesem Blatte, bitte den 
Namen " The Automotor and Hoksei.fss Vehicle Journal" 

Digitized by 




[Jam-art, 1897. 


Motor and Cycle Exhibition in Paris. 

As briefly recorded iu our last issue, the fourth " Salon du 
Cycle," or rather International Exhibition of Cycles and Motor- 
Carriages, opened on the 13th ult, at the Palais de l'Industrie 
iu the Champs Elysees. It may be said, perhaps, that new. 
features, new inventions, and new applications of mechanical 
conception were somewhat conspicuous by their absence this 
time, and there is truth in the comment of critical observers that 
the principal characteristic of the exhibition was the develop- 
ment and perfection of ideas already adopted. The show, how- 
ever, was a good one of its kind, and certainly deserved the 
enormous interest which was taken in it by the ever-increasiDg 
crowd of devotees of the wheel. 

With regard to the bicycle portion of the exhibition, it was 
noticeable that the prices of machines remain about the same 
as last, despite the announcement that there was to be a fall 
iu them, brought about by competition. There appears to be a 
growing demand forbicylesof larger frames and higher develop- 
ment ; the seat, it is remarked by the initiated in such matters, 
is placed more forward than iu previous years, whilst the gear 
case, to protect the chain from mud and dust, is getting more 
and more popular. As for the motor-carriages, they presented 
a magnificent show at the Palais de l'Industrie— their number 
anil variety would have been deemed really incredible. 

Aluminium bicycles seem to be gaining a little in public 
favour, although opinions differ very much touching their 
advantages and usefulness. But they look bright and pretty ; 
which with many persons is a consideration. 

By far, however, the most striking part of this year's 
exhibition concerns automobilism. Among the automobiles on 
view that turned out by M. Leon Bollee was as much admired 
as any. These machines, which we have already illustrated, are 
tw.i-seated and single-seated. That exhibited by M. Bollee 
under the name of " Voiturette " is pronounced by certain 
expert judges to embody the best idea at the present day in the 
horseless carriage line. 

Those who followed the Paris- Marseilles race recollect very well 
how bravely these little machines held their way through all the 
stormy weather which had to be faced during that memorable 
race. The machine, light though it is, is no " fancy " one. In 
fact, its lightness is precisely, it is remarked, its power, and 
allows of a person going about town making calls at the rate of 
five milcj an hour if desired, or taking a spin in the country at 
a brisk racing speed. M. Bollee's " Voiturette " has three 
wheels, and though but a trifle higher than an ordinary tricyc'e, 
two persons can be quite comfortably seated on it. It weighs 
about 300 11)8., and is best described as a cross between an 
automobile carriage and a motocycle. The back wheel alone is 
worked by the motor, the other two in front having the steering 
gear attached. The inventor holds that by this arrangement 
much stability is ensured for his machine on turning, stability 
being further guaranteed on the fact that the centre of gravity 
is very low. 

Automobiles, such as the Dion et Boutin, were wel! to the 
fore, aud there was a large display at the Palais de l'Industrie 
of automobile vehicles as delivery vans and carts, which are 
more and more used and approved by tradtsmen and the 
commercial world. 

In connection with horseless carriages, mention may be made 
of a new electric coupe, inveuted by M. Darraco. This coupe', 
hung upon huit restarts, resembles from every point of view the 
fashionable coupis turned out by the best Parisian makers, 
'there is a seat at the back for the engiueer, so that those seated 
inside the carriage have an entirely free view. The motor is 
supplied with current from a conveniently situated battery of 
accumulators. The steering is managed by the front wheels, 
moved by a wheel at the engineer's seat. In the same manner 
the brake is applied. The huit reports an 1 the inflated india- 
rubber tyres make the coupe run as smoothly ;is possible. 

This vehicle, in the opinion of the inventor, is especially 
suitable for use in the crowded Paris streets. It is affirmed that 
this electric coup* can be steered with the greatest facility, and 
presents the advantage that on going down hill the movemeut 
of the wheels recharges the accumulators, the nv>tor becoming a 
dynamo and acting as a recipient of power instead of a distributor. 
With regard to the question of economy, it is claimed that the 
electric coup!- for use in Paris realises a saving of 40 per cent, 
when comi>ared with the use of a eon of drawn by a horse. This 
electric carriage was not at the Cycle Exhibition, but was 
inspected at the workshops of the inventor by a number of well- 
known amateurs of automobile carriages. 

M. lUlifol showed a new vehicle propelled bv a horizontal 
motor, as is the case with all the motor cycles and light vehicles, 
with the single exception of the Dion tricycles, and the gas 
mixture is exploded by electricity, a practice which is being 
employed to au increasingly large extent in the new motor 
vehicles. In fact, manufacturers and users can no longer ignore 
the fact that with the liability of the petroleum spirit to over- 
flow from the reservoir or the carburator the use of the firing 
tube is attended with a certain danger, as is illustrated by the 
burning of at least three or four vehicles during the past three 
years, and of the total destruction of a goods delivery van from 
"this cause in the streets of Paris a few weeks ago. With the 
improvements being made in the electric firing of the gas 
mixture, makers claim that the possibility of premature explo- 
sions has l>een overcome, and if this lie true there is no reason 
why the firing tul>es should continue to be employed. Moie- 
over. electricity is almost a necessity in up-to-date vehicles, in 
which the engine can l>e started from the driver's .seat, so that 
there will be no necessity for the machinery to run while the 
carriage is at a standstill! This is one of the principal improve- 
ments that will have to be made in all the new self-propelled 
carriages, and there is every promise that before long the work 
of starting the motor by turning a handle will be a thing of the 
past. But for this, electrical firing is indispensable. 

A carriage possessing these advantages was shown for the first 
time by MM. Kellner et ses Fits, 125, Aveime Malakoff, and if 
the vehicle is all that is claimed by the makers, it is perfect of 
its kind. It is constructed for three persons, and is profiled 
by a two-cylinder horizontal motor of 3J horse-power. The 
gearing is accomplished by the aid of leather belting and wood 
pullevs. The forepart of the vehicle carries the water reservoir 
and the electric l>attery, and behind the cushions of the seat is 
the reservoir for the petroleum spirit. The driver pushes 
forward a starting lever which admits the gas mixture iuto the 
cylinders, the electric*! communication is established, and it is 
claimed that the carriage starts without further trouble. The 
only thing to be regretted is that no opportunity is afforded of 
seeing the vehicle at work. A carriage that can be started with 
so much facility, and only requires the motor to work when 
running, must represent relative perfection iu the construction 
of self-propelled vehicles if, as is claimed, there is an entire 

I absence of vibration, and noise, and smell. Practical experience, 
however, can alone show whether these claims are justified. 

! The system of friction gearing employed by M. H. Tenting 
is not new,, but it continues to hold its own among all the 
new methods of power transmission being brought out, as is 
proved by the fact that it has been adopted to a more or less 

i extent by two or three other firms. The motor used is a two- 
cylinder one, placed nearly horizontally in the same plane and 
working on a common crank. The crank axle carries a large 
friction wheel, upon the periphery of which run two small 
friction cones held in j>osition by springs so that they may be 
drawn away from the wheel or pressed upon it to graduate the 
friction. Between these cones is a loose frictiou wheel carrying 
the pinion for gearing on to the driving wheels. The loose 
wheel may be drawn backwards and forwards between the 
centre of the couss and their circumference to regulate the 
speed of running, or it may be drawn clear altogether to put 
the machinery out of gear. The pinion is geared on to the 

i driving wheel's by a system of cogs. The petroleum spirit is 

; pumped into the cylinders where it is vaporised and exploded. 

( By this means it is claimed that considerable economy is effected. 

Digitized by 


January, 1897.] 



A new system of carriage propulsion was shown by M. Eraile 
Mors, in which the motor is placed vertically, the two cylinders 
being inclined at angles of about 45', and the crank shaft 
is geared on to the intermediate axle by leather belting. The 
special feature of this system is the electrical tiring, which is 

Fig. 1. 

accomplished by means of a small dynamo driven by a friction 
wheel ruuning on the fly-wheel. 

Steam was represented in the euriage of MM. N. Negre et 
Kumn, and though the engine may be efficient enough to prolyl 
the vehicle it is doubtful whether the system is all that is 
required by buvers. A multitubular boiler is carried in the 
forepart of the" carriage, and is heated by petroleum. The 
engine is called a rotary, from the fact that the four cylinders 
are placed at angles of 45', and work on one crank. It is fitted 
just behind the boiler in front of the driver, and the whole 
mechanism is too much exposed and too prominent to give a 
satisfactory appearance to the vehicle. It was shown at work, 
and, in fact, was the only mechanism in the exhibition that did 
run, and the exhaust steam being visible was not calculated to 
convey a favourable impression to visitors. It is evident that 
steam is yet far from taking the place which it ought to occupy 
in the propulsion of road vehicles. 

motor cylinder, so that this latter is always full at the moment 
of the explosion. It is a very quick-ruuning motor, and the 
gas mixture is exploded at each revolution. 

The only electrical carriage in the show is that of M. Darracq, 
aud propelled by a dynamo on the rear axle and fed by Fulnieu 
accumulators, weighing about 400 kilos., that are stowed away 
in the front and rear of the vehicle. It is claimed that once 
charged these accumulators will drive the carriage 120 kiloms. 
The cost of these electrical carriages is, however, excessive. 

One of the chief novelties was the petroleum fore-carriage 
constructed by M. Pretot, 42, Avenue Philippe-Auguste, and 
intended to be fitted to any type of carriage. It consists of 
a sort of bogie frame carrying all the nieohanism comprising 
a two-cylinder horizontal motor of five horse-power, which works 
on an intermediate axle placed in front of the fore wheels, to 
which it is geared by a chain. It is claimed that by this means 
the mechanism lias more of the hauling than propelling action, 
and that consequently the power is utilised with much better 
effect The attachment to the carriage is extremely simple, 
consisting, as it does, merely of bolting the bogie to the fore 
axle and cutting two holes iu the. front part of the vehicle, one 
for the levers, and the other for the spindle which serves for 

The Societe des Automobiles Peugeot, three of whose exhibits 
are illustrated on this page, for instance, showed a carriage 
propelled by their new horizontal motor, in which the gearing 

Via. 2. 

In the carriages of M. P. Cusset, of Levallois-Perret, the 
power of the single cylinder horizontal motor is increased by 
the employment of a "compressing cylinder, in which a valve 
to admit the gas mixture is opened by the explosion in the 

Fig. 3. 

is effected partly by friction cones and partly by leather 
belting, but it was impossible at the show to get auy particulars 
about the details of the mechanism. One feature, however, 
woith notice is the use of an intermediate shaft carrying the 
driving chain, instead of coupling the crank shaft directly to the 
driving wheels themselves, as is the case with all the other 
chain-geared motor vehicles. The appearance of the carriage is 
thus much improved, and the gear is not so liable to be clogged 
with mud thrown up by the wheels. In this, as in nearly all 
the new motor-cars, a reversing gear is employed. To sum up 
the show, it may be said that much more attention has been 
given than hitherto to the body of the self-propelled carriages, 
especially with regard to the finish of the vehicles, though it 
would appear that their construction is still far froai being 
sufficiently robust to withstand the strain that is put upon them 
by the motors ; the motors employed are mostly of the horizontal 
type, geared with leather belting ; electrical firing is coming 
more and more into vogue ; little or nothing has been done to 
prevent any overflow of petroleum spirit from the carburator or 
the reservoir ; the burnt gases are usually sent into a chaml>er 
to expand before escaping into the air, but beyond this nothing 
practical seems to have been done in the way of suppressing the 
noise aud vibration of the vehicles, at least to the extent repre- 
sented bv the makers themselves. 

Digitized by 




[January, 1897. 

Pretident Sir IUyid Salomons, Bart. 

Secretary Avihibw W. JUsh, Esq. 

President of the Lirejioot Ctn're The Eaul of Derby, G.C.B. 

Hon. Local Secretary . . .. E. Siiiiap.vkll Smith, Eiq. 

Semi ■ Official Journal of fAe"[ The Auiomotob and IIorse- 

Axsociation .. . . ..J less Vehicle Joirxal. 

Notice of Forthcoming Meeting. 

Tuesday, January/ 19M — At the Royal Institution, Colquitt 
Street, Liverpool, " Mechanical Haulage on Common 
Roads," by W. Worby Baauiuont, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. 




Proposed Exhibition of Motor Vehicles in 

At a Council meeting of the Self- Propel led Traffic Association 
(Liverpool Branch) the questiou of holding a parade or exhibi- 
tion of motor vehicles was. discussed at length. The general 
opinion seemed to be that there was no need to arrange for a 
display of light carriages since numerous other opportunities 
would arise, but it is within the bounds of possibility that a 
display may be organised for May 1st. Ultimately the following 
gentlemen were elected to form a sub-committee for the purpose 
of drawing up the regulations and conditions to govern a prize 
scheme and competition for motor-wagons suitable for heavy 
goods traffic : — Messrs. A. Bromlev Holmes. M.I.C.E , Alfred 
Holt, M.I.C.E., Alfred L. Jones, j!P., A. G. Lvster, M.I.C.E., 
and Henry H. West, M.I.C.E., with Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith 
as honorary secretary. 

At the fourth ordinary meeting of the Liverpool Branch of 
the Self- Propelled Traffic Association, held at the Royal 
Institution, Liverpool, on the 5th inst, under the presidency 
of Mr. A. L. Jones, a lecture was delivered by Mr. G. F. 
Thompson, consulting engineer, Liverpool, the subject being :-• 
'• The Motor-Wagon Scientifically Considered." Amongst those 
present were Messrs. Alfred Holt, Maunsell C. Bannister, 
John A. Brodie, Everard R Calthrop, A. Bromley Holmes, 
A. G. Lyster, Arthur Musker, G. F. Ransome, Henry H. West, 
John Wilson, Lawrence Jones, Chas. Burrell (of Thetford), and 
E. Shrapnell Smith. 

The Chairman, in introducing the lecturer, said that he 
hoped they would that night see some practical use in the 
Association. (Hear, hear.) Most commercial men in Liverpool 
knew the extreme hardships Liverpool shipowners and shippers 
had to put np with from the railway companies. (Applause.) 
They had appealed to the railway companies time after time for 
some consideration, but they had never been able to get the 
slightest concession. They had beard a good deal about 
motor-cars, and that night they were to hear a paper from 
Mr. Thompson about what might be confcidered a good and 
useful convenient motor-wagon. What they wanted was a good 
and cheap means of carrying cargo from Liverpool to Manchester, 
or to any place within 20 or 30 miles from Manchester. He 
did not know what Mr. Thompson had to say, but he did know 
that it was possible for them to take cargo from Liverpool at 
one-third of the charge now made by the railway companies. 
In adopting any new system such as was now being brought 
forward they had this advantage, that they would not have 
that double or treble handling of cargo which was so 
damaging to fragile packages. Even if the railway com- 
panies carried cargo free, it would be better for the owners 
to send their goods by motor-wagons, because they would carry 
the cargo from the ship's side to the consumer. There was no 
difficulty in a car leaving Liverpool at night and getting to 
Manchester in the morning, and this was where a motor- 
car traction-engine would have a great advantage over the 
railway companies, besides which, this traffic would have a great 
tendency to increase the value of land within a certain distance 
on either side. All this would tend to put them iu a better 
position to meet the continued and increasing competition of 
foreign countries, such as Germany. The Dock Board had 
shown every desire to maintain Liverpool as one of the first 
ports of the kingdom. (Hear, hear.) The Board had met them 
very fairly, and they had not much to complain of at present, 
but the railway companies absolutely would not move, so that if 
Liverpool was to go ahead, as he had no doubt it would — for he 
had no doubt that Liverpool would hold her own as a great 
port — but if the city was to go ahead Liverpool men must work 
in the interests of the port with a determination to bring about 
a better state of things (hear, hear) than existed at the 
present time. For his own part he was quite willing to give 
time or money to bring about that state of thing?. Motor-cars 
would use the highways, and, therefore, no land need be bought, 
and there would be no rails to lay or bridges to make. He was 
not quite sure that Liverpool was right— in fact he was inclined 
to think that Liverpool was wrong — in not taking in hand Mr. 
Alfred Holt's plateway scheme when it was put forward. 
(Applause.) There was no doubt that had Liverpool taken it up 
Manchester would have been saved a good deal of money 
(laughter), and Liverpool would have benefited greatly. But 
they were there to take things as they were, and under the 
present circumstances to do what they could for the best 
interests of the port. He had great pleasure iu calling upon 
Mr. Thompson, wuo said : — 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, — The history of road loco- 
motion, owing to its wealth of incident, forms, perhaps, one of 
the most interesting pages in the annals of industrial progress, 
and, from its first inception, mechanical locomotion appears to 
have had a peculiar fascination for ingenious minds, all sorts and 
conditions of men having endeavoured, more or less successfully, 
to make it vtfait accompli. It will have been noted by all who 
have studied the history of the subject, that the annals record 
more failures than successes, which fact may be said to lie the 
natural consequence of treading upon practically unknown 
ground, or of dealing with unsolved mechanical problems ; but 
there is, I think, a further and more conclusive reason for so 
many failures in the past, and which a closer scrutiny of the 
history discloses, and it is that comparatively few of the inventors 
or designers in the past were engineers or men having any 
scientific or mechanical training, but were, on the contrary, as 
regards applied mechanics, merely enthusiastic amateurs, follow- 
ing vocations remote from engineering. All wore, doubtless, 
skilled in their own professions or trades, but were unlikely to 
be equally proficient in the science of engineering. I do not, of 

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Jajhtakv, 1897.] 



course, suggest that there were no real successes in past years, 
as in point of fact there were many, and it will be found that 
with few exceptions the vehicles were the productions of 
engineers, and were designed upon more or less scientific 
principles, and that little or no experi men ting was required to 
complete their success. In reviewing the past history of road 
locomotion, we are, of course, dealing with a period when the 
" rule o' thumb " was to a large extent the standard measure, 
and the value of theory and scientific principle was uot appre- 
ciated to the extent that it is at the present time. The reason, 
therefore, as to why the endeavours of so 'many enthusiastic 
experimenters were frequently attended with failure is not far 
to seek, as they were all more or less guilty of one fault of 
omission which was, in almost every case, the cause of failure, 
that was, they approached their subject without due considera- 
tion of the scientific principles involved in the problem of 
mechanical locomotion ; and, as the untrained mind is apt to 
err in almost every case where physical laws or scientific prin- 
ciples are concerned, many of those worthy men, in spite of their 
energy and persistence, met with repeated failures, but when 
occasionally something practical was evolved from the cbaoa of 
experiment, it was not so much due to consideration of the 
underlying principles, as to the mere avoidance of the errors 
which had contributed to previous failure. 

Tt has been truly said, that we sometimes benefit more by our 
failures than by our successes. A peculiarity of the unscientific 
mind is, that it either ignores, or fails to appreciate, the unalter- 
able character of the passive and active forces of nature, and 
frequently seeks, by elaborately devised contrivances, either to 
circumvent natural laws, or to defy physical forces. The 
unscientific mind usually sees in complication and elaboration, 
imaginary improvement in mechanism, and the solution of 
problems, which, on the other hand, the scientific mind knows 
to be impossible. The history of road locomotion teaches us 
that little cf real practical value is evolved by blind experiment 
in the field of mechanism, but that, on the other hand, by 
building up a structure upon a sound scientific basis, success 
may be practically insured before the field of experiment is 
entered upon. Guided by this principle, let us study the 
problem of road locomotion upon a scientific basis, and to do 
so the fundamental principles to be observed in the design of 
mechanical apparatus generally must be considered ; as to those, 
let us hear what one of the greatest mechanicians who ever 
lived said, more than a hundred years ago — I refer to James 
Watt, whom I will take the liberty of terming the "Shakespeare 
of Engineering," inasmuch as he formulated principles, evolved 
truths, and established axioms, which live to-day, as do the 
wise sayings of the " Bard of Avon." Perhaps the greatest 
axiom established by Watt was that " the supreme excellence 
in mechanism is simplicity," the scientific truth of this has been 
established by the test of experience, and its import is perhaps 
more fully appreciated to day than at the time it was uttered. 
We might perhaps amplify what we may term " Watt's Law," by 
adding " and simplicity in mechanism is the secret of success." 
Any complication of apparatus or the employment of superfluous 
material merely entails expenditure of motive power to no 
useful purpose, but, on the other hand, creates undue friction, 
aud energy is further wasted in the setting up and retarding 
uselesi momentum. 

Correctness or soundness of principle is of first importance as 
a factor in successful engineering, but there is another point 
almost equally vital, and that is perfection of detail ; doubtless 
many more failures could be traced to defective detail than to 
fault of principle. 

The first principles, therefore, to be observed in the design of 
mechanical apparatus generally, and self-propelling vehicles in 
particular, are : — 

1. Soundness of principle. 

2. Simplicity of design. 

3. Correct proportioning of material to power. 

4. Perfection of detail. 

And these may truly be said to be the elements of success. 
Before considering the design and construction of the vehicle 

it is necessary that we should investigate the elements of road 
locomotion, and the first matter, therefore, to which our atten- 
tion must be directed is the consideration of the physical con- 
ditions involved in the rolliDg contact of wheels with various 
surfaces, and this is, after the question of propulsive power, 
the most important factor in the problem of successful 
mechanical traction. The conditions of surface presenting the 
greater difficulties to be overcome in mechanical or other 
traction are : — 

1. Unevenness. 

2. Yielding, or soft. 

3. Inclined. 

Taking these conditions in order we will first consider uneven- 
ness, this being, in more or less degree, the condition of all 
road surfaces. Unevenness, however small, comparatively, 
necessitates a continual lifting of the vehicle, whether drawn 
or self-propelling, and which lifting is not in any way assisted 
by the descent of the wheels into the hollows of the surface, 
except when travelling at a high rate of speed, then the slight 
momentum due to the descent of the wheel does in some 
measure assist its ascent up the following rise, but this is only 
the case when the unevenness consists of rounded hollows and 
mounds. When the unevenness is due to stones projecting 
above a fairly level surface, each one becomes a species of stop 
and, according to its size, acts with greater or less degree as a 
check to the progress of the wheel, and the effect of that check 
varies according to the diameter of the wheel and the point in 
its periphery which strikes the obstruction. The diagrams a 
and b illustrate this point. (Diagrams drawn upon a black- 
board were here referred to.) In the case of a, the wheel is 
30 inches diameter, and the obstruction equal in height to 
one-tenth the diameter of the wheel, or an angle of inclina- 
tion of 18°, whereas in the case of b, with a wteel 40 inches 
diameter, or 50 per cent, larger than a, the height of the 
obstruction becomes now only one-fifteenth of the diameter, 
and the anglo of inclination is reduced to 15°. Further, iu 
the case of a, the effective leverage of tractive pull is only 
80 per cent., whereas in the case of b it has increased to 867 
per cent. This reasoning practically proves the case in favour 
of comparatively large wheels. If the obstruction becomes 
crushed or forced down into the road surface by the weight 
coming upon it, then the amount of lift of the wheel is pro- 
portionately reduced, but it does not follow that any power is 
saved, as power has been expended in depressing or crushing 
the obstruction. 

Upon hard aud fairly smooth surfaces, the tractive force 
necessary is always proportionate to the weight of the vehicle 
and its load, other factors such as friction and method of 
propulsion being equal. But by increasing the diameter of 
the wheels, the tractive force required is diminished, the rule 
being that the force is reduced as the diameter of the wheel is 
increased. It is said that within certain limits the tractive 
force required to draw or propel a vehicle of a given weight 
does not vary as the number of wheels, and theoretically it 
would appear reasonable, assuming* that proportion of bearing 
surfaces and treads of tyres were correct. Traction ujion soft 
or yielding surfaces increases as the width of the tread. On 
hard surfaces increase of width of tread makes little or no 
appreciable difference in the resistance, except perhaps by 
covering a larger number of irregularities to actually reduce 
the tractive force, unless the weight of the wheel has been 
increased by the widening of the tread, then the advantage of 
the greater width of tread is lost in the increased inertia and 
friction. When the surface is yielding and the wheels depress 
it, it becomes equivalent to ascending a continuous incline, aud 
the resistance of such incline will vary according to the nature 
of the surface, and the depth to which the wheels sink into it. 
The power absorbed in the compression of a soft yielding 
surface or what is equivalent thereto, ascending an incline equal 
to the depth of the depression, is illustrated by diagrams c and o. 
c represents a wheel rolling upon an unyielding surface and 
requires a pull of only 25 lbs. to move it. D shows a wheel of 
similar diameter upon a yielding surface, and the depth of 
depression is equal to an angle of say 10'. To move this 

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[Janvaby, 1897. 

wheel uow requires a pull of 136 - 1 lbs. In the calculation the 
extra friction due to increased pressure upon the axle bearing 
and the contact of the wheel rim with the sides of the rut 
formed by the depression of the road surface are not estimated, 
but it would be safe to add at least another two per cent, or 
20 lbs., thus increasing the pull necessary to lo^'l lbs. But 
there is yet another factor which must not be omitted in 
estimating the tractive pull, that is, the loss of effective leverage, 
which is as the depth of depression to the radius of the wheel, 
owing to the fact that the line of pull is parallel with the 
normal surface and not with the augle of inclination. 

Powkr Required for Self-propulsion as Compared with 

It is a fact, now generally recognised, that in the case of 
self-propelling vehicles to do work equal to the average horse 
by mechanical means, requires from two to three mechanical 
horse-power, and the question is often raised as to the theoretical 
explanation of this apparent paradox. The reason is not far to 
seek. It is not because a horse under ordinary circumstances 
exerts a force greater than the mechanical unit, as, on the 
contrary, it is the fact that utider normal conditions the animal 
exerts a force of only about 65 to 70 per cent, of the mechanical 
horse-power, and this fact would appear to emphasise the 
anomaly- But although the animal, in the ordinary way of 
working, only exerts a force of, say, two-thirds the mechanical 
unit, he can, on occasion, for periods of short duration, exert a 
force of as much as 10 mechanical horse-power, and which reserve 
power he brings into action when starting a vehicle or ascending 
a gradient ; therefore a motor to do the same work as a horse 
must be of, say, three mechanical horse-power, if not more. 
But there is actually more power required to more a given load 
when the vehicle is self-propelling than when drawn by horse or 
other means, and the reason is, that in the one case the power 
is applied to the mass and the wheels are merely the rolling 
media snp|K>rting the weight, and the best possible mechanical 
effect is thereby attained ; whereas, in the other case, when 
power is applied to the wheels iu the form of turning effort, 
intermediate mechanism between power and load is brought into 
action, with a consequent loss of effect represented by the extra 
amount of friction set up. The wheels have now become levers, 
acting as between the ground and mass to be moved, and the 
force is now practically applied at the fulcrum or at a point 
between the periphery and the centre of rotation, and according 
as that point is brought nearer the centre of rotation, so must the 
force there applied increase to develop a certain power at the 
periphery, and the friction at the axle increases in like ratio. 
This resistance becomes more pronounced upon gradients and 
increases as the augle of inclination. 

A natural deduction from the foregoing theory would be that 
to obtain the best effect all the wheels of a self-propelling 
vehicle should be driven ; this would be theoretically correct, 
as there would then lie no power expended in merely pushing 
forward idle wheels, but practically this is objectionable, 
inasmuch as any driving mechanism upon the steering wheels 
would interfere with their'free movement and, further, would 
necessitate complication besides. There would be considerable 
difficulty in devising such compensating gear as would insure 
l>oth leading and rear wheels doing equal work ; we will, 
therefore, dismiss the point as being an unnecessary complica- 
tion. We will now consider the question as to whether the 
leading or rear wheels should be the propelling wheels, and I 
may say that opinion is somewhat divided on this point, some 
makers having adopted the front-driving system, but the 
majority have decided in favour of the rear wheels being the 
drivers, which is undoubtedly the most practical method and, 
further, is theoretically the most correct system, as I think will 
readily be seen from the diagram shown. The first figure 
represents a front-driven vehicle ascending a gradient of 10 per 
cent, inclination, and it will be observed that the gravitation of 
the mass of the load tends to relieve the leading or driving 
wheels of about 10 per cent, of the weight l>oriie when on the 
level and, at the same time, to increase the weight upon the 
rear, which in this case are the steering wheels ; the objections 

to this arrangement are self-evident, and I do not think I need 
enlarge thereon. A rear-driven vehicle is represented upon a 
similar gradient, and it will be seen that in this case the gravi- 
tation of the mass tends to increase the weight on the driving 
wheels and, at the same time, to reduce the pressure upon the 
leading or steering wheels ; this arrangement is both theoreti- 
cally and practically correct for the following reasons : —First, 
the additional weight upou the driving wheels increases their 
adhesion but does not at same time increase the work to be 
done, as the actual weight of the mass, whether on level or on 
incline, always remains constant. Secondly, by relieving the 
leading wheels of a portion of the weight carried, they are 
thereby more free to rise and travel over the irregularities of 
the road surface which, when met with on an incline, tend to 
increase the resistance of that incline. There is also another 
point, and that is the leading wheels can, when comparatively 
lightly loaded, be the more readily and .easily swivelled for 
steering purposes. 

The next point to be considered is the construction of the 
vehicle and its weight in relation to the load carried. I might 
say that in railway practice in this country the weight of the 
vehicle iu comparison with the load designed to carry generally 
exceeds the weights in vogue in the United States, where 
rolling stock for both passenger and goods traffic has certainly 
been brought to a higher degree of perfection than in any other 
country of the world. In this country the " tare " or dead 
weight of railway wagons averages 60 per cent, of the full load, 
whereas in America, where very large bogie-cars are employed 
for freight purposes, the. weight of the vehicle seldom exceeds 
40 per cent, of the load carried. This is much more rational 
when we consider the possibilities of scientific construction. 
Taking a modern bicycle as an example, we have in it a vehicle 
designed to carry from 100 to 200 lbs. and seldom weighing 
more than 20 per cent, of the load designed to carry. From 
actual tests made it was found that a bicycle frame of sound 
ordinary construction would sustain a weight equal to 10 men 
before showing signs of failure, thus proving that no vehicle, if 
scientifically designed and carefully constructed, need be more 
than 25 per cent, to 30 per cent, of the weight designed to 
carry, and, at that, to have a factor of safety of about 10. Of 
all systems of construction of framing for road or railway 
vehicles, the tubular is at once the most scientific, being the 
strongest for a given weight of material employed. The tube 
or cylinder being theoretically the form in which material can 
most resist not only compressive but also torsional and 
bending stresses. Where tensile strain is concerned, it is 
practically immaterial what the form may be, provided the 
sectional area is sufficient. The tubular system of construction 
for the framing of freight-cars has been employed for some time 
past in the States and has been adopted, to a small extent, in 
this country, but owing to the inherent conservatism of railway 
companies and wagon builders I am afraid it will be yet a 
considerable time before the system is more generally adopted 
in England. 

With regard to vehicles for traffic on roads, the lighter the 
construction consistent with adequate strength the better, for 
two reasons :— (1) The lighter the vehicle the smaller will be 
the dead load ; (2) A light framework possesses more elasticity 
or flexibility aud its moment of inertia is less than one of rigid 
and heavy construction, and it is, therefore, less liable to injury 
from vibration due to uneveuness of road surface. 

Framing and Wheels. 

This reasoning clearly emphasises the desirability of reason- 
ably light and somewhat flexible framing for all vehicles 
intended for road traffic, as such are more subject to vibration 
and torsional strains than are vehicles running upon prepared 
tracks, and the design of such vehicles when self-propelling 
should be even more carefully considered than the construction 
of a locomotive for railway purposes, for the reason that the 
conditions under which it must work are more exacting, and its 
range of adaptability must be greater than that necessary in an 
engine intended to run on a prepared track. Reverting to the 
question of vibration, its eflect can, of course, be practically 

Digitized by 


Jani-abv, 1897.] 



nullified by interposing elastic media between the road surface 
and framing in one or another of two forms. First, in the form 
of springs, and, secondly, in the form of elastic treads to the 
wheels ; but a still better effect is obtained by a judicious 
combination of the two forms. First, springs are better 
calculated to dissipate the effects of severe shocks than are 
elastic treads to the wheels, but, on the other hand, the elastic 
tyre possesses an attribute of which no other expedient is an 
equivalent, and that is in its keeping the inflexible rim of the 
wheel off the smaller inequalities of the surface, which are 
really the cause of jar or vibration, when the tyre is of metal, 
or any hard, non-elastic material. Regarding springs, it has 
been ascertained, by actual experiment, that with properly 
proportioned springs, the tractive force when travelling at 
moderate speeds over rough surfaces is thereby reduced to 
alxiut half what it would be were no springs employed. As to 
the construction of wheels, there is only" one perfect wheel 
suitable for light, or moderately heavy road vehicles, and that 
is the one built upon a truly scientific principle, the suspension 
system, which means, in other words, that the spokes are in 
tension instead of being in compression as in common wheels, 
and the knave or boss hangs as it were within the rim, instead 
of thrusting outwardly in all directions. This is the only 
system upon which a perfectly sound yet light wheel can be 
constructed, and when the spokes are arranged taugentially and 
Interlaced it becomes a perfect driving wheel, inasmuch as the 
turning effort applied to the centre is communicated to the 
periphery by a practically direct pull, instead of by a bending 
strain upon the spokes as is the case in ordinary wheels 
having radial spokes in compression. 

A wheel on the suspension system with pneumatic tyre is the 
scientific as well as the mechanical ideal, and, I might add, the 
commercial ideal, as I believe, made in a comprehensive and 
systematic manner as they are at the large manufactories in 
Coventry ; wheels on this system can be produced at a cheaper 
■•ate than could wheels of equal strength on any other system. 
Many devices have been brought forward as equivalent of the 
pneumatic tyre for affording an elastic connection between the 
centre of the wheel and the part in contact with the road surface, 
but although successful as far as they go, they do not meet the 
case. Elasticity in a wiieel is practically useless unless it be at 
the tread, as it is at that point where the shock is received, and 
if it be not at once absorbed by some elastic medium, it is, as a 
consequence, cotumunicated to the whole of the rim and any 
other parts which are rigidly connected thereto, so that elasticity 
iu the vicinity of the boss of the wheel in no way saves the rim 
from injurious shock, and is at best but a bad substitute for 
springs employed in the usual manner. Further, elasticity within 
a wheel in no way increases its adhesive or tractive power, and, 
considering the complication it entails iu the construction of a 
wheel, it is, as a mechanical expedient, worse than useless. The 
great advantage and value of elasticity at the tread of a wheel 
is that it serves the double purpose, of first absorbing all jar 
due to rolling contact with an uneven surface, and, secondly, it 
intensifies the adhesion of the wheel to the road surface. 
Respecting wheels having plain unyielding treads, it has been 
found in practice that siuh wheels offer greater resistance to 
traction than when they hive diagonal or transverse ribs or 
plates upon their peripheries ; this is accounted for by the fact 
that many of the loose stones, &c, met with on road surfaces 
find their way into the spaces between the ribs, and conse- 
quently no power is expended in either forcing them into the 
surface or crushing them, as would be the case were the 
wheel rims plain. 


The best method of steering self-propelling vehicles is 
undoubtedly that known as " Ackerman's system," which 
consists in swivelling the leading wheels independently instead 
of together, as is the case when a fore-carriage is employed. 
In Ackerman's system the leading axle is a fixture, and the 
wheels are mounted upon short pivots jointed to the ends of the 
fixed axle. These pivots have short levers attached to them at 
angles slightly out of square to which the steering handle is 

connected by suitable rods and levers. This system of steering 
possesses three distinct features of advantage. First, the body 
of the vehicle is sup|x>rted at the sides, instead of at the centre — 
as is the case with a swivelling carriage — thus insuring greater 
stability. Secondly, the wheels being mounted on the ends of 
short levers instead of long levers, their movement is much 
easier, and they are further not affected to the same extent by 

' unevenness of surface or obstructions, as when held at the ends 

i of a long swivelling axle. The third advantage is that owing 
to the levers upon the wheel pivots being set out of square 
and their consequent movement through arcs of circles not 
coincident, there is a resulting variation of relative angle of the 
two wheels, and which, if the levers are set at the proper 
degree of inclination, insures each wheel being set approxi- 
mately square to the radii of the circles of their paths. This is 
an important point, as if the wheels he parallel to one another 

i there is a screwing or twisting of the wheel traversing the 

I minor or inner curve. 

The Rod of Propulsion. 

] The most important elemeut in successful road locomotion is 
adequate propulsive power, and from the data given it will be an 

I easy matter to determine what ]x>wer may be necessary to 
propel a given weight under various conditions ; the next point, 

| therefore, to consider is the system of propulsion. For freight 
purposes over long distances, there are, in my opinion, only two 

I systems admissible, they arc steam and oil, or explosion motor. 
Practical opinion is strongly iu favour of steam, but I am 

I inclined to the belief that in oil it has a very formidable rival, 
therefore, let us for a moment glance at the relative merits and 

I drawbacks of steam and oil. 

One great advantage which steam possesses is that it is 

I generally understood, it is easily generated, and ths materials 
necessary thereto can be obtained almost everywhere. But to 
enable this class of power to be held in reserve energy must be 
stored either iu the form of pressure or of heat, and iu any case 
the container must be necessarily strong and heavy. The latter 
form of storage is the more desirable as the element of danger 
created by the storage of pressure is not present iu the storage 
of heat under proper conditions. A steam-engine can be readily 
started, stop|>ed, and reversed, and its range of power aud 
variation of speed are practically uulimited, and when duplex 
cylinders are employed, perfect balance may be insured. 
Regarding the oil or explosion-eugine, its principal attribute is 
that only the motor and fuel are necessary for the development 

i of power, there is no medium or third elemeut required as iu 
the case of steam or electricity. The heat-producing material 

I is in a highly concentrated and portable form, is an article 
easily procurable, cheap aud safe, when its flash point is above 

j 80' F. The principal objections to the oil-engine are that it is 
not a self-starter and it has practically no flexibility in the 
matter of speed or power, and must be kept running even while 
the vehicle is stopped so as to be ready for re starting. Further, 
its action is somewhat jerky, owing to the thrust-effort being 
only at intervals and always in the one direction ; this is perhaps 
the most serious objection to the explosion engine, but when it 
is considered that pulsation or vibration in a motor is only the 
evidence of unbalanced thrust-effort or the momentum of 
mutter iu motion, I think ingenuity should be able to cojh- 
with this element ami so remove a stigma from au otherwise 
admirable apparatus. 

Referring now to the more commercial aspect of the matter, 
the best and most economical working conditions would ap|iear 
to be fulfilled by employing one motor freight-wagon drawing a 
simple freight- wagon. The weight limit fixed by the Local 
Government Board iu this case being : — Motor and follower- 
wagon together, unladen, four tons, and speed limit, six miles 
per hour. To take full advantage of the weight limit the motor- 

1 wagon, together with engine and fuel, might weigh, say, 2 j tons, 
and the follower- wagon, say, 1 j tons. The motor- wagon might 
then be designed to carry from five to six tons and the follower 
a similar load ; only one-half of the load would then be self- 
propelling, the other half would be drawn, and, therefore, moved 
under more economical conditions. The horsepower required 

Digitized by 




for such vehicles and loads on the level would be about 
17 mechanical units, but the motor should have a margin of 
power for starting the load and ascending gradients of, say, 
50 per cent, that is, 84 horse-power, which added to 17 makes 
the total power of the motor for such work, say, 25 effective 
horse-power. I say effective as meaning over and above the 
power necessary to overcome inertia and friction of engine and 
machinery. Every motor-wagon should have two men in charge, 
an engine-driver and stoker, and be the motor of very small 
power the same attendants would be necessary, whereas the 
same two men could manage equally well a motor- wagon drawing 
even 10 wagons after it, and little, if any, more work would be 
entailed than if it had no follower. 

The only remaining matter of importance is the question of 
cost of working, and as that is as yet a matter of speculation and 
estimation rather than fact, I would prefer not to commit myself 
to any definite statement, but I am of opinion that upon fairly 
good roads, having no gradients above 10 per cent, inclination, 
with either steam or oil it might be readily possible to convey 
goods at a cost of 1 \d. per ton per mile, aud in arriving at this 
amount I have taken into consideration cost of fuel and 
engine sundries ; wages for two attendants ; interest on capital 
outlay ; repairs, depreciation ; insurance of motor and load, and 
rent of shedding for accommodation of motors when not in use. 
But I have not included cost of loading and unloading, and, 
further, I have based my calculations upon the assumption that 
the wagons be fully loaded ; allowing for the light load con- 
tingency it might be advisable to increase our figures to \^d. or 
\\d. per ton per mile. 

In conclusion, I would say that the natural tendency of 
human inclination is to select the best, and the ultimate 
success of the mechanically-propelled vehicle is a question of 
the "survival of the fittest," and this is the underlying principle 
of all real progress, and he whose endeavours are directed 
towards the attainment of perfection, whether it be in mechanism 
or other useful art, will surely reap his reward in due season : 
but no endeavour in the direction of the attainment of supreme 
excellence in mechanism can be really profitable unless our 
efforts are guided by the light of science. (Loud applause.) 

The Chairman, in commenting upon the lecturer's remarks, 
said he was gratified to find that Mr. Thompson's calculation 
as to cost of running exactly agreed with his own estimate, and 
with a guarantee as to cost actually given him by an eminent 
firm of traction-engine builders, and he thought that if goods 
could be carried, say, from Liverpool to Manchester, or similar 
distances, at the cost estimated, there was a good field for an 
economical motor- wagon. 

A discussion followed, in which several gentlemen connected 
with shipping and engineering interests took part. After the 
lecturer replied to the several points raised during the dis- 
cussion, the proceedings terminated with the usual votes of 


In common with all interested in the adoption of secondary 
batteries for use in traction work, we have long taken an 
interest in the system of Mr. G. R. Blot — as we have been 
acquainted for some time with the marvellously good results 
which Mr. Preece had obtained in the course of a series of 
elaborate experiments, carried out with the assistance of the 
Post Ofhce experts. In'addition to that testimony we had, too, 
the favourable opinions of some scores of Continental and 
English electricians, as well as the outcome of our own know- 
ledge of the accumulator. We were therefore much pleased 
at the successful gathering which took place on Tuesday last 
at the Hotel Cecil, London, when, under the presidency of the 
Hon. R. R. Dobell, Mr. H. Tyrer Cheswright gave a lecture, 
illustrated with models and diagrams, on the principles and 
construction of the battery. The speaker said : — 
The "Blot" Accumulator is of the "Plante," or pure lead 

type, containing no pasted oxide whatever ; its construction is 
based upon the suspension of alternately corrugated and 
embossed ribbons wound round a " shuttle, such ribbons and 
shuttles varying in thickness in accordance with the electrical 
capacity as:d rate of charge and discharge required, aud being 
fixed free to expand in an unoxidisable form. 

Of these accumulators we have several samples before us — 
most of which are illustrated in this article— with which we 
propose to show very briefly the special features and advantages 
of the " Blot " system, by demonstrating to you the rapidity 
with which these accumulators can be practically charged for 
traction purposes, also for motor-car work, a subject which 
is now engrossing the attention of the entire world ; and, 
secondly, by explaining to you the exceedingly simple and 
mechanical construction of the plates, the manner of their 
erection in cells, &c. 

Whilst the " traction cell " is being charged in the short space 
of 15 minute*, if you will allow me I will call your special 
attention to the advantages referred to with regard to this 
system, which may be summed up as follows : — (I) Maximum 
electrical surface obtainable ; (2) high rate of capacity and 
efficiency ; (3) rapid charge and discharge ; (4) immunity from 
buckling ; (5) absolute and efficient conductivity between active 
material and the frame ; (6) durability ; (7) low cost of pro- 

With regard to the maximum electrical surface which is the 
largest obtainable, I think you will easily understand that this 
is' arrived at by the fact of using alternately corrugated and 
embossed ribbons. This ingenious arrangement gives a great 
active surface with a small amount of lead ( - 333 m» per kg. of 
plate) as well as great porosity, due to the layers of ribbon being 
kept apart by the corrugation. 

High rates of capacity aud efficiency are attained and assured 
by the large and exceptional surface of active ma f erial exposed 
to the electrical action. 

It is well known amongst electricians that the time required 
for charging and discharging an accumulator is in absolute 
proportion to its surface for a given weight, hence it has been 
the object of manufacturers to make the plates as thin as possible, 
but in the case of all oxide accumulators that have pasted 
plates it has been materially impossible to go beyond a certain 
point, as they otherwise disintegrated or fell to pieces, which 
limits for all practical purposes the rate of charge and discharge 
(as also their electrical capacity) to a very low regime. With 
the very largely increased surface of the " Blot " Accumulator 
this essential difficulty is entirely overcome, and in proof of 
which I would refer any gentleman to the curves on the wall, 
demonstrating both the electrical capacity and efficiency at 
high rates of charge and discharge ; tlie charge varying from, 
say, one quarter of an hour, and discharge up to ten hours, 
which latter for ordinary stationary purposes is the usuat rate. 
I would here mention that these accumulators have undergone, 
during the past two years, most severe aud exhaustive tests 
by very competent authorities in France. Belgium, and this 
country. The extracts of some of the important reports will 
accompany the prospectus, which will shortly be issued to the 

Swelling of the active material iu accumulator plates has 
always been one of the greatest, if not the. greatest, difficulty 
that has had to be contended with. With oxide plates it is 
produced by the difference of dilatation, the swelling of the 
active material and its consequent disintegration, the dis- 
integrated parts, moreover, establishing but too often what 
is known as a "short circuit" (accidental contact between 
the two poles). I may mention that the oxide accumulators, 
notwithstanding these inherent defects, may be said hitherto 
to have taken precedence over the pure lead or Plante type, such 
as we are dealing with to day, for the only reason that a pure 
lead plate has, up to now, never attained an equal electrical 
capacity, though known to be far more robust. With 
Mr. Blot's system we have even a much higher capacity thau 
with any industrial oxide accumulator known, at the same 
time combining all the solid qualities and. advantages peculiar 
to the Plants system (pure lead). Before leaving this question 

Digitized by 




1. Frame support for mounting plates 
iu cell. 

2. Complete plate; 4 shuttles. 

;-b ? 

6. Whole and half shuttle. 

3. Complete plate j 8 shuttles. 

7. Showing embossed and eorrugaUd 
ribbon with loose ends. 

4. Shuttles placed horizontally. 

5. Shuttles placed vertically. 

8. Complete cell in glass. 

Digitized by 




of buckling or swelling, I would like to explain how this 
inherent drawback is entirely obviated with the " Blot " plate. 
As already explained, the active material is composed of 
alternately corrugated and embossed ribbons, these ribbons 
being left entirely free at the base of the plate, allowing sufficient 
room for their extension and expansion vertically and horizon- 
tally. This is the only system where necessary expansion has 
beeu practically provided for, and this important point will be 
easily appreciated by all electricians, and particularly by those 
who have already hail experience and paid for it. 

The conductivity between frame and active material is a 
point whbh is of great importance. It is of no use being able 
to put a large quantity of electricity into an accumulator unless 
you can get it out again in a sufficient proportion. It will 
therefore be seen that the conducting surface of an accumulator 
plate must of necessity be proportionate to the electrical 
capacity of the active material. This is assured in the " Blot " 
Accumulator by the " shuttle " which forms the core of each 
coil of ribbon, such shuttle varying in thickness and consequent 
conductivity in accordance with the surface, size, and thickness 
of the ribbons themselves. The core of this shuttle is soldered 
electrically to the frame, thus connecting the active material 
with both, and ensuring a proper electrical contact of all the 
lead ribbons. 

The rigorous tests which this accumulator have undergone 
have proved, beyond a doubt, their extraordinary durability, 
even at high rates of charge and discharge. Positive plates 
which have been in constant use during two years, and for 
which the current has been taken at the rate of 2^ amperes per 
pound, sh >w no signs of deterioration. We have such a plate 
on the table bafore us, guaranteed to have been in use two 
years, and if we scratch the surface it will be seen that the 
surface only is attacked, the lead underneath having remained 
absolutely in its metallic state. With elements of such con- 
struction, moreover, it is possible, after a number of years' use, 
to reverse the polarity and use the plates to the last, 

In conclusion, it may be stated that Mr. Preeoe, in his report, 
says :— " We have obtained 127 ampere hours per kilogram of 
plate j. It acts under heavy rates, discharges in a superior 
manner, and it seems to be admirably adapted for traction 
purposes, as well as for electric lighting. The ampere-hour 
efficiency is 8S per cent., and the Watt-hour efficiency 76 per 
cent. at. ths normal rate of discharge." Mr. T. Parker, of 
Wolverhampton, a recognised authority, declares that the 
Hlorage capacity of the " Blot" is the highest for its weight. It 
can be charged without injury in a very short time, and the 
energy is available at a great rate of discharge without damage. 
He adds : — " I have examined cells that had been in use for 
two and a half years ; ther-; was no buckling ; the cell had 
given no trouble or loss by internal short-circuiting. There is 
l>ositive prospect that their small depreciation, when working, 
will produce a new era in the use of accumulators." 

The engravings which illustrate this article fully show the 
details of the construction of the battery ami its finished 



"* f **"*i^*»*W»^**'«^»*'»»»#^'X**^W« 

Liverpool Police and Automotors. 

Return of British Motor Syndicate Subscriptions. 

We understand that it is an unquestionable fact that some of 
the subscriptions to the British Motor Syndicate issue are 
being returneJ. Inquiries addressed to brokers show that iu 
cases where sufficient pressure has b;en put upon the promoters, 
subscribers of £3 each for the shares have been able to obtaiu 
the return of their money. 

Iv a report to the Watch Committee on motor-cars and light 
street locomotives, the Assistant Head Constable of Tiiverpool 
suggests that eight miles an hour should be fixed as the maximum 
speed, that there should be no restrictions on their use in streets 
along the docks, but that they should not be allowed to cross the 
city except during such hours of the night as the Committee might , 
fix. With regard to the scheme which is on foot to establish a 
line of locomotives for traction on the road between Liverpool 
and Manchester, to which we referred in our last issue, the | 
Assistant Head Constable underst inds that the present intention 
is to use three wagons with each locomotive ; this traffic, j 
therefore, would not be subject to the Act of last year, which i 
only allows one wagon, but would be Mibject to the Acts 24 and I 
25, 28 and 29, and 41 and 42 Vict., under which the local | 
authority has power to make regulations as to route and hours, j 

Sour of the members of this Syndicate visited Coventry on 
Thursday last, and inspected some of the works there under the 
guidance of Mr. H. J. Lawson. Some speeches were made at 
a luncheon and informal meeting which took place later, but 
nothing of much importance with reference to the recent issue 
transpired. Many prophecies were made as to the profits to be 
gained in the future ; threats were hurled at those concerned 
in rival patents ; but no reference was made to dissatisfied 
applicants for allotments, and to the efforts which are beiug 
made to secure a return of the capital subscrilted. 

Our contemporary, the Pall MM Gazette — which took a 
prominent part in exposing the worthlessnoss of the master 
patents which were offered to the public — recently had the 
following note on the subject : — " We have little patience with 
those who were foolish enough to subscribe to the British Motor 
Syndicate issue ; but still, the less trouble they have iu getting 
their money back the more shall we be pleased. ' In a recent 
issue of your pvp3r,' writes one of them to-day from the 
North, 'you stated that the Syndicate was, under pressure, 
returning the money to some of the allottees, and as I am an 
unfortunate victim, I should esteem it a great kindness if you 
■would give me information as to how I might recover the money 
already paid to the Syndicate's bankers.' Such letters a3 thesr, 
of course, suggest the need of organisation. Communications 
we have received thow that while some have obtained the return 
of their money, others are moving for it through their individual 
solicitors. Might we suggest that it would save much time, 
trouble, and expense if the subscribers acted collectively instead 
of individually ? Perhaps one of the firms of solicitors or one 
of the shareholders who are acting would be willing to step 
forward with name and address, that a nucleus for joint action 
might be formed." We have also received innumerable letters 
on the same subject, and of much the same tenour ; our advice 
has been of similar purport to that given by the Pall Mall, and 
we are veiy pleased to note that a combination of clients and 
solicitors has taken place. 

New Issues. 

Steel Wkldless Fittings for Motor-Cars, Cycles, &c. 

The Standard Weldless Tube and Cycle Components (Ltd.) 
(Chillingworth's Patents), is an important undertaking which 
has just been formed with a capital of £160,000, divided into 
£ I ordinary shares, for the purpose of purchasing the Standard 
Tube Company, of Birmingham, iocludiug all the freehold 
works, land, machinery, tools, &c, as well as additional 
machinery necessary to increase the output of weldless steel 
tubing up to 5,000,000 feet per annum, and to acquire Chilling- 
wonh's Patents, the adoption of which, it is claimed, will create 
a revolution in the manufacture of fittings for motor-cars, 
cycles, engines, &c. These fittings are stronger and lighter 
than those put together with the ordinary fittings now used. 
By Chillingworth's process sockets of all sizes and shapes can 
be forced outwards by pressure from the inside of tubing in 
a manner previously impracticable, thereby effecting a great 
saving in price, time, labour, and material, whilst in the pro- 

Digitized by, 




doction of weldless motor-car and cycle steel fittings the 
saving is eveu greater, whilst the fittings are absolutely reliable. 
Already a very large sale of these tubes has been effected in 
Germany, &c.,and the Board of Directors, which is a very strong 
one, certainly appear to be fully justified in their anticipations 
of profits set forth in the prospectus which is now placed 
before the public A practical demonstration was given on 
Wednesday last of these remarkable patents, and we notice 
that Mr. A. G. S. Manning (late engineer to the East and 
West India Dock Company;, and Mr. F. R. £. Liebenrood, 
after inspecting the Chillingworth process, have agreed to join 
the Board on behalf of the vendors. A deserved feature is 
made of the fact that there are no preference, deferred, or 
founders' shares, and consequently the value and profit derived 
from the purchase and taking over of the property will accrue 
entirely to the ordinary shareholders from the first. Emphati- 
cally favourable reports upon the patents are given by Mr. 
Fletcher Moulton, Q.C., Mr. T. M. Goodeve, and Messrs. 
Brewer aud Sou, and any profits arising from the rs-sale of 
the foreign patents, subsidiary companies, licenses to work, &c, 
will go to swell the profits for the ordinary shareholders. The 
directors propose setting aside £30,000 for working capital, and 
the service i of Mr. Lewis, the present manager of the Standard 
Tube Works, have been secured for a period of five years. The 
offices of the Company are 7, Philpot Lane, E.G. Specimens of 
the fittings manufactured by this process can be seen at the 
Works, Wharf Street, Aston, Birmingham ; 2, Cherry Street, 
Birmingham ; 7, Philpot Lane, E.C. ; and at 76, Queen Victoria 
Street, London, E.C. Subscriptions (2«. 6d. per share on appli- 
cation) will be received by Parr's Bank, Limited, 77, Lombard 
Street, E.C , and the Birmingham District and Counties 
Banking Company (Limited', Colmore Row, Birmingham, and 
their respective branches, where prospectuses can also be 

New Companies Registered. 

— « — 

"L'uicr tliin heading, we'intend in future giving a full list of any 
new Companies registered which take power to make, deal, or 
become interested in any manner in automotor vehicles. Where 
detailed particulars are not given under this heading we shall be 
p'eased to reply to inquiries through the " Answers to 
Correspondents" column. All communications should be 
addressed to the Editor. The only stipulation which we make 
is that where the inquiry involves a search of the records at 
Somerset House — as in the case "f information on the subject 
of. the holdings of shareholders — a p latal order must be 
enclosed to cover the Government stamp of one shilling which 
is cliarged before a search is allowed to be made] 

Cycle Electric Lamp Co. (Limited), Man- 

Cycle Steel and Sorew Co. (Limited), Bir- 

" D B " Spoke Co. (Limited), Warwick 

E. and H. Hora (Limited) 

Electrical Traffic Syndicate (Limited) 

Garrison Cycle Co. (Limited), Heywood 

Girling Cycle and Motor Car Co. (Limite 1), 

Globe Venture Syndicate (Limited) 

Goy and Co. (Withers and Chandler) 

Great Yarmouth aud District Tramways 


. Harris's Patent Record Gear (Limited) 

Hob&rt, Bird, and Co. (Limited), Coventry ... 

Joslins (Limited), Colchester 

Marks' Hub Syndicate (Limited) 

Millet's Patent Motor-Wheel Co. (Limited) ... 

New Motive Power Syndicate (Limited) 

New Traffic Syndicate (Limited) 

Northway Cycle Co. (Limited) 

















Pedersen's Cycle Frame (Limited) 

Ra/lan Cycle and Anti-Friction Ball Co. 

(Limited), Birmingham 

South Wales Motor Car and Cycle Co. 

(Limited), CarditT 

Star Cycle Co. (Limitrd), Wolverhampton .... 

Surrey Tyre (Limited) 

T. D. Oliver and Co. (Limited), Newcastle .... 

Velodrome Co. (Limited) 

W. A. Lloyd's Cycle Fittings (Limited), 












* # * We do not hold oursdves responsible for opinion* expressed by 
oar Correspondents. 

%• The name and address of th' writer (not ntcessarUti for publica- 
tion) MUST in all eases accompany letters intend d for insertion, 
or co itaining queries. 


To the Editor of The Actomotob and Horseless Vehicle 

Dear Sir, — It is with much pleasure I see we now have a 
journal devoted entirely to horseless vehicular traffic, and one 
which I sincerely hops will make a point of disseminating 
information in regard to the subject in a totally unbiassed 

Please forgive me for taking exception to the title you have 
chosen. In the first place, it 'sounds very much like the name 
cf an existing paper if the syllable be read backwards; and 
secondly, the word " Automotor," to my mind, conveys nothing 
in connection with either vehicles or locomotion, seeing that a 
stationary steam-engine, for example, might lie accurately 
classed as an " automotor." I would, therefore, suggest that, 
before it is too late, you should strike out this unnecessary 
word from your pronoun, and let it l>e simply The Horseless 
VEmcLE Journal. — Faithfully yours, Alfd. R. 

Putney, Dec. 10M. 


To the Editor of The Actjmotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Dear Sir,- -When reading your journal for December I was 
much interested in an article re " Pneumatic Tyres," and the 
practical remarks therein slated by Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw. 
His views seem to be on the same line of thought an mine. A 
theory which I have for the easy running of the pneumatic tyre 
is that, when the wheel with its load is being driven or drawn 
on the ground, the tyre is depressed at the point of contact with 
the ground (slightly forward of the centre of the wheel), which 
causes the air to rush round the wheel until it comes to the 
point of contact at the other side of the wheel or tyre, and the 
air being under compression, it has a tendency to give the wheel 
a lift : thus the weight is helping the wheel forward ; for you 
will see from the above description that the centre of the axle 
lias a tendency to be forward of the centre of the periphery. 

This principle is demonstrated in a spring wheel, which you 
will see on a prospectus that I enclose. You will see from this 
that when the wheel is pushed or drawn the springs give way, 
letting the axle take a forward position as to the periphery of 
the wheel : thus the weight i* again helping the machine 
forward. These wheels run with remarkable ease, going over 
obstacles with great fat ility. It is through noticing the above 
facts that I have taken out a patent for an improved wheel, 

Digitized by 




which I consider will supersede two previous ones. I form 
a hubless wheel, and by suitable arrangements I secure a 
smaller wheel within the hubless wheel. By this arrangement 
I come to the rolling principle which the Professor speaks of. 
When the wheel meets an obstruction it simply rolls over it 
without being jerked over. By my principle you will sse that 
I get a forward centre when the wheel is driven forward which 
helps the machine along, and a backward centre when the nower 
is reversed, thns acting as a brake. This wheel is applicable to 
any kind of vehicle, and can have any kind of tyre on either of 
the wheels. The wheel really goes over a brick with as ensy a 
motion as a boat over a wave, and really easier than a pneumatic 
tyre. That is what all riderssay who have ridden it. — I am, &c, 

VV. P. W. Weather ill. 
33, Beech Street, Manchester. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horssless Vehicle 

Sir,— That charmingly-situated, health-giving town on an 
eminence, with its (roughly speaking) 23 miles of exceptionally 
well-kept roads has very poor communication, so far as loco"- 
motion upon them is concerned, for its 8,3tX> inhabitants, let 
alone for visitors by rail to the pleasant town, or for those 
who come to see one of the finest old residences in England. 
I knew Sevenoaks when the population was much less, but was 
served a great deal better, the London, Chatham, ami Dover 
Railway Company connecting their station and the town with a 
two-horse omnibus. We also had a good service of trains con- 
necting the two railway stations for the charge of \d. per 
passenger. The line is still there, but the train service has 
teen allowed to cease, and in its place we have the Company's 
'bus, which only makes four journeys each way for the charge 
of 6c/., which is far too high for the middle class. No doubt 
the great cost attendant upou keeping horses deterred anyone 
from placing omnibuses on our roads, but now the new Act, 
which came into operation at the end of 1896, finds the meaus to 
overcome that difficulty. I trust we shall soon see some 
enterprising gentleman form a "Sevenoaks Motor Syndicate," 
and commence by placing two "electrical" cars on" the two 
principal roads, both to start early in the morning from the 
Royal Oak Hotel. "A" car to proceed down the London 
Road to the South Eastern Railway Station, thence to the 
London, Chatham, and Dover Station, and up St. John's Hill 
through High Street to the Royal Oak Hotel. " B " car should 
proceed through the High Street down St. John's Hill to the 
London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, thence to the South 
Eastern Railway, and back to the Royal Oak Hotel by the 
London Road. I would suggest that the journeys be made 
continuous throughout the day, thus affording good communica- 
tion to the inhabitants as well as to railway passengers. Those 
who take this matter up, if it is well managed, popular fared being 
charged, and quarterly or yearly tickets issued at moderate 
rates, will not only reap a good profit from their undertaking, 
but will confer a boon upon visitors and the inhabitants 
generally, and will also materially enhance the welfare of the 
town of Sevenoaks. Albert Bath. 


To the Elitor of TnE Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

? l . R, . —l11 a letter "" tlle 8U,, J ect of the patents owned by the 
British Motor Syndicate published in one of votir contemporaries 
recently, Mr. Walter Rowbotham writes :— '"Now, it is possible 
to vaporise them'' (heavy hydrocarbons) "bv a body in the 
cylinder heated by means of electricity, and tlius the danger of 
fire or of flame blowing out is obviated, and the engine is'njady 
for starting in a few seconds. I ask you if you do not consider 
this a master patent, and if you do not think there is as much 
distinction between this method of vaporising and that of 

using an outside flame, as between the Otto and the other makes 
of gas-engine ? " 

Mr. Rowbotham doe3 not state to what particular patent lie 
refers, but it is certain that the British Motor Syndicate owns 
no master patent fjr the method of vaporising hydrocarbons 
which he describes. The method of vaporising heavy hydro- 
carbons by means of an electric heating resistance, so that the 
resulting vapour may be ignited and burned, was published in 
several technical journals about 10 or 1 1 years ago (I have not 
my references by nie as I write, and so cannot give exact dates), 
and was patented about 11 or 12 years ago. It does not follow, 
however, because the Syndicate referred to does not own a 
master patent for this method, that it does not own valuable 
subsidiary patents. That may, or may not, be the case. 

J. G. Lorrain. 


To the Edtior of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Sir, — I have noticed in several papers paragraphs about 
motor-cars firing themselves. I should like to point out that 
this arises from the fact that the said cars derive their motive 
power from the use of the light hydrocarbons, such as benzine, 
petrol, or naphtha, which vaporise at a very low temperature 
and ignite on the appearance of a light. If a heavy hydrocarbon 
were used this would not take place, as that grade oil needs 
considerable heat to effect its vaporisation, and is nothing like 
so inflammable .as the lighter one. But for this very reason, 
and also on account of the smell and smoke given off from the 
heavy grade, these dangerous hydrocarbons are preferred. 

Now, by the letters lately appearing in so many papers, people 
are led to believe that, the Otto cycle patent having expired, 
there are no patents of value to be obtained for motor-car 
engines, thus implying that the said engines are practically 
perfect. If this is so, why do not makers produce their cars 
free from the need of water, free from vibratiou, free from 
smell, and, last but not least, free from the danger of firing! 
That they have not done so is clearly evidenced by the occur- 
rences of "a few days ago, which, I expect, wHl be pretty frequent 
while people use these dangerous light oils. 

I should like to inform you that the heavy grade oils can 
be used, aud there are patented methods of vaporising them 
without using any outside heat, the vaporisation Wing effected 
in the interior of the cylinder without the aid of flame. There 
are also patents for anti-vibration, for practically avoidiug smell 
and vapour, when a heavy grade oil is used, and for dispensing 
with water for cooling purposes, though, as you state in your 
issue of the 16th inst, these are not in the possession of the 
British Motor Syndicate. 

A motor-car built on the lines I have indicated would be 
comfortable and quite safe, and so would rapidly become 
popular.— Yours faithfully, Walter Rowbotham. 

27, Vittoria Street, Birmingham, Ike. 31*;. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 

Dear Sir,— 1 have watched with the deepest interest the turn 
matters have taken in regard to this important subject, which, 
if properly handled, may be made at no remote date to consti- 
tute au industry of great magnitude and of national importance. 
Those who have not especially studied it appear to be under the 
erroneous impression — possibly from the fact of the newest 
form of motor- vehicle having been introduced from the Con- 
tinent — that the subject is new to our country. This, however, 
is far from being the fact, for at one time we led in this branch, 
and indeed at the commencement of this century we in England 
were quite as far advanced, at least in regard to the heavier 
type of self-propelling vehicle, as are our Continental friends 

Digitized by 


Janpaby, 1897.] 



In 1831 steam stage-coaches were runuing regularly, punctu- 
ally, and satisfactorily between the towns of Cheltenham and 
Gloucester, giving great satisfaction to passengers, and con- 
veying them at a cheaper rate than the horse-drawn stage- 
coaches- of the time. In 1846 steam stage-coaches were running 
every hour between St. George's Square, Glasgow, and Paisley ; 
these being so well patronised that they were almost always 
overcrowded, and had to be supplemented by a kind of trailing 
dog-cart, conveying six persons in addition to the 20 passengers 
— sometimes, it is averred, overcrowded up to 40— carried on 
the coach. Further developments in both cases were put a stop 
to by the antagonistic and short-sighted policy pursued by the 
road trustees, who caused ridges of stones 18 inches in depth 
to be placed across the roads for the purpose of impeding the 
progress of the mechanically-propelled coaches to such an extent 
indeed as to render the roads impassable to horse-drawn traffic, 
the latter being compelled to make a detour during the preva- 
lence of this unpatriotic and un-English mode of opposition. 
Sufficient time, however, had been given to unequivocally 
demonstrate the unqualified success of the innovation, with the 
result that owners of landed estates, farmers, and others 
interested in horse-flesh began to take alarm at the probable 
effect developments in that mode of terrestrial travel and trans- 
port might have upon their individual interests, and they in 
turn began to offer the greatest possible opposition in their 
power. This opposition unhappily was rendered but too 
effectual through their obtaining the passing of most iniquitous 
highway bills, by which mechanically-propelled vehicles weve 
taxed so highly in their running on turnpike roads as to render 
their earnings unremunerative ; such tolls, indeed, amounting 
in some instances to as many pounds for steam-carriages as 
shillings were charged for horse-drawn vehicles. 

The effect of all this was to nip in the bud, so far as rural 
highways were concerned, the industry which we to-day are re- 
inaugurating. In towns the onerous restrictions weighed less 
heavily, and in 1832 we had in London a line of steam 
omnibuses plying regularly and satisfactorily between Pad- 
dington and the Bank, whereby it was proved that— even with 
the comparatively primitive steam-engine then available — an 
expenditure of but 14 lbs. of coke per mile was all that was 
necessary to propel an omnibus containing some 20 passengers, 
and weighing some 2J to 3 tons, notwithstanding the fact that 
Pentonville Hill had to be negotiated on each journey. 

About this time occurred the historical event known as the 
" railway mania," this having the effect of completely diverting 
public attention from this mode of locomotion to that by means 
of locomotives on smooth rails. Sufficient, however, has been 
done to demonstrate great economical aud other advantages to 
be inherent to horseless road locomotion. Nothing more of 
public importance could be done during the existence of the 
legislative restrictions, and it is indeed remarkable to trace what 
an immense amount of work and individual experimenting has 
been done in our own country since that time by engineers and 
inventors, who knew that their efforts could not result in any 
public benelit unless the then existing laws were altered. 

Horseless road locomotion was therefore exiled from our 
shores aud, driven from their native land, more than one of our 
English-built self-propelling carriages— half a century since — 
sought asylum in foreign lands. One emigrated to the 
"States," another made peregrination* in Brussels, whilst 
another disported itself upon the boulevards of Paris, the 
patent for which, indeed, was purchased by a French Company 
for in less a sum than £16,000, quite a refreshing fact to 
• ontemplate in these days of the wholesale purchase of foreign 

Happily, to-day our highways are once again thrown open to 
self-propellin? traffic, but, unfortunately, during the "close 
time" an eutirely new profession has sprung up— that of the 
Company promoter — and in this case it has suited the pockets 
and convenience of tlu-se gentlemen to induce the public to 
believe that not only were the vehicles themselves exiled from 
our country, but with them went all the engineering talent, 
ability, perseverance, energy, and invention of which it would 
appear we have beeu foolish enough to assume our own country 

may have reason to be proud. Now we are invited by heads of 
this novel profession to pay very large sums of money for patents 
(sic) relating to what they are pleased to call " motor-cars " — 
vehicles which do not in any way appeal to English tastes or 
play their r6le in anything like a satisfactory manner, being, 
indeed, entirely devoid of that degree of luxury which has 
come to be identified with the productions of the British 
carriage manufacturer. 

Upon the Continent — due in a large measure to the establish- 
ment of a large and influential " Automobile Club " — the subject 
of horseless road locomotion has been viewed more or less from 
the point of view of sport, and the attention of the French 
engineer and carriage-builder has been directed almost ex- 
clusively to the production of light self-propelling road vehicles, 
possessing the sole merit of being able to travel at a high rate of 
speed, such, as — very properly — is not permitted in our own 

In Great Britain, unfortunately, we have been very slow to 
appreciate the advantages of good roads and proper travelling 
equipages. Long after the art of coach building had in other 
countries attained to a considerable degree of perfection, we 
were still travelling by saddle, transporting by pack-mule, and 
wading shoulder-deep in almost impassable highway?. Both 
roads aud vehicles have been steadily improved since the day , 
when Walter Rippon constructed the first coach in this country 
— the one built for Queen " Bess " — until to-day we possess u 
system of highways extendiug to no less than 140,000 miles, 
excellently constructed and efficiently maintained, as well as 
equipages of all kinds, which reflect the greatest credit upon 
the coach-builder, and a breed of horses of which our country 
may be justly proud. In the face of this, and the fact that we 
are a horse-loving race, 1 think no good case has been made out 
for their substitution by the so-called " motor-car," or light self- 
propelling horseless carriage ; therefore our Continental friends, 
confining themselves as they have to this class of traffic, have 
not advanced matters for us in the least degree, except in the 
notable instance of the Serpollet inexplosible steam generator 
and its application to mechanically-propelled road vehicles, 
in connection with which M. Serpollet's energy and ability in 
surmounting a difficulty once inherent to the employment of 
steam, and his recent very successful adaptation of liquid fuel, 
is worthy of the highest commendation. 

There is, however, a Ride to the horseless road-locomotion 
movement which should be fraught with the greatest advantage 
to our country, and that is the mechanical road-transport of 
goods and the public conveyance of passengers Occupying the 
first position in this relation undoubtedly is the adaptation of 
mechanical road transport to the exigencies of modern agricul- 
ture, then to pas?enger transport by means of omnibuses — with 
the horse-drawn prototype of which our streets have now become 
so inconveniently over-crowded— and lastly, but of vast import- 
ance, the delivery of all kinds of goods, not only by forwarding 
.txtnis, but by all classes of our tradesmen. For such work, 
with the exception of the very lightest type of trade deliver/ 
cart, there can be no shadow of doubt that the most suitable 
motive power we possess to-day is steam, and after that, for 
urban service, electricity. In regard to these, the engineers of 
this country certainly require no extraneous assistance, either 
from the Continent or elsewhere, and my great wish in craving 
space in your columns is to draw public attention to this fact. 
With regard to petroleum motors, undoubtedly there is a vast 
field in store for these in connection with the lighter types of 
vehicle so soon us they shall have sufficiently developed as to 
become apposite for fulfilling the conditions required of them in 
this relation, and in regard to which English engineers, now 
that there are excellent prospects of an ample return for their 
labours, are now making steady progress. 

We have in our own country engineering works of vast extent, 
most perfect organisation, and successful working, as the high 
class of the products turned out serve to show. We have also 
carriage-builders of eminence who can hold their own against 
loreign competitors. All that is wanted is the friendly co-opera- 
tion and the taking of energetic measures on the part of English 
engineers and coach-builders, to bring about the much-desired 

Digitized by 




[jAHfrABT, 189T. 

change in our modes of road locomotion of the heavieror mercantile 
type. In my position as Hon. Executive Commissioner of the 
International Carriage Exhibition recently held at the Crystal 
Palace, I had the great advantage of conversations with each type 
of manufacturer, and I saw the paramount necessity for this 
co-operation, and I further ventured to suggest a scheme by which 
it could be fulfilled, and which has been received in a very gratify- 
ing manner by those interested. It is that neither carriage- 
builders nor engineers should construct self-propelling vehicles 
outright, for neither are fitted for such woi k, but that the vehicles 
should be designed in such a manner that the portions properly 
appertaining to each class of manufacturer should be kept 
distinct. This is quite a simple matter if the vehicles be 
designed on common-sense principles, namely, if the body be 
kept quite distinct from the under-frame, as in the construction 
of railway coaches. This being done there is nothing to prevent 
our engineers from making their under-frames complete with 
their motors in large quantities, turned out to gauge and 
template, with the maximum of economy, whilst, on toe other 
hand, our carriage-builders would have nothing new to trouble 
themselves with, but would be kept busy in utilising their great 
experience in the construction of bodies, comprising elegance, 
comfort, and high quality of workmanship and finish. In this 
relation it is really amusing to contrast even the latest Conti- 
nental production with the earliest of our own. Take for example 
the steam stage-coaches, referred to as having ran between 
Glasgow and Paisley, and which were designed by the eminent 
engineer, Scott Russell, who built the "Great Eastern" steam- 
ship. These carriages were most elaborately fitted up and 
decorated, carried 20 passeugers, had the body quite distinct 
from the under-frames, and were slung on elastic and highly 
efficient C springs. In the modern Continental petroleum- 
carriage, which has been brought to us with such a vociferous 
flourish of trumpets by the Company promoter, all these common- 
sense arrangements have been forgotten with the result that it 
is the most uncomfortable of vehicles, its vibration is almost 
intolerable, its noise most aggravating, and its odoriferous 
exhalations most offensive ; for these great advantages (sir) the 
British public are paying vast t urns of money. 

Allow me to make the following suggestion, which, if acted 
upon, I feel confident would have a most beneficial effect, not 
only in expediting the introduction of a more efficient and more 
economical mode of common road locomotion, but also upon 
the engineering, carriage manufacturing, and cognate industries 
of our country, namely, that an " Association," for the purpose 
of assisting in the development and exploitation of self-pro- 
pelling vehicles of British design and workmanship, should be 
formed ; the work of such Association to consist principally in 
the getting out of designs in fulfilment of the undoubtedly 
existing requirements of the Agriculturist, the Carrier, the 
Tradesman, the Cabman, the Omnibus proprietor, &c, &c. 

Manufacturing engineers, coach-builders, and allied trades 
would, of course, participate in such an association, the machinery 
and mechanical arrangements of such vehicles being constructed 
by existing British engineering firms, whilst the bodies and 
general coach-building would be carried out in the manufactories 
of British coach-builders, or, as the President of the British 
Institute of Carriage Manufacturers recently and wittily put 
it — the coach-builders would furnish elegant bodies, and the 
engineers motor souls. The Association should be possessed of 
a suitable staff and show-rooms for the permanent exhibition of 
British-built vehicles, as a set-off against what would soon be 
seen to be the second-rate productions of foreign desigu, and 
manufacturers would be spared the great expense and labour of 
getting out and pushing their own designs, whilst undue com- 
petition would be avoided. 

It is scarcely necessary to point out — for this lias already 
been done by experts in the columns of many newspapers — 
that the claim set up by a certain Company, or Companies, as 
to the holding of mnxter patents, cannot for one moment be 
maintained. It is not necessary to hold a masttr patent or, 
indeed, auy kind of patent, for the purpose of building self- 
propelling vehicles of all kinds ; but during development 
undoubtedly such novel devices and expedients would be 

evolved as would constitute subject matter for Her Majesty's 
patent, and thus a Company commencing to-day, without the 
payment of a single penny for patents, would find itself in a 
year or so in quite as strong a position in this regard as those 
having paid many thousands of pounds for patents, which, as 
an eminent authority has pointed out, are practically valueless. 

Permit me to say that I have discussed this scheme with the 
leading members of both the carriage-building and engineering 
trades, and, further, that I am in a position to state that the 
operation of such a concern could be carried on under the super- 
vision and advice of the most eminent authorities representative 
of both industries, and strangely enough it could begin its 
operations with a bundle of orders from its very inception. 
Were such an arrangement carried out, I sin convinced it would 
be to the great advantage of the engineering and carriage- 
building industries of this country, whilst the consumer would 
be most materially benefited, for how could Compauiea, whose 
shareholders have speut, or wasted, vast sums of money in the 
purchase of patents, possibly compete with existing firms already 
in a high degree of organisation, and who would not have to 
set apart any percentage whatever for money thus sunken ? 

With apologies for the length of my letter. 
Faithfully yours, 

Alfred R. Sekkett, A.M.I.C.E., 

M.I.M.E., M.I.E.E. 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 

Westminster. S.W. Dec. 8tk, 1896. 


To tie Elitor of The Aotomotor and Horseless Vehicle 


Sir,— It may interest you to know that I made a satisfactory 
journey in my Peugeot carriage just before Christmas, from 
London to my home, four miles beyond Monmouth. 

Perhaps a rough description of the vehicle, a photograph 
of which appeared in your December issue, would not be out 
of place. It was built by "La Soci6te Anonyme des Auto- 
mobiles Peugeot," of Paris, and is of the phaeton type, to seat 
four, all facing forward ; it is fitted with a detachable canopy, 
which has leather blinds to unroll at the sides when necessary, 
and a' glass window in front ; the wheels are built on cycle liDes, 
with steel tensional spokes, solid rubber tyres, and ball bearings 
The motor is an inverted Daimler, developing 3f horse-power. 
The carriage is geared for four speeds forward and one back- 
wards. The fuel is of course the ususl rectified petroleum or 
petrol, and is stored in a main tank containing sufficient for 
a run of 90 or 100 miles ; from this tank it is fed automatically 
into a Phenix float-feed carburettor, where the petrol is 
vaporised and mixed with air, ready to do its work behind 
the pistons when ignited by the usual platinum ignition tubes. 
The cooling water is circulated by means of & rotary pump. 
The steering is actuated by a handle-bar, and is so arranged 
that each wheel turns on its own pivot, and the angle of 
turning of each is differential. The back wheel* are of course 
also able to run each at its own s|teed by means of compen- 
sating gear. 

To return to the journey alluded to above, we (friend, self, 
and luggage) left London (Knightsbridge) at 6.45 a.m., on 
Tuesday, 22nd ult., in darkness and fo^, owing to which we had 
to proceed rather slowly for some distance, but after we got 
out in the country we found the ground hard with frost for 
20 miles or so which wa« favourable. 'I he route taken was a* 
follows : — Hounslow, Staines, Eglinin, Virginia Water, Reading, 
Newbury, Hungerfoid, Swindon. 

Owiug to taking wrong routes and ljsing our way we did 
not arrive at Purton, five miles beyond Swindon (that night's 
destination), till 8.30 p.m. The distance from London to Purton 
by the correct route is about 81 uii.'cs, but we must have covered 
considerably over that distance. 

The next day we were delayed by the non-arrival of our 
petrol supply, and, after waiting until 2.30 p.m., had to leave 
with a supply of common' benzoline. Passing through Ciren- 

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cester, we descended Birdlip Hill (Cotswold) in grand style. It 
is very steep and treacherous, nearly two miles in length, with 
several sharp curves, renowned for fatal accidents. Stopping 
that night at Gloucester, we proceeded the next afternoon 
leisurely on to Ross, but we repented our late start, as it became 
very dark and rained heavily, and we got some miles out of our 
way through being wrongly directed. 

Owing to these facts, and difficulties iu getting oil, we did 
not leave Ross until p.m., and passed through Monmouth, 
arriving home (four miles beyond) about midnight. 

Nothing of any importance occurred to the mechanism during 
the journey, with the exception of the pump ceasing to act 
two or three times near the end, due to mud. Some very steep 
hills were ascended with ease. 

Had it not been for the long delay at Purton we should 
doubtless have had no difficulty in doing the journey comfort- 
ably in two days, as we had intended, although we had very 
Imd roads and weather all the third day. 

I have now done between 600 and 700 miles in this carriage, 
including the journey between London and Cambridge four 
times (two of which were done before November 14th). 

I think this speaks well for the car. — Yours truly, 

C. S. Rolls, Mem. S.P.T.A. 

South Lodge, Rutland Gate, S.W. 


To the Editor of The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle 


Sir, — We shareholders have just received notice that 10.*. per 
share (£1 shares) of the above Company is due on Monday next. 

So far, we have not heard of any " trial trips" of these cabs ! 
Can you explain why all the capital is called lip before one cab is 
placed for hire on the streets ? What has become of half our 
capital ! Is it not sufficient to complete one cab ? * 

Myself and other shareholders will be much obliged for any 
information or advice you can give us re this Company. — Yours 
faithfully, Shareholder A. 

January \4th. 


Compiled for"Tm AtrroMoroa and Hobs'bless Vehicle Jocbxal" 
by Hkbbebt Haddan and Co., Registered Potent Agents, of 
18, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C., London. 

Patents Applied For. 

27,354. December 1st, 1896. E. W. Bonson. An improved 
electrical switch for power or traction purposes. 

27,368. December 2nd, 1896. R Wadsworth. Motor or 
self-propelled road or street sweeping, scraping, sanding, and 
watering machines, watering vans, and carta, 

27,373. December 2nd, 1896. A. J. Wkstlakb. Improve- 
ments in motor cycles and vehicles. 

27,381. December 2nd, 1896. A. H. Allen. A new or 
improved motive power for horseless carriages. 

27,423. December 2nd, 1896. W. W. Curties. A variable 
speed and reversing contrivance for motor-driven vehicles. 

27,538. December 3rd, 1 896. H. C. Cafel and T. Clarkson. 
Improvements in or relating to motor-carriages. 

27,591. December 3rd, 1896. T. W. Nayler. Improve- 
ments relating to gearing for motor-propelled vehicles. 

27,603. December 4th, 1896. H. C. L. Holuen. Improve- 
ments in the construction of internal combustion engines in 
combination with cycles or carriages. 

27,696. December 4th, 1896. F. L. Muirhbad, 124, Chancery 
Lane. London. Improvements relating to electrically-propelled 

27,714. December 5th, 1896. H. Meller and C. A. 
Burohaedt. Improvements in the method of driving motor- 
cars, motor-carriages, boats, and other vehicles. 

27,793. December 6th, 1896. J. A. aud W. D. Drake. 

Improvements in driving apparatus for motor-carriages and the 
i like. 

27,863. December 7th, 1896. W. W. Curties. Improve- 
! meats in driving mechanism for steam-propelled vehicles, 
i 27,915. December 7th, 1896. C. F. Wood. Improvements 
' in mechanically-propelled vehicles. 

' 28,128. December 8th, 1896. G. Iden. Improvements iu 
! the construction of mechanically-propelled vehicles. 

•28,160. December 8th, 1896. J. F. Sleat, H. Skelton, and 
I C. Horsley. Improvements in and connected with driving- 
gear for velocipedes, motor-cars, and other vehicles. 

28,192. December 9th, 1896. H. R. Gillino. Improve- 
, ments in and relating to pneumatic springs for cycles, 

■ motor-cars, and other vehicles 

28,312. December 11th, 1896. J. Hurrock aud D. J. 
McDonald. Improvements in and relating to motor-cars. 

28,331. December 11th, 1896. E. J. Penninoton. Improve- 
ments in starting devices for mechanically-propelled vehicles. 

28,407. December 11th, 1896. H. H. Griffin and G. 
Gibson. Improvements in self-propelled vehicles. 
! 28,474. December 1 2th, 1896. T. Bosher and E. Mountford. ' 
| Improvements in and relating to motor-carriages. 

28,476. December 12th, 1896. J. and R. Burns. Improve- 
ments in cycles, motor-cycles, motor-cars, and other vehicles. 

28,519. December 14tb, 1896. G. H. Scott and K. H. 

Taylor. A method and apparatus for automatically changing 

speeds of driving gears for bicycles, tricycles, motor-cars, &c. 

28,850. December 15th, 1896. H. Lane. Improvements in 

1 the method of and apparatus for applying motive power to 

1 vehicles running on ordinary roads. 

i 28,866. December 15th, 1896. J. Gbisbnhof. Improve- 
ments in steering devices or under-frames for the fore- carnages 
i of motor-cars. 

28,867. December 15th, 1896. J. Geisenhof. Animprovtd 
motor- van. 

28,985. December 17th, 1896. C. D. Jenkins. Improve- 
ments in and relating to motors for bicycles, tricycles, and other 

29,062. December 18th, 1896. J. Favkts. Improvements 
in driving gear for cycles, motor-cars, and other road vehicles. 

29,126. December 18th, 1896. V. Popp. Improvements in 
compressed air locomotive carriages. 
I 29,210. December 19th, 1896. A. H. Smith. Improvements 
in driving-gear for cycles, motor-cars, and the like. 

29,378. December 22nd, 1896. A. G. Adamson and T. Scott. 
Improvements in autocars. 

29,394. December 22nd, 1896. G. F. Thompson. Improve- 
ments in and connested with variable speed mechanism for self- 
propelling vehicles and other purposes. 
1 29,486. December 22nd, 1896. A.J. Boclt. Improvements 
in or relating to road vehicles and motor mechanism for the 

■ same. (P. A. Darracq, France.) 

29,528. December 23rd, 1896. A. Muskbr and C. Muskkr. 
Improvements in or connected with steam generators for 

29,635. December 24th, 1896. J. R. K. Law. Improve- 
ments in the driving gear of cycles, motor-cars, and other 

29,856. December 28th, 1896. W. J. H. Jones. Improve- 
ments in motor-propelled vehicles. 

29,882. December 29th, 1896. C. Provis. Improvements 
! in motor-cars, cycles, and other vehicles driven by electric, 
steam, oil, gas, or water power. 

2s»,933. December 29th, 1896. The Hon. R. T. D. Brouoham 
and W. C. Bersey. Improvements in controlling apparatus for 
electrically-propelled vehicles. 

30,003. December 30th, 1896. W. Watt. Improvements 
in and relating to cycles, motor-cars, and other road vehicles. 


Motor-Cars. — Caution ! Before purchasing a motor-car, wait 
and see the Britannia Company's newly patent id engines', 
which require no lamp after starting, and which require no 
dangerous essence or spirit. Address, Colchester. No con- 
nection with other firms advertising in similar name. [Advt. 

Digitized by 





CONTENTS of No. 1. 


Horseless Carriages. 

Steam, Oil, and Electricity as Mot ire Powers. 

Doings of Public Companies— 

The London Elect! i: Omnibus Company (Limited). 

The Pun I op Pneumatic Tyre Company (Limited). 

The British Motor-Carriage and Cycle Company 

The Great Horseless Carriage Company (Limited 1 . 

New and Mayne (I imi-ed). 
The Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896. 
Reviews of Books. 
Types of A utomotor Vehicles. 
Pneumatic Tyres Fifty Years Ago. 
Lischt Hallways. 
The "Hornsby-Akroyd" Patent Safety Oil Traction 


Sir Pavid Salomons, Bart. 

The Royal Agricultural Society's Automotor Com- 
pel it ion. 
Motor-Car Contests In America. 
Notes of the Month. 

The Self-PropeHed Traffic Association at Liverpool. 
Railway Companies and Level Crossings. 
America Ahead of England in Road Traciion. 
Electric Omnibuses for f*ondon Streets. 
Honeless Ruad locomotion. 
New Invenrjons — 

Patent* Applied For. 

Sp*>cincaii<m» Published. 
Continental Notes— The Great Paris-Marseilles Contest. 
Some of the Lessons of the Contest. 
The Motor-Car Race from Paris to Mantea and Back. 
The First Legal Bun of Automotor Cars in England. 
Proposed Combination of Light Railway and Electric 


CONTENTS of No. 2. 


The New Motor-Car Regulations. 

Agriculturists and the Speed of Automotor?. 

Types of Horseless Vehicles. 

The London County Council and Motors. 

Light Railways. 

The Self- Propelled Traffic Asjociat ion— Formation of 

a Liverpool Branch. 
Motor-Car vcr*v% Light Railway. 
Motor-Car Insurance. 
Bristol Engineers and Motor Carriages. 
Reviews of Books. 
Lutzmann Motor-Can iages. 
Business Notes. 
Prizes for Motor-Car Designs. 
The Bollce Ti icyclc. 

The New Regulations as to Motor-Cat liiges. 
Liverpool to the Fore, 
Wanted— A Word. 
" Engineering " and Automotor". 
The Britannia Company's Electric System. 
The Motor-Car in the Lord Mayor's Show. 
London Tramways Purchase. 
North Country Farmers and Motor-Cars. 
Doings of Public Companies. 
Notes of the Month. 
Emancipation Day. 
French Contest* for 1897. 
Answers to Correspondent?. 
Law Reports. 

Messrs. New and Mayne (I imited), 
M»tor-Car Contests in Ame.i.*«. 
Quips and Cranks. 
Trade Novelties. 
1 ne Bersey Carriage. 
Mr. Andrew W. Burr. 
New Inventions. 

CONTENTS of No. 8. 


Recent Developments in Mechanical Road Carriages. 

Public Addresses on Automotor*. 

Motor Finance. 

Continental Notes. 

Notes of the Month. 

Law Reports. 

Business Notes. 

Motor-Car Regulations for Scotland. 

Our Horss Population. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

The British Motor Syndicate (Limited). 

Automotor Contest* in 1897. 

•' Engineering" and Motor Carriages. 

Wanted— a Word. 

Pneumatic Tyres for Motor-Carriages. 

A Motor- Carriage Wheel. 

Taxes on Motor-Carriages. 

Edinburgh Coach makers and Mo tor- Cars. 

Peugeot Phaeton. 

Sir David Salomons and the Self-Propelled Traffic 

"The Engineer" 1,100 Guineas Rna»1 Carriage Com- 

D- ings of Pub.ic Companies. 

New Companies Registered. 

The Daimler Motor. 

44 Automotive " Vehicles. 

The Stanley and National Cycle Shows, 

A Motor Run t > Liverpool. 

Proposed Motor-Carriage and Tramway Combination. 

Electric Tramways un Heavy xradiems. 

An Electilcal StreeM Uaning Car. 

Cycles and Motor-Cars in Paris 

The Duryea, Motor— A £o,000 Challenge. 

Reviews of Books. 

Correspondence . 

New Inventions. 

Publishers— Messrs. F. King & Co. (Limited), 62, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 


is the "Facile" Petroleum Oil Motor, 

which requires 
No spirit or dangerous euenoe. 
Mo heating tub*. 
No oonatant-burnlnff lamp. 
No battery. 
All of these are causes of trouble. 





No connection with other firms advertising 
under similar name. 


— • — 

ROLLING STOCK manufacturer's sou, age 26, with engineering 
and commercial experience, desires agency for motor-cars in 
busy centre. Large connection. Address J. A. II., care of King & Co., 
Limited. 62, St. Martin's-lunc, London, W.C. 

ENGINEER, with sound practical experience of high-cla«s engine?, 
I and thorough commercial training, having office in Manchester, 
is open to take up a good agency for motorcars. Address Lancashire, 
care of King ond Co , Limited, 62, St. Martin's-lane. 

4 S DRIVER or CONDUCTOR.— Captain of Great Wheel, End's 
il Court; take charge of motors. Joseph Banks, 34, Biecr-slrcct, 
Wandsworth -bridge-road, Fullmm. 


S CONDUCTOR.— Thoroughly experienced; good references. 
F. Blackwell, 35, Percy-road, Sheph. nl's-bush. 

A 1 

8 DRIVER. — Roger system or Daimler; experienced. 
57, Iverson-road, West Hnmpstead, N.VV. 

A. J. E., 


■^^ Co., having Plant specially adapted for this purpose, charge Cells of all sizes 
promptly, thoroughly, and cheaply. Terms on application. Accumulators on hire 
for temporary lighting, experimental uses, etc. — 3, Dorset Buildings, Salisbury 
Square. Fleet Si reel, E.C. Telephone No. 65,266. 


through the superiority, have the largest sale in the world. Fngine, Cylinder, and 
Machinery Oils, njd. ; Special Cylinder Oil. is. «d. ; Special Engine Oil, is. <d. ; 
Gas Engine, Dynamo Oils, is. 6d. per gallon ; Special Gasolene, Benzolioe, and 
Petroleum, for Motor purposes ; Light Machine Oil. lojd. ; barrels free and carriage 
paid.— Reliance Lubrioating Oil Co.. to and »», Water Lane, 
Great Tower Street, Iiondon, E.C. Depots at Liverpool, Bristol, Hall, 
Cardiff, and Glasgow. Telegrams: "Subastral, London." 


^-' FITTINGS, MODERN AND ANTIQUE. Antique Candelabra, &c, 
adapted to Electric Light in such a manner as to faithfully represent candle*. 
Temporary lighting at F&es, Balls, At Homes. Estimates and plans for complete 
Electric Light Plants. Motive Power : Steam Engine, Oil Engine, Gas Engine, 
or Turbine 


E. L. Berry, Harrison & Co , Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

Office and Show W*v>m*- I vric Chambe-s. •* hitc mb Street. London, W.C. 

Telegraphic Address—" Kathode, London." 

Digitized by 




59, MARK LANE, LONDON, E.C. (east peSS&W, keht.) 

These Carriages are now offered for sale m every variety 
and description, magnificently made and finished. Up to 
1st May, 1896, the firm of Benz & Co. have sold and delivered 
600 of these Motor Carriages, which are now running all over 
the world. 

The Patent Oil Motors are quite silent and do not give 
off any heat or smell. 

Speed can be obtained from Ten to Fifteen Miles an hour, 
Hills of one in ten scaled with ease, and the Carriages and 
Wheels are strongly constructed. 

The Motive Power is Rectified Petroleum or Benzoline of 
the specific gravity of 070, which is easily obtained anywhere, 
at about gti. to n</. per gallon, and a two-seated vehicle costs 
less than a halfpenny per mile to run. The working is so 
simple that any novice can drive the Carriage, and with two 
gallons of benzoline 70 to 80 miles can be accomplished. 

The Oil Reservoir of the Carriages hold about 5 gallons. 
The Speed is controlled and regulated by the driver. The 
Carriages are fitted with new Patent Steering Apparatus, and 

can be stopped instantly. " BENZ- SOCIABLE. Price 4140 Complete, with Hood, the 

There is no light or flame inside the Motor, consequently . . , _. . v _ _ . _ ..,.__ , i«-.„j«„ «,= ♦«„ „.,.♦ f„» „,.„ 

absolutely no danger of the benzoline